Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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Is the flow pattern in the N Atlantic based on the Coriolis forces?

Hi If you look at the warm water currents in the N Atlantic, you can see how they have an overall eastward movement pattern: Source If you compare this with the Coriolis forces, which also turn in an ...
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Which currents are counted as AMOC in the North Atlantic and which are not?

This question is related to this question. I am currently trying to understand which currents in the North Atlantic are counted as part of the AMOC: I am sure about the currents: N. Atlantic current ...
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Questions about Stommel's Two-Box Model (North Atlantic Current)

I have a question about a module on Stommel's Two-Box model. I am uncertain about the following density equation: $ \Delta \rho = | R \Delta S - \Delta T| $ A larger difference between temperatures/...
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What are realistic salinity level ranges (in psu) and temperature ranges (in celsius) of the North Atlantic Ocean?

I am trying to make sense as to why salinity levels impact the density of ocean water more than temperature. This is in an attempt to understand the two-box model of ocean circulation. I know there ...
AAAA's user avatar
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Question regarding the breakup of India from Eastern Gondwana

I wanted to ask this question as it relates to a project I am working on. In this "timeline" when India broke away from Gondwana the Indian Plate took a small piece of land from Eastern ...
GoofyGoober05's user avatar
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How to de-tide a daily averaged sea level data?

Coud you help me to resolve this situation? : I have a raw daily averaged sea level time series, as you know when we perform a harmonic analysis (e.g. using T_Tide from MATLAB) we need to put our data ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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How to change the whitecapping coefficient Cds in Delft-Wave

I have worked about the wave calibration in these days, and I met a problem that the significant wave height from Delft-WAVE is much lower than the observation data. I have searched for ways from the ...
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High quality hydrophone for less than $500?

I am doing a hobby project and am in search of a high quality hydrophone for less than $500. I really do not have any idea about such instruments, so I am struggling to make sense of the products on ...
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Water on our planet, where did it come from? [closed]

Water on our planet, where did it come from? A water molecule is created when two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen. W The volume of all water (on our planet) is about 332.5 million ...
farsideofourmoon's user avatar
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What 18O indicators are there besides foraminifera?

It is now standard practice to use foraminifera to represent paleo 18O signatures from a marine system. However, there are some problems if you want to show 18O variations in the last 100 years using ...
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I want to build a new island country in the ocean. Where is the best place to build it? [closed]

It should be far enough away from land so that another country may not stake claim on the island, but in a shallow enough area such that dredging and depositing sand and other building materials is ...
Anand Sharma's user avatar
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What do interannual, annual and intrannual and interseasonal, seasonal and intraseasonal mean in the context of Oceanography?

Currently I am studying the period of oceanographic phenomena such as El Niño, and I have seen the next concepts: interannual, annual and intrannual and interseasonal, seasonal and intraseasonal. I ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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A low-pass butterworth filter to analyze ocean bottom pressure

Hello fellow oceanographers, I just trying to design a fourth-order low-pass butterworth filter with a 15-days cutoff period, in python, with the aim to filter a ocean bottom pressure (OBP) time ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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If among oceanic crusts older means heavier, then why is old continental crust lighter than new oceanic crusts?

When we consider two oceanic crusts, the older oceanic crust is heavier and the newer oceanic crust is lighter. But when we consider two crusts, one continental and the other oceanic, continental ...
Koushik Sarkar's user avatar
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Collapse of the AMOC - effects

What are the potential effects of an eventual collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)? I often see news viting everything ranging from droughts in India to increased climate ...
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How to model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosion?

I am trying to understand how can I model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosions? I want to analyze the 2022 Tonga tsunami. I have been using the UNESCO CoMIT software with ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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Will the hot Atlantic shape global/local weather and if so, how?

So the Atlantic Ocean exhibits record-breaking temperatures currently with about 1 degree Celsius above-average mean surface temperatures. This article, for example, mentions that a more severe ...
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Wind direction and wave number of swell and wind waves

Whether swell and wind waves have same wind direction or it may have different wind direction? what is the wave number range of swell waves and wind waves. Thanks in advance.
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
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1 answer
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Wind speed at the surface of the ocean

Why is wind speed generally considered at 10m above the sea surface? Is there any specific reason for this? For example, if we say wind speed is 8 m/s which implies that wind speed at a height of 10 m ...
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
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1 answer
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Swell spectrum and wind spectrum

While modelling both wind waves and swell waves, whether we have to add both spectra or append wind spectra in swell spectra? Because swell spectra has high amplitude values but wind spectra has very ...
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
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1 answer
205 views

Why is sealevel higher where gravity is higher?

The EGM96 geoid map depicts hypothetical sealevel due to gravitational variations on the Earth's surface: image source It places one of the highest areas in the northern part of the Atlantic ocean. ...
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How to download atmospheric/oceanographic data for a given region in the sea?

I am trying to get data of atmospheric temperature, wind intensity and/or atmospheric pressure for a specific region of the sea, since I have ocean bottom pressure data from a fixed instrument (lat,...
Miguel 's user avatar
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Density of sea water on the side of currents

A geostrophic current in the northern hemisphere features a pressure gradient force directed towards the left of the current (west if the current heads straight north) and Coriolis force directed to ...
Redirectk's user avatar
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How to remove the ENSO signal on ocean bottom pressure data?

I am trying to remove the possible effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon on sea bottom pressure records (sensor 4, 5 & 7, see map) that are located in front of the Pacific coast ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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Using radar to measure ocean waves along the shoreline

What radar technology would be best to measure the attributes of ocean waves near (under 2k distance) the shoreline?
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Is the southern downwelling situation in the AMOC as affected by climate change as the two northern downwelling situations?

