Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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Atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ fell at a Pleistocene interglacial-glacial transition. Ocean absorption vs biosphere absorption

CO2 levels fell during the last interglacial-glacial transition until the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene. I can think of two causes for the reduction of CO2: Ocean absorption. The ...
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What makes Eastern Boundary Currents cold?

As far as I am aware, there are two separate processes that cause Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs) to have cold Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs). One is offshore Ekman transport, which leads to coastal ...
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What is the environmental effect of personal protective equipment on the ocean?

What is the environmental impact of masks and other personal protective equipment polluting the oceans? The world is using billions of masks and gloves due to the COVID pandemic and they are being ...
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What is the fastest ocean deep current?

The Gulf Stream is the fastest ocean current in the world with peak velocities near 2m/s. Source: marine.coastal.edu What about deep currents, North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water, etc? ...
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Will Lithium batteries mean we have to exploit Co-Mn-Ni nodules from the seafloor?

Co-Mn-Ni goes into some of the most efficient Lithium Ion battery chemistry. It is very convenient that Co-Mn-Ni is also readily available from the ocean seabed. Polymetallic nodule contains various ...
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How do pilots of Deep Sea Vehicles operate the control surfaces and thrusters from inside a pressure hull? [closed]

A Deep Sea Vehicle (DSV) like Trieste or Limiting Factor or now Fundouzhe have control thrusters, ballast that has to be dumped, and other equipment to operate the DSVs. But the pressure hull is a ...
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Deep Sea Exploration - Is there a purpose to human exploration? [closed]

Should humans explore the deep ocean (1800meters or deeper) or is this the realm of AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles)? It seems that such deep ocean exploration is best done by AUVs. They are ...
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What is the name of this feature on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia?

25°37'32.38"N - latitude 36°44'27.66"E - longitude This is between Umluj and Al Wajh on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. I can't find any kind of identification in English or Arabic. So I am ...
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Was the Caribbean Sea a closed sea during the last glaciation?

Taking a look at Google Earth the straits between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean are not very deep. The sealevel during the last glaciation was 120 meters lower than the present level. Was ...
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As the number of ocean dead zones increases, is the world's primary source of atmospheric oxygen (phytoplankton) at risk?

Disclaimer: I am not a scientist. I was wondering if there is a concern that the world will run out of breathable atmospheric oxygen as the number of dead zones in the ocean increases with global ...
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Which ocean evaporates the most water per surface area?

I guess the Pacific Ocean evaporates the most water because of its size. But which of the major oceans evaporates the most water per square meter?
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Where can I find a list of the world's surface ocean currents?

I want to make an app for smartphones that list ocean currents in the world. I have my notes for an oceanography course I undertook at University for deep currents as NADW, ABW etc, but I have not a ...
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Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
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Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
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Is Hudson Bay part of the Arctic or the Atlantic Ocean?

Years ago I learned that the Columbia ice field was North America's triple divide point: water flowing from this ice field could drain into the Artic, the Pacific, and the Atlantic Ocean. Something I ...
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Which universities are best for studying Oceanography as an undergrad? [closed]

I am a high school senior studying in a local school in Bangladesh. My passion is to study oceans & marine life. The drive of getting higher education in Oceanography has turned into ardent ...
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Understanding timescales within the day period

I stumbled across a timescale which I am unsure of. What does it mean by intra-daily scale variability? I would also like to know if intra-tidal scale variability is of any use for capturing daily ...
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Lanes of flat ocean surface in coastal waters

When the ocean is still, i.e. there aren't waves that disturb the surface, you often see "lanes" of water that seem flat as opposed to areas where the wind causes ripples. What causes this?
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Are pycnocline zones formed by or after mixing of sea and fresh water?

I trying to study Estuaries and Brackish water. A pycnocline is a layer of water that has the greatest density gradient in a body of water. Are they formed by or after mixing sea and fresh water?
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Would ultrasound be a valid method of mapping ocean floors given the perceived “gel” is ocean water?

I am a scuba diver, with a big idea that would require me to map various dive sites as I went to them and dove in them. The typical size and other implications of sonar technology would essentially ...
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Are ocean waves diminished, enhanced or unaffected by underwater obstacles

Suppose you have a wave heading towards the beach, and under the water the surface rises suddenly then drops again back to the typical average slope of the coastline, does this have a muting affect on ...
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3answers
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How do we know the Arctic is just ice?

If I look at an Earth's map, the Arctic/North Pole always appears just like water. Evidently this is actually covered by ice, with an area depending on the time of the year. If this area is bigger ...
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Are the oceans rising or the continents going down? How can we know?

The century old sustained rising of oceans, at a rate of 2-4 mm/y, remains a unexplained phenomenon; there is no correlation with temperature variations, so it is not due to the thermal variation of ...
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Would it be possible, from the earth’s creation or during its various geomorphological changes, for all the following hypotheses to be probable?

