Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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23
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9answers
10k views

Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom?

This is something that just occurred to me. If heavier elements sink, then how can the entire ocean be salty? Shouldn't the 'salt', because of its density, all sink to the bottom of the ocean? In ...
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0answers
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Why was the temperature change greater in higher latitudes than in lower latitudes during the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum?

In the "Plankton cooled a greenhouse", which is the article written by Birger Schmitz, it is stated that the subtropical regions became warmer during the PETM(Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum) but the ...
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1answer
54 views

How does nature dilute Ocean and Seas so that we can swim in them?

I have a question about the seas and ocean we swim in. How does the Ocean get rid off all the natural pollutants (for example dead animal debris) and man-made pollutants (human waste, garbage, etc)? I ...
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0answers
139 views

Cooling effect from the oceans in global warming

The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ $\Delta F=\alpha\...
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1answer
50 views

The halocline and sonar

 I studied oceanography many years ago at university and recall a lecturer claiming that submarines in the second world war could pass undetected through the entrance to the Mediterranean.  ...
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1answer
52 views

Beta plane approximation: variation of Coriolis parameter

The Beta plane approximation put me in confusion. Beta plane approximation explain me how the Coriolis parameter changes with latitude. Beta parameter changes with the cos(latitude) but this is ...
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2answers
353 views

What is a Dry Sea

I wanted to create my own unique worlds. I wanted to take my readers to places they wouldn’t go to in any other story and show them things they wouldn’t see anywhere else. For instance, the Dry Sea in ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do high tides vary month to month?

I've noticed that some ‘highest‘ high tides in one month are bigger than the highest high-tide of previous months. Why is this so?
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0answers
44 views

Caspian Sea oil deposits

Azerbaijan appears to have vast development in its oil sector. Images on google earth show oil platforms connected by road ways far out into the Caspian Sea of the coast of Baku. Why is the majority ...
4
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2answers
187 views

What is this island or reef 600 km east of Marianas Islands?

This map shows an island a bit east of the Marianas. I took a screenshot of the relavent part. I hunted around for it in Google Earth with no luck, but I did find a promising candidate here: I could ...
4
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1answer
50 views

Relationship Between Ratio of Atmospheric Gases and Ocean Gases

A version of this question was posted in Chemistry SE and Worldbuilding SE but I've been told it wasn't appropriate to either SE. I was told to give this SE a chance. If you think it doesn't belong on ...
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1answer
37 views

Can a sonar used to graph the ocean floors detect through polluted and highly populated waters?

So graphing the ocean floors using sonar is not anything new. But what are the limits to sonar? Would it be possible for a regular sonar device to emit sounds that are strong enough to penetrate ...
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1answer
153 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\ce{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense cooling effect ...
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2answers
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How much does sea level rise due to sediment deposition?

There has been a lot of noise in the news in the last few days because Congressman Mo Brooks from Alabama claimed that erosion played a role in rising sea levels. Quoting from Science magazine: ...
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1answer
51 views

Net fluxes of carbon caused by humans

The current and future amount of carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere is what currently concerns and occupies many people. I am looking for a big picture of ...
6
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1answer
982 views

How much plastic settles to the bottom of the oceans each year?

This article says that 5 to 13 million metric tons of plastic go into the ocean every year. In the study At what point do floating plastics sink?, they give an estimate of the weight needed to sink ...
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5answers
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How and why did the oceans form on Earth but not on other planets?

Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has copious amounts of water on it. Where did this water come from and why is there so much water on Earth compared to every other planet in the ...
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1answer
34 views

Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
14
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2answers
3k views

Why doesn't sea level show seasonality?

North-hemisphere ice-shelf melts on summer and grows on winter. I would expect appreciable changes on sea-level between seasons, but sea-level looks equal on winter than on summer. Why doesn't sea ...
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1answer
27 views

Regional and Relative Sea level

I am a little confused by the terms "regional" and "relative" in the sea level change context. Do the two words have the same meaning? Does the "regional MSL trend" in https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/...
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1answer
34 views

Live video feeds for submarine ROVs?

I know of two live video channels showing live feeds of rover dives: Okeanos Explorer for dives with the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. Nautilus live for dives from the Nautilus, operated by the Ocean ...
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2answers
193 views

Waves on sandy beach separating differently-sized rocks?

I recently went to a beach, and I noticed that the sand seemed to have a few distinct regions. I'm wondering what would cause this, and how it works. One region is the part of the beach which is ...
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1answer
97 views

What would happen if I installed distributed water fountains in all of the ocean's dead zones? [closed]

As every thalassologist knows, the ocean is filled with great streches of desert with no marine photosynthetic life. What would happen if, for each of these oceanic deserts, I densely filled them with ...
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1answer
130 views

Understood cause of sea level rise between 1850 and 1950

This question is based on the following graph from a 2018 report by J. Curry. (I haven't found any peer-review of the report itself so I can't vouch for the validity of its claims, but that's not the ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the significance of amphidromic points related to tides?

