Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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2
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1answer
52 views

Global tide calculation

I am familiar with the concept of harmonic tide coefficients and was wondering about the simplest software solution to calculate tides anywhere, worldwide. Are there any available, open source ...
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109 views

What kind of temperature unit is “cK”?

An article about ocean temperature history/modeling has this plot: Where the units are given as cK. cK does not seem to be a ...
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43 views

Measuring Transect Length on Sea Floor

I was wondering if anybody had any insight or thoughts on a technological bottleneck we are facing in data collection. Basically, we have vessels (single operator) dig the substrate for collection ...
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1answer
376 views

How to calculate Wind direction from uwind and vwind?

How to calculate wind direction from uwind and vwind? if uwind and vwind are -1.82 , -3.18 respectively
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502 views

If ALL the ice melted, what percentage of the Earth's surface would be water?

At the present time, about 70% of the earth's surface is liquid water (perhaps that includes floating ice around Antarctica, and the Arctic Ice cap). What percentage of the Earth's surface would be ...
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145 views

How much net carbon can coral sequester?

So I am wondering how much carbon any given coral can sequester given that carbon dioxide dissolves in water and forms carbonic acid, and coral uses that carbonic acid in their own calcification ...
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386 views

How is sea level measured?

In comments on Earth changes due to global climate change, sea level changes is a common topic. I hear quotes about sea level changes in the centimeter and even millimeter range and wonder how such ...
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1answer
58 views

predicting low tide

At 18:03 PDT at La Jolla Cove the lifeguard's bulletin board stated predicted low tide at 5:36 (17:36 PDT?). In fact, it was already after 6:00 and the sun had not yet set. The moon was a waxing ...
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58 views

Why are climate anomalies calculated relative to 1981-2010 average?

What is the purpose for doing this? Is it inaccurate to calculate anomalies for variables such as sea surface temperature and precipitation based on a different time period?
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1answer
61 views

Deep sea pumps that work on wind power, can they control the weather?

If they used wind power to bring up cold water from far under the ocean in the day time and spray it on prevailing winds going into land, could they make it rain more in arid regions? What weather ...
2
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1answer
67 views

How to classify the ENSO phase of a year?

I am using the ONI index to classify the years of high rainfall seasons (December–February) as El Niño, Neutral or La Niña. El Niño year is classified as one if the ONI index value is +0.5 °C for 5 ...
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71 views

How much of arctic ice is from snow fall versus frozen sea water?

How much of arctic ice is from snow fall versus frozen sea water? I presume arctic ice comes from both sources. Is there a way to tell how the ice was formed? In other words, if you made a core ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Would a Biorock formed buiding be suitable for ocean floor research?

Electrodeposition of dissolved minerals in seawater has been used to make coral reef repairs for quite some time. WOLF H. HILBERTZ patented the process and trademarked the name Biorock. I do not have ...
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65 views

Are La-Nina and positive Indian Ocean dipole similar?

Because in both the cases, the warm water/ increase in temperature is seen on the east side of Africa. Does not they mean that they carry rain bearing clouds from east of Africa to India, resulting ...
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80 views

Are beaches found all along the coast? If not, what is required for them to be formed?

Why are beaches not found all along the coast? If not beaches, what else can be found along the coast.
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79 views

If the earth were completely smooth and covered in water, what would occur with ocean waves?

Related to this post: If the Earth were a smooth spheroid, how deep would the ocean be?
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1answer
119 views

Floating rock found in southern florida [closed]

I found the rock on the beach. It has a redish hue and floats on water. It feels as though it is hollow because it is light for its size. Does anyone have an idea what this is?
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1answer
216 views

How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million sq km?

How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million square kilometres? I can't see how the five individuals ones add to that. When I Google how many squared km is this/that ocean, I get When add ...
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413 views

What is the (average) velocity of ocean currents?

Does anybody know where to find statistical (average, standard deviation) data on velocities of ocean currents, such as Equatorial countercurrent North of Madagascar Agulhas current East Australia ...
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170 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
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1answer
275 views

What is the difference between vertical turbulent entrainment and turbulent diffusion in the ocean?

In analyses of mixed layer heat budget analysis, authors of different papers have considered the contribution of vertical mixing in different ways. Halkides and Lee (2011) have considered ...
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212 views

How much ocean water is currently being displaced by ships?

According to Statista, as of January 2017, there are approximately 52,000 ships currently operating in the merchant fleet and 11,000 of these are considered bulk carriers. How many ships are there ...
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Caspian Sea oil deposits

Azerbaijan appears to have vast development in its oil sector. Images on google earth show oil platforms connected by road ways far out into the Caspian Sea of the coast of Baku. Why is the majority ...
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1answer
232 views

How quickly can coral fossilize?

