Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

54 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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10
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1answer
121 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $CO_2$ and a short term, but more intense cooling effect due ...
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86 views

Argument for designing an ocean monitoring network based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration?

The idea is to design an integrated marine monitoring network by surveying in parallel the chlorophyll-a and the other oceanography parameters, which are either trophically related with the ...
9
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0answers
94 views

How much does the Meridional Overturning Circulation strengthen the Gulf Stream?

While the Gulf Stream is a western boundary current (WBC), one professor told me that the Gulf Stream is stronger than it should be just by using theoretical calculations of WBC. How much is the heat+...
8
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0answers
247 views

What are black-hole ocean eddies?

How are they formed? Why are they so stable? What finally breaks them apart and what is their typical lifespan? Why are fluid particles trapped inside it and advected towards the center? How do they ...
7
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0answers
77 views

Availability of mean squared slope or wave spectra data for the sea surface

The mean squared slope is a property of the sea surface that is often sensed by microwave radars [1] [2]. While spatial data for sea surface salinity, sea surface height, and significant wave height ...
7
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0answers
99 views

Oceanic-atmospheric coupling between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean basins

The two great basins - Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean have their respective oscillations Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino Southern oscillation that affect the climate of the regions as well as the ...
6
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0answers
71 views

Effects of currents on peak wave frequency

I have been analyzing the surface wave measurements taken from the location where the waves interact with both opposing and following currents. I don't understand why the peak frequency decreases ...
6
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0answers
78 views

Spatial variability in ocean surface winds

For the near-surface winds over the ocean, many model products and satellite footprints have spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. I'm interested in knowing how much the winds (both ...
5
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0answers
73 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
5
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0answers
112 views

Why do Mediterranean main currents surrounding landmasses turn counter-clockwise?

At North Hemisphere, main superficial currents turn clock-wise, because of Coriolis Effect. I would expect on Mediterranean Sea to have currents turning in the same sense, but, surrounding landmasses,...
5
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109 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
5
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0answers
58 views

Estimating fog incidence based on ocean temperature

In the tropics, say the Caribbean, I have read that there is very often a lot of nighttime and morning fog. I have read that the crucial factors are The ocean temperature Cool nighttime air ...
5
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0answers
69 views

Relationship between obliquity, antarctic circumpolar current, and atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$

Hannah's text on the biology of climate change appears to suggest that forcing due to changes in obliquity can act in opposite ways in Antarctic waters. On one hand, "Low obliquity brings cool ...
4
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0answers
68 views

Stream function on a periodic domain?

Part 1 In this paper the authors calculate the barotropic stream function from an output of a numerical model as: $$\psi(x,y)=\int_0^y\int_{-H}^0u(x,y',z)~dz~dy'$$ over a global domain and this is ...
4
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0answers
73 views

What would be the depth variation of a “water ellipsoid” above a reference ellipsoid Earth?

The question If the Earth was a smooth spheroid how deep would be the ocean? has an excellent answer which explains the shape and surface area of an oblate spheroid before calculating the average ...
4
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0answers
96 views

What reactions change seawater composition in hydrothermal systems?

Reactions in ocean floor hydrothermal systems are a significant contributor to the mass balance of several major elements in the oceans, in particular magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and sulfate....
4
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0answers
73 views

Overview/map of pollution level of worldwide fishing zones

Is there any up-to date and reliable map or overview or database of the oceans pollution with respect to fish pollution (PCB, mercury, dioxines, tin compounds etc.)?
4
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0answers
450 views

Does the Labrador current affect North Atlantic climate?

This summer has seen very low sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic. Using animations of these over the last year I feel the runoff of freshwater from Hudson Bay, into the Labrador ...
4
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0answers
54 views

Weekly atmospheric or oceanic oscillation within Arctic region

I'm in the middle of writing my Master's thesis. I've analyzed Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) signals derived from observations by the GRACE satellites.These observations are able to reproduce sub-...
4
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0answers
84 views

How do mesoscale eddies in the ocean transport heat between different layers of the ocean?

And the atmosphere as well? This is a follow-up question to https://www.quora.com/What-else-has-been-left-out-of-climatology/answer/Konstantin-Zahariev?&share=1
4
votes
1answer
307 views

Differences between linear airy wave theory and Stokes' 5 wave theory? and it's application

What is the difference between linear airy wave theory and 5th order Stokes wave theory? What is the differences in terms of application. I am looking more on offshore structure analysis aspects. ...
3
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0answers
45 views

Quickly breeding oysters to combat oceanic pollution?

I've been doing some wikipedia binging and it's come to my realization that it may be in the Earth's best interest to raise the world oyster population as quickly as possible. The basis for this is ...
3
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36 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
3
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0answers
30 views

Why an inertial gyro has a frequency and a geostrophic gyro does not?