On reading about tide formation and the role of moon's gravitational force, I came across the term amphidromic point. Could someone please elaborate this concept?
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3answers
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What is the percentage of the global water cycle (evaporation, precipitation) that occurs over the ocean?

Most of the water cycle studies focus on the processes and changes occurring over land with little emphasis on the ocean. Meanwhile, the ocean covers almost 3/4 of the surface of Earth. How much of ...
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3answers
10k views

What is the tallest fully underwater seamount in the world?

I am wondering what is the tallest fully underwater seamount in the world ? When I say the tallest, I mean the one that is the nearest of the sea level. EDIT : The highest that I found would be at ...
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2answers
103 views

Molten salt seas on the future Earth

As the sun gets brighter, the oceans are expected to evaporate by the next billion years or so (the vapor slowly gets stripped off into space). The salt, which is less dense than most rocks, will be ...
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0answers
54 views

Quickly breeding oysters to combat oceanic pollution?

I've been doing some wikipedia binging and it's come to my realization that it may be in the Earth's best interest to raise the world oyster population as quickly as possible. The basis for this is ...
4
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1answer
66 views

What is the weather data covering the range of 359 to 360 degree

I downloaded a grib file of oceanography (Mean Wave Period) from ERA-Interim and the longitude values give the value at the points is 0,1, 2, 3....357, 358, 359 If I have geographical coordinates ...
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3answers
17k views

Why are the Great Lakes not considered a sea?

From me looking at maps, excluding the Caspian sea and the Great Lakes, I see these in common for seas and lakes: Seas Most are saltwater Connected to the rest of the ocean via either an isthmus, ...
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2answers
127 views

Could the Grand Canyon be flooded by the ocean if it got deep enough?

The Colorado River has been carving the Grand Canyon for a few million years now, such that the canyon floor is around 6000 feet lower in elevation than the surrounding area, at about 2400 feet above ...
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0answers
36 views

Finding vessel and wave's angle of attack [closed]

I am finding angle between ship's heading and component in wave (wave's angle of attack), not sure if ES is a right place to ask this type of question. Should it be the difference between mean wave ...
2
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1answer
61 views

How to classify the ENSO phase of a year?

I am using the ONI index to classify the years of high rainfall seasons (December–February) as El Niño, Neutral or La Niña. El Niño year is classified as one if the ONI index value is +0.5 °C for 5 ...
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1answer
144 views

What kind of tooth is this?

Please help me identify this tooth and the era its from. I found it in Panama City Beach Florida. Its cold and hard when i bite it. It looks very old. Possibly a shark tooth?
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2answers
115 views

What could cause a turn from global warming to global cooling?

Except a hypothesized orbital forcing! Ice cores shows that there are several irregular sharp temperature peaks in between of the big 100,000 years glaciations. What could cause those peaks? Almost ...
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2answers
152 views

Sea cave vs Sea arch

How do you distinguish sea cave from sea arch? If I want to classify a crack of sea cliff as sea cave, has it to have a dead end? Would you call a geological formation as a sea cave even a kayak can ...
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1answer
193 views

How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million sq km?

How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million square kilometres? I can't see how the five individuals ones add to that. When I Google how many squared km is this/that ocean, I get When add ...
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0answers
36 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
3
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1answer
202 views

How much energy would be required to actively reduce the temperature of the oceans of Earth by 1℃?

Is there a way to calculate the energy required to reduce the heat of oceans? Am I wrong in thinking it is not as simple as reversing the calculation for specific heat of sea water?
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1answer
185 views

How to correct PSMSL data for GIA?

I have a PSMSL RLR (revised local reference) sea level dataset with records from various tide gauges. Can anyone explain how to correct them for GIA (glacial isostatic adjustment) using the ICE-5G ...
14
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1answer
853 views

How is carbon distributed among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt fossil fuels?

In relation to my other question about carbon cycle and climate change, i would like to know some estimates of the carbon distribution among the atmosphere, the oceans, the biomass and the unburnt ...
5
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0answers
76 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
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1answer
1k views

What was the ocean circulation like during the time of Pangaea?

So Enderton and Marshall (2009) wrote an interesting paper on the ocean circulation of various aquaplanets covered with certain terrain: e.g. an aquaplanet with a small ridge of land that ranged from ...
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1answer
507 views

Rossby radius as horizontal scale

In the introduction of "Geographical and monthly variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation in the South China Sea", the authors states: In both theoretical and observational ...
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1answer
2k views

How can the world's sea level rise and fall simultaneously?

I have just been reading this article on Gizmodo (known for its hard science I know), that talks about sea level rising by up to 3 feet(!). In the article and video, created from information from ...
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6answers
14k views

Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
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1answer
210 views

Why is ocean salinity not a good chronometer?

In 1910, George Becker published The Age of the Earth, in which he used the sodium accumulation rate in the ocean to estimate the earth's age as 50 to 70 million years. We now know through various ...