On a trip to Honduras a few years ago I visited one of the islands off its north coast with a friend and went to a section of it mostly with nothing but residences which looked far less visited by ...
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1answer
156 views

What kind of tooth is this?

Please help me identify this tooth and the era its from. I found it in Panama City Beach Florida. Its cold and hard when i bite it. It looks very old. Possibly a shark tooth?
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Do ocean level rise estimates account for mantle elasticity and plate mass changes?

In the mainstream media the problem of ocean level rise is presented rather... over-simplistically - ice melts -> more water flows into the oceans -> water level rises -> continents sink. But it is ...
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57 views

Does Martin Ledge uncover?

In the current Wikipedia article for Martin Ledge it reads: "Martin Ledge is small barren rocks that barely stick out of the waters". However, the NOAA chart for the area shows a low tide depth of 16 ...
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How the stepness can be computed at NDBC from site with only dominant wave data and windwave data

Hi guys I have an small question here. At the NDBC website they have at most of the buoys the steepness of the sea at that time and date: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/station_page.php?station=46012 ...
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135 views

Ocean water coming from Mantle vs coming from meteorites

Posibly duplicate from Water on Mars and Earth I remember well a hydrology course where our teacher made some calculations of the total flux of water from Mantle ejections in Earth's history. He ...
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295 views

Can tides at night by consistently higher than in the daytime? [closed]

Can the tides at night be consistently higher than in the daytime in southwest Australia in the port of Fremantle? Also, what is the explanation for the tides being significant during a part of the ...
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1answer
983 views

Why are there 5 oceans?

Like many people, while in school I learned there were four Oceans on Earth - Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic. In general I think it was described that the currents and the surrounding continents ...
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3answers
19k views

Why are the Great Lakes not considered a sea?

From me looking at maps, excluding the Caspian sea and the Great Lakes, I see these in common for seas and lakes: Seas Most are saltwater Connected to the rest of the ocean via either an isthmus, ...
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1k views

How much does sea level rise due to sediment deposition?

There has been a lot of noise in the news in the last few days because Congressman Mo Brooks from Alabama claimed that erosion played a role in rising sea levels. Quoting from Science magazine: ...
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1answer
40 views

Was this reef protected?

I came across this satellite animation the other day. It shows a reef being entirely destroyed to build an industrial complex (airport, harbor, various facilities...). The animated GIF is showcased on ...
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1answer
52 views

How is wind made [duplicate]

Everyone surely enjoys waves in the beach, but one question that has always been hovering around my head was about the wnd. I have always been told that waves are formed by wind and all, but then ...
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Godfrey's island rule (stream function in multiply connected domains)

In this paper, the authors detail the methods to calculate the stream function $\psi$ from velocity data in the case of the global ocean (i.e., multiply connected domains). The general idea is to use ...
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Gulf stream weakening affects on both ends of the system - Europe and Carribean

There have been reports about the Gulf Stream weakening. Everything I have read about this concentrates on the (possibly substantial) cooling this would cause in Europe. If this weakening occurs, ...
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1answer
209 views

Carbon's role in ocean acidification

This might seem like a basic question, but I'm a little confused about the effects on ocean acidification of different carbon compounds. I have heard that increased levels of carbon dioxide in the ...
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2answers
3k views

What is Boomy McBoomFace?

The EarthSky article Great Pacific Garbage Patch now 3 times size of France links both to the newly published article in Scientific Reports Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly ...
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1answer
93 views

Why the $\delta \, ^{18}\text{O}$ in foraminifera shells decrease with temperature even if the oceanic $\delta \, ^{18}\text{O}$ stay constant?

I understand why foram shells contain more $^{18}\text{O}$ when there are ice sheets present, since $^{16}\text{O}$ evaporates more readily and gets trapped in the ice, increasing the relative ...
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2answers
221 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense ...
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1answer
1k views

Why don't Antarctic waters have more upwellings, when Arctic waters are so rich in upwellings?

Formation of ice and hence more dense saltwater sinking happens in both polar regions, creating downwellings. Meanwhile, only a few spots in Antarctica have upwellings I refer to this image: https://...
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Stream function on a periodic domain?

Part 1 In this paper the authors calculate the barotropic stream function from an output of a numerical model as: $$\psi(x,y)=\int_0^y\int_{-H}^0u(x,y',z)~dz~dy'$$ over a global domain and this is ...
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1answer
127 views

Does being under water provide any protection from a asteroid?

Does being under or on water provide any protection from an asteroid hitting the opposite side of the Earth over being in or on land or in air? Why? Will the shock wave follow the curvature of the ...