Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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2answers
300 views

What is the average cholorphyll concentration for the ocean?

For chlorophyll-a, measured in mg/m3, what are the average values for: Open ocean in general (global) Northen latitudes (N. Atlantic Ocean) Coastal waters around the UK (North sea, Irish Sea, etc) ...
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What would be the impact on tides if the earth had no tilt?

I would like to know what would be the impacts/effects on the tides if earth were to have no tilt (perpendicular to plane of ecliptic)?
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How does salinity and density affects sea surface temperature?

I was reading Planning Commission report of Five Year plan (2012-2017) of India, and in the context of Inter-linking of rivers it is mentioned that : The presence of a low salinity layer of water ...
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When specifying phase and amplitude for a tidal constituent, what date/time does phase start from?

It is common to describe tidal elevations at a given location by giving the phases and amplitudes of tidal constituents. One such application is for setting the open boundary conditions for regional ...
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1answer
118 views

Carbon dioxide and ocean acidification based on temperature

For our assignment, we are required to analyse and compare the $\ce{CO2}$ level (in both ocean and air) of two different sites. Theoretically, shouldn't the $\ce{CO2}$ level of a colder region (e.g., ...
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275 views

Effects of pressure at sea level

According to this answer atmospheric pressure can vary between 870 and 1070 mb. Can you tell what (if any) effects would there be on sea level if such difference of pressure (200 mb) on two near ...
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How to measure elevation above sea level

Elevation is often measured in terms of "[unit of length] above sea level." Considering that the oceans aren't a uniform height, how is this measured?
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689 views

The motion of tides

I found this animation from a satellite: which shows the motion and elevation of tides on a certain date. Can you find an animation of a date when there is a spring tide? my question is as follows: ...
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1answer
554 views

Is the gulf stream both a wind-driven current and part of thermohaline circulation?

Currents are formed in 3 major ways: Tidal Currents Wind-driven Currents Thermohaline circulation I've seen the gulf stream mentioned as both a wind-driven surface current and being part of the ...
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1answer
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Definitions of tidal harmonic constituents…?

Does anyone know where there is a detailed definition for tidal harmonic constituents? There is loads of stuff on $M_2$, $S_2$, $N_2$, etc. (all the common ones), but there are a great many more, some ...
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Thermohaline: Why is cold and dense seawater salty when warm water holds more dissolved salts?

I read that thermohaline circulation is caused by cold and saline water sinking, while warm and less dense water rises. link I understand that saline water is more dense, as there is a higher mass ...
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is the low-compressibility of seawater responsible for its bouyancy?

I'm trying to wrap my head around water's density, low-compressibillity and bouyancy. Are all these 3 things related, if so, how? I'm particularly interested if water's low compresibillity of ...
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1answer
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Can up-welling water at oceanic fronts be physically felt?

If you were swimming/floating within a body of water experiencing upwelling due to sea-surface thermal fronts, would you be able to physically feel the water that is being up-welled or is it on a ...
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1answer
509 views

Desalination and Weather Impact?

I have a question I've always been curious about regarding the topic. As I understand it, the desalination process is that they take the salt water, create usable water from it and then salt sludge ...
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2answers
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What is the average depth of the ocean?

We know that the ocean depth is varies from ocean to ocean. Mariana trench is about 11 km deep. If we consider as a whole, what is the average depth of the ocean?
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Overview/map of pollution level of worldwide fishing zones

Is there any up-to date and reliable map or overview or database of the oceans pollution with respect to fish pollution (PCB, mercury, dioxines, tin compounds etc.)?
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Is ice also created ín cold water of the oceans?

Salt water of the oceans could freeze into ice at a temperature of -1,8C. Now there is a lot ice on the poles but of all the floating ice how much is that a grown in and of the water itself? With ...
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1answer
226 views

How does water still exist on the Earth?

Almost all the theories that explain the origin of Earth says, it was way hot back then. That means It was in a lava state in its early days. Then gradually cooled down to the current state. If ...
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The temperature of the ocean below 1000 m

I have been trying to find data of sea temperatures in the deep sea (>1000 m), but I still haven't found any scientific papers. I have only seen websites talking about the temperatures, but without ...
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Is it possible that a change of the earth magnetic poles influences deep-sea currents?

