Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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7
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1answer
231 views

Why is ocean salinity not a good chronometer?

In 1910, George Becker published The Age of the Earth, in which he used the sodium accumulation rate in the ocean to estimate the earth's age as 50 to 70 million years. We now know through various ...
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2answers
5k views

Lanes of flat ocean surface in coastal waters

When the ocean is still, i.e. there aren't waves that disturb the surface, you often see "lanes" of water that seem flat as opposed to areas where the wind causes ripples. What causes this?
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ERA Interim problem with Waves

Has anyone had a problem with significant wave height (swh) and mean wave period (mwp) from ERA-Interim not matching very well with either a time series of measurements or a different model? Or does ...
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1answer
121 views

Why is the zonal component of flow in the ocean much larger than the meridional component

I am reading an Oceanography Textbook which explains that in the ocean, planetary vorticity tends to be much larger than relative vorticity therefore, the potential vorticity can be simplified to be f/...
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135 views

How does the estaurine turbidity maximum vary depending on the type of estuary?

An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is the area of an estuary that has maximum values in suspended particles in the water column. My questions are What are the main characteristics of the ETM? How ...
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2answers
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Where do rivers like the Rio de la Plata end and the ocean begin?

We just had visitors (in Monterey, California) from Montevideo, Uruguay. Not being very familiar with Uruguay, after having taken them to Big Sur, I asked them how far they lived from the ocean. ...
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6answers
15k views

Why doesn't the 71% water of the earth dry or evaporate?

Perhaps a simple question, we know 71% of the earth's surface contains water as oceans. If Earth's age is 4.543 billion years, then I guess it should be decreased with drying or should have been dried ...
2
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2answers
106 views

If a ship on its way to Germany from Norway sank, where will the survivors likely end up?

a) what are the chances, taking into account influencing factors like ocean currents, that these survivors will end up on English shores? b) what are the chances, again taking into account all ...
5
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1answer
280 views

Nitrogen cycle semantics; nitrification/nitrogen fixation

Is 'nitrification' and 'nitrogen fixation' used interchangeably to describe biological reduction of $\ce{N2}$ gas to $\ce{NH3}$? I know $\ce{NH4} \to \ce{NO3}$ is called nitrification too.
6
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3answers
456 views

Is the ocean guaranteed to warm in a warming climate, regardless of whether it absorbs LW radiation?

More specifically, I've seen some discussion of this article: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/09/why-greenhouse-gases-heat-the-ocean/ which claims that the observed ocean warming ...
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1answer
168 views

Is there enough water to cover the surface of a topographically normalized earth?

Is there enough water in the oceans, ice caps, rivers and streams to cover a completely flattened earth, in proportional to land volume and water volume?
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Does perchlorate(rocket fuel) and jet fuel make the salt and ground water near Cape Canaveral dangerous?

I've gotten into paddle surfing and I'm looking for a place to live and surf. I've been looking at an buying a condo in Cocoa Beach because of it’s proximity to Orlando and Cocoa’s decent but ...
2
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1answer
783 views

How to determine ocean bottom depth for a data set consisting of longitude and latitude?

Given a data set which consists of pairs of longitudes and latitudes, is it possible to determine an estimate of the ocean bottom depth at that point? I can find maps of estimated sea depths online (...
7
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1answer
128 views

How much water does a wave transport into a sea cave?

How much water is transported (volume) as a wave travels into a sea cave? The wave has a height of 1 m and a period of 12 seconds. The average water depth at the cave mouth it 5 m and the width is 15 ...
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0answers
36 views

What caused the bend in the Emperor/Hawaii chain islands? [duplicate]

what caused the bend that formed in the emperor seamount chain. I've been looking around on websites but i cant seem to find a simple explanation.
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1answer
133 views

Direct measurments of vertical ocean mixing?

What kinds of vertical ocean mixing measuring instruments are available? This answer How to measure ocean vertical velocity? tells about the measurement of vertical velocity by ADCP, but they give ...
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2answers
329 views

Does subduction of plates make them stretch and form the oceans?

Ocean plates subduct beneath continental plates. Does this make the oceanic plates stretch and become thinner so that the elevation of the sea flow is lower? Is this why oceans form where they do - ...
4
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1answer
374 views

Differences between linear airy wave theory and Stokes' 5 wave theory? and it's application

What is the difference between linear airy wave theory and 5th order Stokes wave theory? What is the differences in terms of application. I am looking more on offshore structure analysis aspects. ...
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0answers
40 views

Increase in Stratification late monsoon in Bay of Bengal

I am involved in an experiment in the Bay of Bengal, letting moorings for a year long period and doing ship cruises. We have observed (from mooring CTDs) that the Brunt Vaisala frequency has increased ...
5
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1answer
634 views

The mean direction of waves in a directional distribution

When modelling ocean waves, a directional distribution $D_f(\theta)$ is used together with a frequency spectrum $S(f)$ to describe the energy of waves at a particular frequency $f$ and angle $\theta$. ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do high tides vary month to month?

