Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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8
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1answer
72 views

Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
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Wave height data for Indian east coast

For my project, I am looking for wave height information. My study area is the Odisha coast of the Bay of Bengal. What I have gathered from various research papers is that significant wave height is ...
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2answers
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Is Challenger Deep really the deepest place in the ocean?

We have all been told at some point that the Mariana Trench is the deepest place in the ocean, but is that really true? More than 80% of the world's oceans are unexplored, so couldn't there be a much ...
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How long do geostrophic currents last?

My professor posed this question, without any relevant material. I suppose the currents last until the density gradient is neutralized, but I can't find any literature nor articles on this, regarding ...
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how old are the gulf stream and the NAC?

After reading about the NAC (North Atlantic Current) weakening in the news, we got to wondering about its history and that of the gulf stream. Specifically, how and when did they start? Were there ...
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6answers
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How does global-warming-triggered ice melting cause global sea levels to rise?

Apologies for asking a silly question like this. But I want to offer some points which I could not counter, as follows: Ice is less dense than water, that is why it floats. For the same unit mass, if ...
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1answer
967 views

How authentic was the movie scene in "The day after tomorrow" related to the understanding of the north Atlantic current system?

Today's The Guardian headline was that Climate crisis: Scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse. It reminded an old movie called "The Day After Tomorrow", which suggested the ...
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2answers
519 views

Why is the deep sea cold?

Except near thermal vents, the deep ocean is generally considered to be quite cool. For instance, water temps in the Mariana Trench (~10 km deep) are 1-4 °C. However, the geothermal gradient runs ...
3
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1answer
50 views

The effect of enclosed channels and breakwaters on wave height and velocity

Some context: I row every morning, and due to my rowing club's proximity to a large lake, it is often very windy and rough (which builds character, according to the coaches). I noticed that as we row ...
3
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1answer
82 views

How fast is the Gulf Stream near shore?

The Gulf Stream is the fastest ocean current in the world with peak velocities near 2m/s, a surprisingly high figure. But I think that the speed is out in the open ocean, and it would be slower near ...
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1answer
85 views

Wouldn't 'fertilizing' the ocean to increase cyanobacteria, algae and other phytoplankton populations actually INCREASE CO2 levels in the air?

From the July, 2021 Scientific American: The Carbon rocks of Oman: "...fertilizing the ocean would increase the growth of phytoplankton that naturally absorb CO2 through photosynthesis'. (page ...
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1answer
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Why does the ocean floor look so scratchy?

Why does some part of the ocean floor look so scratchy? If you look at Google Earth image of the Indian ocean floor, especially the area south-west of Sumatra, it looks like some cosmic beast ...
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1answer
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What did the water's edge look like on the Pacific coast of the Laurentide Ice Sheet?

I have seen news reports saying that in recent years many more scientists think that humans first arrived in the Americas by boat, along coast of Alaska and Canada (before they were able to come ...
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While desalinating ocean water, would it be bad if we didn't pump the brine back into the ocean?

Desalinating ocean water takes seawater, separates the fresh water from the brine, and usually pumps the brine back into the ocean. But what if we didn't pump the brine back into the ocean? (For ...
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What is the most current thinking on the amount of heat transferred into the oceans from underwater thermal vents and volcanoes?

My understanding is that with the relatively recent discovery of many more volcanoes on the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge (and perhaps other ocean ridges) and more deep trenches with thermal vents, that ...
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1answer
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Why is the tidal range at the entrance to the bay of fundy so high?

This question is a continuation of my previous question: Questions about the validity of a certain model for tidal resonance at the Bay of Fundy. I need to answer this question in order to return to ...
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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Questions about the validity of a certain model for tidal resonance at the Bay of Fundy

I'm currently working on a (relatively-simple) fluid-dynamics model of the tidal resonance at the Bay of Fundy, a place which is known for his world-breaking tidal range (15 meters on average, while ...
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What makes Eastern Boundary Currents cold?

As far as I am aware, there are two separate processes that cause Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs) to have cold Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs). One is offshore Ekman transport, which leads to coastal ...
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1answer
177 views

Atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ fell at a Pleistocene interglacial-glacial transition. Ocean absorption vs biosphere absorption

CO2 levels fell during the last interglacial-glacial transition until the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene. I can think of two causes for the reduction of CO2: Ocean absorption. The ...
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What is the environmental effect of personal protective equipment on the ocean?

What is the environmental impact of masks and other personal protective equipment polluting the oceans? The world is using billions of masks and gloves due to the COVID pandemic and they are being ...
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2answers
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Will Lithium batteries mean we have to exploit Co-Mn-Ni nodules from the seafloor?

Co-Mn-Ni goes into some of the most efficient Lithium Ion battery chemistry. It is very convenient that Co-Mn-Ni is also readily available from the ocean seabed. Polymetallic nodule contains various ...
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How do pilots of Deep Sea Vehicles operate the control surfaces and thrusters from inside a pressure hull? [closed]

A Deep Sea Vehicle (DSV) like Trieste or Limiting Factor or now Fundouzhe have control thrusters, ballast that has to be dumped, and other equipment to operate the DSVs. But the pressure hull is a ...
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66 views

Deep Sea Exploration - Is there a purpose to human exploration? [closed]

Should humans explore the deep ocean (1800meters or deeper) or is this the realm of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles)? It seems that such deep ocean exploration is best done by AUVs. They are ...
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1answer
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As the number of ocean dead zones increases, is the world's primary source of atmospheric oxygen (phytoplankton) at risk?