Inertial flow is given by the balance between Coriolis and centrifugal forces. A geostrophic flow is given by a balance between Coriolis and the gradients of pressure. The frequency of the inertial ...
3
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0answers
55 views

Godfrey's island rule (stream function in multiply connected domains)

In this paper, the authors detail the methods to calculate the stream function $\psi$ from velocity data in the case of the global ocean (i.e., multiply connected domains). The general idea is to use ...
3
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0answers
65 views

Reason for higher content of Iodine and Copper than Iron in Seawater?

Does mineral weight contribute to the prevalence of minerals in seawater? Why is there five times more copper in seawater than Iron? Why is there 4000 times more strontium in seawather than Iron, ...
3
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0answers
123 views

How does the estaurine turbidity maximum vary depending on the type of estuary?

An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is the area of an estuary that has maximum values in suspended particles in the water column. My questions are What are the main characteristics of the ETM? How ...
3
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0answers
88 views

Does perchlorate(rocket fuel) and jet fuel make the salt and ground water near Cape Canaveral dangerous?

I've gotten into paddle surfing and I'm looking for a place to live and surf. I've been looking at an buying a condo in Cocoa Beach because of it’s proximity to Orlando and Cocoa’s decent but ...
3
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0answers
82 views

Rising sea level: flooding of iconic buildings

I realize that this question may be arguably off-topic, but there doesn't seem to be a stack exchange specific to oceanography, geography, or architecture. With rising sea level in mind, how high ...
2
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0answers
20 views

Beta plane approximation: variation of Coriolis parameter

The Beta plane approximation put me in confusion. Beta plane approximation explain me how the Coriolis parameter changes with latitude. Beta parameter changes with the cos(latitude) but this is ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Does long-term exposure to ocean water change the chemical structure of plastic into ocean plastic?

I've just been thinking a fair deal about ocean plastic and the ocean clean-up project. Is there something in saline water that changes the chemical composition of most plastics to make them pretty ...
2
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0answers
14 views

transition elastic deformation to flow

Let's assume a small (and smooth) vertical deformation of the seabed. If done quickly, I can consider it a vertical force generating an acoustic wave in the water, where every particle of water ...
2
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0answers
99 views

How much ocean water is currently being displaced by ships?

According to Statista, as of January 2017, there are approximately 52,000 ships currently operating in the merchant fleet and 11,000 of these are considered bulk carriers. How many ships are there ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Does Martin Ledge uncover?

In the current Wikipedia article for Martin Ledge it reads: "Martin Ledge is small barren rocks that barely stick out of the waters". However, the NOAA chart for the area shows a low tide depth of 16 ...
2
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0answers
44 views

Change on naval distances

I am working on a shipping company and we have several applications to calculate the distance between two ports. My curiosity was triggered by the fact that, time by time I see a small change on the ...
2
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0answers
46 views

Reasons for choosing LES in stead of RANS models?

In oceanography, is there any particular reason why choosing large eddy simulations in stead of RANS (regardless of the type of flow)? In both cases, 2d simulations would be used (shallow water model)....
2
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0answers
40 views

Increase in Stratification late monsoon in Bay of Bengal

I am involved in an experiment in the Bay of Bengal, letting moorings for a year long period and doing ship cruises. We have observed (from mooring CTDs) that the Brunt Vaisala frequency has increased ...
2
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0answers
58 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
2
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0answers
113 views

Where can I find wave scatter tables (joint probability Hs vs T) for certain coastal regions?

I am struggling to find a database or free source of joint probability of significant wave height and period, i.e. wave scatter tables. Data for buoys are useful, however not available for regions ...
2
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0answers
31 views

What are the impacts of pollutants from North America and elsewhere on Arctic wildlife?

What are the impacts of pollutants from North America and elsewhere on Arctic wildlife?
2
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1answer
116 views

What kind of tooth is this?

Please help me identify this tooth and the era its from. I found it in Panama City Beach Florida. Its cold and hard when i bite it. It looks very old. Possibly a shark tooth?
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0answers
112 views

Gulf stream weakening affects on both ends of the system - Europe and Carribean

There have been reports about the Gulf Stream weakening. Everything I have read about this concentrates on the (possibly substantial) cooling this would cause in Europe. If this weakening occurs, ...
1
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0answers
123 views

Issues with projection and fig using python and mpl_toolkits.basemap

I currently have depth data that I am plotting with the code below. The problem that I am having has to do with the figure python is spitting out. The figure is really tiny. I have tried a few things ...
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0answers
121 views

Is there a formula to calculate shoreline length or water position from ocean?

Assuming in the past the water of the oceans were lower does it also mean that the water was not where it is right now?
 If yes, then how do we calculate approximately where the water would have been ...
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0answers
37 views

is the low-compressibility of seawater responsible for its bouyancy?

I'm trying to wrap my head around water's density, low-compressibillity and bouyancy. Are all these 3 things related, if so, how? I'm particularly interested if water's low compresibillity of ...