I've noticed that some ‘highest‘ high tides in one month are bigger than the highest high-tide of previous months. Why is this so?
7
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1answer
585 views

Units of wave spectrum

In ocean spectra such as the Pierson Moskowitz or the JONSWAP models, the units of $S(\omega)$ are $m^2/(rad/s)$ (or whatever unit of measurement you are working in). Where does the $m^2$ come from ...
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What reactions change seawater composition in hydrothermal systems?

Reactions in ocean floor hydrothermal systems are a significant contributor to the mass balance of several major elements in the oceans, in particular magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and sulfate....
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2answers
173 views

Can ocean temperatures affect groundwater storage capacity ?

In a paper published in Nature Geoscience (paper) the authors conclude : Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized ...
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82 views

Rising sea level: flooding of iconic buildings

I realize that this question may be arguably off-topic, but there doesn't seem to be a stack exchange specific to oceanography, geography, or architecture. With rising sea level in mind, how high ...
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1answer
228 views

Where can i find a shallow-water solver in MATLAB?

I do not know how to solve the shallow water equations in the matrix form in MATLAB. I didn't find anything useful on the internet. I have the specific mathematical equations to solve (please see the ...
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2answers
228 views

What do physical oceanography grad schools look for?

I'm a junior studying math at a Canadian university and I'm planning on applying to oceanography grad schools. However, I haven't taken much physics or geology courses, and am just starting to swap ...
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0answers
108 views

Connections between marine and terrestrial ecosystems [closed]

First I would like to note that I have only very basic understanding of ecology, biology and paleontology so I can easily miss something very simple. I can envision certain ways marine and ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Any site for monitoring equatorial oceanic waves?

I use Carl Schreck's site Equatorial Wave Zoo for monitoring atmospheric waves such as Kelvin wave, Equatorial Rossby wave, filtered MJO OLR, Mixed Rossby Wave(MRG),etc. Here is an example - Kelvin ...
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1answer
1k views

How much garbage goes into the Pacific Ocean every year?

In this article, they mention that: More than 4.8 million metric tons [of] plastic waste gets dumped into the world’s oceans from land each year. And this number is just a conservative estimate. ...
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3answers
371 views

Uranium Deposits in the Ocean?

I was wondering whether there are any uranium deposits in the ocean floor, or in the rock walls of the continental shelf, etc. I was hoping to have some deep sea uranium deposits accessible from the ...
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1answer
1k views

Why don't spring tides occur at full/new moon (age of tide)?

Tides observations everywhere show that spring tides occur not at full or new moon, at the time of maximum driving forces, but typically a day or two later. What causes this delay?
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1answer
198 views

North Bay of Bengal warm pool anomaly

I am looking for an explanation for this warm pool of water in the North and North East Bay of Bengal - North Bay Warm Water Anomaly. Currently the path of the sun is towards the southern hemisphere ...
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1answer
2k views

How often do king tides (perigean spring tides) occur?

Recently, there has been a lot of information about "King Tides" (i.e, perigean spring tides) on the news with a number of groups relating the peak king tide to future normal conditions (2050) under ...
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1answer
425 views

Ocean level rising, or the floor getting higher?

I randomly had a question pop into my head: "Why are oceans salty, but rivers are not?" This article seems to provide a plausible explanation: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/riversnotsalty.html ...
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2answers
4k views

What is (negative) wind stress curl?

I'm currently doing research for a paper in school where we need to research on a university-like level. When I read the paper Causes and impacts of the 2014 warm anomaly in the NE Pacific, I found ...
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0answers
58 views

Formula for numerical model for sustained warming in marine sediment?

I have been reading this paper and found simple numerical formulations to model the time duration, affected depth and amount of warming of marine sediments. The author uses a rudimentary estimate of ...
2
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1answer
190 views

How to correct PSMSL data for GIA?

I have a PSMSL RLR (revised local reference) sea level dataset with records from various tide gauges. Can anyone explain how to correct them for GIA (glacial isostatic adjustment) using the ICE-5G ...
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2answers
514 views

What is a Dry Sea

I wanted to create my own unique worlds. I wanted to take my readers to places they wouldn’t go to in any other story and show them things they wouldn’t see anywhere else. For instance, the Dry Sea in ...