Disclaimer: I am not a scientist. I was wondering if there is a concern that the world will run out of breathable atmospheric oxygen as the number of dead zones in the ocean increases with global ...
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1answer
107 views

Which ocean evaporates the most water per surface area?

I guess the Pacific Ocean evaporates the most water because of its size. But which of the major oceans evaporates the most water per square meter?
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What is the fastest ocean deep current?

The Gulf Stream is the fastest ocean current in the world with peak velocities near 2m/s. Source: marine.coastal.edu What about deep currents, North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water, etc? ...
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1answer
138 views

Was the Caribbean Sea a closed sea during the last glaciation?

Taking a look at Google Earth the straits between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean are not very deep. The sealevel during the last glaciation was 120 meters lower than the present level. Was ...
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2answers
184 views

Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
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Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
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1answer
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Which universities are best for studying Oceanography as an undergrad? [closed]

I am a high school senior studying in a local school in Bangladesh. My passion is to study oceans & marine life. The drive of getting higher education in Oceanography has turned into ardent ...
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1answer
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Are ocean waves diminished, enhanced or unaffected by underwater obstacles

Suppose you have a wave heading towards the beach, and under the water the surface rises suddenly then drops again back to the typical average slope of the coastline, does this have a muting affect on ...
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2answers
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Would ultrasound be a valid method of mapping ocean floors given the perceived "gel" is ocean water?

I am a scuba diver, with a big idea that would require me to map various dive sites as I went to them and dove in them. The typical size and other implications of sonar technology would essentially ...
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1answer
48 views

Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?

I’m designing a fictional world setting for a game, and I would like to know whether it has a relative coherence based on science. (Don’t mind if it is an almost improbable scenario). Would it be ...
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3answers
134 views

How do we know the Arctic is just ice?

If I look at an Earth's map, the Arctic/North Pole always appears just like water. Evidently this is actually covered by ice, with an area depending on the time of the year. If this area is bigger ...
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1answer
80 views

Why is calcium so much more abundant in/on Earth's crust (and oceans) than it is elsewhere? (relatively speaking...)

Inside the entire Earth as a whole, and throughout our Solar System and galaxy, etc., magnesium is at least 14 times (or more) as common as calcium, atom-per-atom. But, on Earth's crust and oceans, ...
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1answer
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How do long, thin, island chains such as North Carolina's outer banks, form?

I can't think of a possible explanation, there's no volcanic activity in the area, and it gets destroyed every time a hurricane passes through. How did it get there?
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SWAN doesn't run [duplicate]

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I'm not an expert in SWAN. I have some problem with it. Previously my result like rotated so I take another option to make grids using GridBuilder but SWAN doesn'...
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SWAN WAVE model: Strange result

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I have some problems with my research. When I plot the result it is rotated. The color blue one is land. This my script, what should I do to fix the problem? <...
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2answers
118 views

Deriving shallow water equations: why is the vertical velocity equal to the material derivative of the surface level?

I'm reading about the derivation of shallow water equations, and I have a hard time understanding why $$ w(\eta) = \frac{D\eta}{Dt}$$ where $w$ is the vertical velocity, $\eta$ is the (top or bottom) ...
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2answers
106 views

Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
3
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1answer
34 views

Are there four-times daily sea surface temperature (SST) data product for Tropical Cyclone research?

Now I am working on a Tropical Cyclone project, and want to figure out the SST status when a TC passes by. I've been searching for SST products, yet there only show up to daily SST. My question is ...
4
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1answer
48 views

How far would average sea level rise from a 25% increase in total ocean volume?

What amount of average sea level rise (in meters above 2020 levels) would be associated with a 25% increase in total ocean volume? The reason I ask is because of this study that indicates Earth has ...
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Can not open Grib files from Nomands

I am trying to read in a file from https://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov I can read all multigrid files like here but my script fails to read files from other links that are ...
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2answers
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Will the sea get saltier forever?

The sea wasn't always salty. It's been getting saltier over millions of years as minerals dissolve. Is there a natural limit to this process, or the will the sea keep getting saltier forever? Is there ...
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Would hurricanes on an ocean planet continue indefinitely?

Hurricanes seem to run out of steam when they make landfall. If our planet were entirely covered by ocean, would hurricanes continue indefinitely? Would they keep gathering energy and increasing in ...
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1answer
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What are good oceanographic journals

I am a developer with a oceanographic side project. I did some ML on wave & tide data and thought of publishing it in a paper. What are some good journals to send it to? Any recommendations? ...
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2answers
123 views

Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain?

Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain? I searched on google and it says acid rain will have minor impact on ocean acidity, but I am not sure if increased ocean acidity ...
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0answers
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What will the sea level be when the ice caps/glaciers melt? [duplicate]

I have my views and you have yours, so I ask a question, what was the average sea level in Athens, Greece 2,720 years ago? What was the average sea level in ancient Rome 2,420 years ago? https://en....
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Is the slowing down of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation a response to climate change?

I have been taught that the changes in current were caused primarily by climate change but upon reading the conclusion of the paper named: "Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning ...

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