I’m designing a fictional world setting for a game, and I would like to know whether it has a relative coherence based on science. (Don’t mind if it is an almost improbable scenario). Would it be ...
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Why is calcium so much more abundant in/on Earth's crust (and oceans) than it is elsewhere? (relatively speaking…)

Inside the entire Earth as a whole, and throughout our Solar System and galaxy, etc., magnesium is at least 14 times (or more) as common as calcium, atom-per-atom. But, on Earth's crust and oceans, ...
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How is carbon distributed among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt fossil fuels?

In relation to my other question about carbon cycle and climate change, i would like to know some estimates of the carbon distribution among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt ...
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How far would average sea level rise from a 25% increase in total ocean volume?

What amount of average sea level rise (in meters above 2020 levels) would be associated with a 25% increase in total ocean volume? The reason I ask is because of this study that indicates Earth has ...
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Where can I find a shallow-water solver in MATLAB?

I do not know how to solve the shallow water equations in the matrix form in MATLAB. I didn't find anything useful on the internet. I have the specific mathematical equations to solve (please see the ...
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1answer
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How do long, thin, island chains such as North Carolina's outer banks, form?

I can't think of a possible explanation, there's no volcanic activity in the area, and it gets destroyed every time a hurricane passes through. How did it get there?
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Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
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SWAN doesn't run [duplicate]

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I'm not an expert in SWAN. I have some problem with it. Previously my result like rotated so I take another option to make grids using GridBuilder but SWAN doesn'...
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SWAN WAVE model: Strange result

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I have some problems with my research. When I plot the result it is rotated. The color blue one is land. This my script, what should I do to fix the problem? <...
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Deriving shallow water equations: why is the vertical velocity equal to the material derivative of the surface level?

I'm reading about the derivation of shallow water equations, and I have a hard time understanding why $$ w(\eta) = \frac{D\eta}{Dt}$$ where $w$ is the vertical velocity, $\eta$ is the (top or bottom) ...
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1answer
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What would be the depth variation of a “water ellipsoid” above a reference ellipsoid Earth?

The question If the Earth was a smooth spheroid how deep would be the ocean? has an excellent answer which explains the shape and surface area of an oblate spheroid before calculating the average ...
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Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
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Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain?

Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain? I searched on google and it says acid rain will have minor impact on ocean acidity, but I am not sure if increased ocean acidity ...
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1answer
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Are there four-times daily sea surface temperature (SST) data product for Tropical Cyclone research?

Now I am working on a Tropical Cyclone project, and want to figure out the SST status when a TC passes by. I've been searching for SST products, yet there only show up to daily SST. My question is ...
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Can not open Grib files from Nomands

I am trying to read in a file from https://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov I can read all multigrid files like here but my script fails to read files from other links that are ...
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How would the Earth look without water in the oceans?

Has there ever been a movie, a documentary, or an image that provides a visualization of the oceans without water? I'm writing an article on geology and I thought a visual representation would be of ...
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Will the sea get saltier forever?

The sea wasn't always salty. It's been getting saltier over millions of years as minerals dissolve. Is there a natural limit to this process, or the will the sea keep getting saltier forever? Is there ...
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Desalination and Weather Impact?

I have a question I've always been curious about regarding the topic. As I understand it, the desalination process is that they take the salt water, create usable water from it and then salt sludge ...
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Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom?

This is something that just occurred to me. If heavier elements sink, then how can the entire ocean be salty? Shouldn't the 'salt', because of its density, all sink to the bottom of the ocean? In ...
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Would hurricanes on an ocean planet continue indefinitely?

Hurricanes seem to run out of steam when they make landfall. If our planet were entirely covered by ocean, would hurricanes continue indefinitely? Would they keep gathering energy and increasing in ...
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What percentage of oceans and seas fall in tropical, subtropical, temperate and cold zones?

It is easy to find information on total area of oceans and seas. For example Atlantic ocean is 106 500 000 km², Indian ocean is 70 560 000 km² and Pacific ocean is 165 200 000 km². But waht percent of ...
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What are good oceanographic journals

I am a developer with a oceanographic side project. I did some ML on wave & tide data and thought of publishing it in a paper. What are some good journals to send it to? Any recommendations? ...
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Australia east coast data access WW3

I am currently looking into https://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/product_table.shtml?-multi_1- And wondering why no station for the Australia East Coast is defined in the list. The northernmost station ...
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How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
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How can oceanic Rossby waves move from East to West?

I can find several examples of Rossby waves, mainly atmospheric, moving towards East. Is it possible that they also move towards West?
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What will the sea level be when the ice caps/glaciers melt? [duplicate]

I have my views and you have yours, so I ask a question, what was the average sea level in Athens, Greece 2,720 years ago? What was the average sea level in ancient Rome 2,420 years ago? https://en....

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