A deepwater circulation had changed direction about 55 million years ago, whereby salt cold water went from north to south. This was seen after research of foraminifera with carbon isotope change. But ...
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Why don't toilets use saltwater? [closed]

My question is in the header. It would seem to be a major environmental benefit if toilets used saltwater in stead of drinkable fresh water, right?
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1answer
80 views

How would waves (in a fluid) behave without intermolecular attraction?

Water molecules, as many people know, are polarized, and so water molecules tend to have an attractive force between them. But how would the waves in water behave if this attraction no longer was ...
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Are there water molecules in the oceans which will almost never fall down as rain?

Some oceans are very deep. But is there also current (convection) deep in the ocean so that all water molecules will ones be evaporated and fall down as rain or is it very quite at the bottom so some ...
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1answer
249 views

Why do manganese nodules have different constitution than sea water?

Analysing the constituents of manganese nodules, we find that the relative proportion of minerals differs from that of the surrounding sea water. Can someone explain to me why the proportion of the ...
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Waves on sandy beach separating differently-sized rocks?

I recently went to a beach, and I noticed that the sand seemed to have a few distinct regions. I'm wondering what would cause this, and how it works. One region is the part of the beach which is ...
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1answer
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ocean current frequency

In this paper by Muller and Garrett it is stated: It is a standard expectation that currents in the ocean interior with frequencies much less than the Coriolis frequency will lead to an Ekman ...
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Effects of currents on peak wave frequency

I have been analyzing the surface wave measurements taken from the location where the waves interact with both opposing and following currents. I don't understand why the peak frequency decreases ...
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What factors bring sand into or out of the beach?

I like to walk my dog along a beach, but in medium to high tide, there is no beach at all, as the water reaches the bluffs. The thing is, the height of the sand seems to vary drastically as well. ...
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876 views

What is the relationship between Ekman transport and Ekman pumping?

Ekman transport is the integrated horizontal flow in the boundary layer resulting from the balance between frictional forces (at the surface or bottom) and Coriolis. Meanwhile, Ekman pumping is a ...
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Modelling sea levels with gravitational parameters

Are there any publicly available programs or source code for modelling global (or local) changes in sea level which include parameters for gravitational tidal effects? I have a physics background, ...
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Great Pacific Garbage Patch Equilibrium Points

I was watching the science channel yesterday and the program mentioned the Great Pacific Garbage rim. I was struck by the illustration (and pretty much every subsequent animation/picture I've seen now ...
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1answer
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What is the amplitude of the largest internal wave ever observed?

I have read from Vlasenko et al. (2014) that the largest amplitude of an internal wave recorded in the Celtic Sea is 105 m. Is this the largest ever or have any larger ones been recorded elsewhere (eg....
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1answer
610 views

What is a vertical wavenumber?

I can understand that the wavenumber is number of waves or cycles in a given distance. But what would a vertical wavenumber mean? Is it just another term for the wavenumber of a wave that is ...
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Where can I find wave scatter tables (joint probability Hs vs T) for certain coastal regions?

I am struggling to find a database or free source of joint probability of significant wave height and period, i.e. wave scatter tables. Data for buoys are useful, however not available for regions ...
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Estimating fog incidence based on ocean temperature

In the tropics, say the Caribbean, I have read that there is very often a lot of nighttime and morning fog. I have read that the crucial factors are The ocean temperature Cool nighttime air ...
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Connection between microbes and serpentinite?

Serpentinite belongs to the serpentine group. This group of minerals are metamorphic minerals caused a special process called serpentinization. Serpentinization created serpentinite on the Earth's ...
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If the Earth were a smooth spheroid, how deep would the ocean be?

At the moment there are deep seas and high mountains. But imagine that the land elevation of the Earth is equal everywhere. How deep would the ocean be in that case?
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1answer
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Are coral reefs a Biochemical Sedimentary rock?

Wikipedia says Biochemical sedimentary rocks are created when organisms use materials dissolved in air or water to build their tissue. Examples include: And then lists Limestone, Coal and Chert. ...