I wonder if the southern downwelling situation in the AMOC is affected by climate change as much as the two northern situations. I come to the question because I find the Cicrumantarctic circulation ...
Weiss's user avatar
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2 votes
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Sea waves with perpendicular discontinuity

This is a sea/ocean wave image which can be found in several places on the internet. I cannot find its origin and any image search did not yield conclusive results. It may even be a render. Question: ...
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IPCC 6 - What's the background of possible marine species loss?

The Figure "Projected risks and impacts of climate change on natural and human systems at different global warming levels" has this to say on species loss (only part of the image): I can't ...
mart's user avatar
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How saline were the earth's oceans during the Last Glacial Maximum?

According to Wikipedia sea water is 34.7 parts per thousand salt. Between evaporation and precipitation it seems like this amount is kept largely in equilibrium but, during the last glacial maximum, a ...
neubert's user avatar
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Dedicated book to understand climate and ocean science

Let me explain: I am a physics student who did some basic earth science during my early high school days. But thinking about earth science makes me very curious about deeper topics, like how the ...
आर्यभट्ट's user avatar
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1 answer
105 views

How does the Coriolis effect explain Ekman transport?

Before answering the question, keep in mind that I am a second year Biology student, with no experience in studying Physics and a very basic understanding of Mathematics. Thus, I would prefer a ...
Growing6884's user avatar
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0 answers
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Ocean oscillations with long time periods

I heard that some ocean oscillations act on a time scale of a millennium. Is this true, or at least argued by some oceanographers? If so, what are they and what causes them? If not, what are the ...
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2 answers
686 views

Most amenable coastal geographic conditions for harbors?

I've been trying to find sources detailing the natural geographic features most suitable for shipping harbors along a coast—primarily for international trade. So far, I've read vague reference to ...
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Does Arctic sea ice form a continuous flat sheet in winter between Russia and Canada, or are there gaps of water?

In the footage of Arctic sea ice in the spring or summer you can see gaps of water, lines of water between ice sheets, or kind of lakes of water mixed with icebergs. Even as far north as the North ...
SkyParticle's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
78 views

Geostrophic adjustment with shallow water equations

The linearized f-plane shallow water equations are: $du'/dt - fv' = -g(d eta'/dx)$ dv'/dt + fu' = -g(d eta'/dy) (d eta'/dt) + H((du'/dx)+(dv'/dy)) = 0 where g is ...
Maggie Bradley's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Earthquake clustering by pairs algorithm questions

A program I'm writing does the following: (EQ=earthquake, EV=event, ML=machinelearning, etc) from a time series (in a selected station) it picks pairs of EQ' EVs with similar characteristics (...
ogeid's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Carbon "sequestration" or "drawdown" and Henry's Law

If gigatons of carbon dioxide were taken out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis into long-term soil carbon or tree carbon, or captured from the atmosphere and stored using some kind of ...
Peter Donovan's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
53 views

How do you determine the % of precipitation falling as snow in the case below?

I have just started a course in hydrology (a totally different field from mine which is computer science) and I can't find the link between the fact that a river flows into a lake and the % of ...
narutoArea51's user avatar
45 votes
2 answers
12k views

Why is NaCl so hyper abundant in the ocean?

Why is sodium chloride far and away the most abundant salt dissolved in ocean water? Its two constituent ions do have a very high frequency in the crust of the earth, but they are far from the most ...
Fraser Orr's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
298 views

Does the California cyclone change the California current?

I opened windy.com for the California area and I found that the California current is displayed in the opposite way - from south to north. Is it affected by the recent cyclone or am I misunderstanding ...
pacman's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
124 views

Indonesian Throughflow and currents map

According to Wikipedia, Indonesian Throughflow passes Lombok Strait from north to south bringing water mass from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. But when I the checked currents map on windy....
pacman's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
58 views

Beaufort wind force measure

Beaufort scale relates wind speed and wave height of the ocean surface. Does the wave height in the scale refer to significant wave height or mean wave height?
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
203 views

How to construct the tide signal from harmonic constituents?

I am trying to reconstruct the astronomical tide time series from harmonic constituents (calculated from T_Tide).I am using the equation that all knows H(t) = Amplitude * cos ( t * harmonicSpeed + ...
Miguel 's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
223 views

Differences between lake effect and ocean effect snow

What are the differences between the conditions that lead to lake effect snow versus ocean effect snowfall? Both can lead to significant snowfall, but usually lake effect causes large snow amounts.
arkaia's user avatar
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How is sea water level on the Earth a plane?

The Earth is has a globular shape and sea water level is a plane. We are on the upper surface of the Earth, then how is sea water level a plane?
015ra's user avatar
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3 votes
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Ranges of Ocean wave number and Ocean wave frequency

I am new to oceanography. As per the practical scenario, what is the range of wave number and wave frequency values? Thanks in advance.
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
139 views

Why does decreasing surface alkalinity increase surface pCO2?

According to Takahashi et al. (1993), pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) in the surface ocean changes due to 4 surface variables: temperature, salinity, total carbon (dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) and ...
earthyguy's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
155 views

Why is some ocean on continental crust?

While most ocean crust is formed from oceanic plate formations there are areas of the ocean (much of the Gulf of Mexico, Eastern US coast, North Sea, Arabian coast of India) which appear to be ...
Gary's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
749 views

Does the 0m elevation height of a Digital Elevation Model (Copernicus DEM) correspond to mean sea level?

I want to model future coastal flooding caused by sea-level rise under the latest IPCC scenarios at global scale. To this end, I use the Copernicus Digital Elevation Model (Copernicus DEM: https://...
Circus pygargus's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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Why south of Japan has a zone with winds facing each other?

This is an image of the wind in est Asia, south of Japan. How do you explain this zone I circled in pink, where winds from north and south face each other? Thanks
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