Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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1answer
624 views

What is a vertical wavenumber?

I can understand that the wavenumber is number of waves or cycles in a given distance. But what would a vertical wavenumber mean? Is it just another term for the wavenumber of a wave that is ...
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0answers
133 views

Where can I find wave scatter tables (joint probability Hs vs T) for certain coastal regions?

I am struggling to find a database or free source of joint probability of significant wave height and period, i.e. wave scatter tables. Data for buoys are useful, however not available for regions ...
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60 views

Estimating fog incidence based on ocean temperature

In the tropics, say the Caribbean, I have read that there is very often a lot of nighttime and morning fog. I have read that the crucial factors are The ocean temperature Cool nighttime air ...
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3answers
163 views

Connection between microbes and serpentinite?

Serpentinite belongs to the serpentine group. This group of minerals are metamorphic minerals caused a special process called serpentinization. Serpentinization created serpentinite on the Earth's ...
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2answers
8k views

If the Earth were a smooth spheroid, how deep would the ocean be?

At the moment there are deep seas and high mountains. But imagine that the land elevation of the Earth is equal everywhere. How deep would the ocean be in that case?
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1answer
4k views

Are coral reefs a Biochemical Sedimentary rock?

Wikipedia says Biochemical sedimentary rocks are created when organisms use materials dissolved in air or water to build their tissue. Examples include: And then lists Limestone, Coal and Chert. ...
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1answer
2k views

Why are oceans so deep?

Some areas of oceans are about 11 km deep. Is it because continental plates were moving away because of troughs in the middle from where new rock is formed? If so, why did it become deep? If not, what ...
8
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2answers
815 views

The significance of peak period in surface wave models

The peak period or peak frequency is considered to be an important quantity in characterizing ocean surface waves, including wave models [e.g., 1]. But practically, why are we interested in modelling ...
4
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1answer
68 views

Where to start with P190s Seismic Navigation Files?

I have a few P190s navigation files from a 2D reflection seismic acquisition shoot and wondering what the best way was to extract UTM's (or latitude and longitude) and depth. I am reading through the ...
6
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1answer
298 views

A simple formulation to calculate the sequence and rate of salt precipitation in a brine?

Is there a simple formulation to estimate the rate of salt precipitation in a brine given its ion concentrations and the evaporation rate? For example: if we know the concentrations of Cl−, Na+, Mg2+...
4
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1answer
82 views

Missing pages in Knauss' “Introduction to Physical Oceanography, 2nd edition”?

"Introduction to Physical Oceanography, 2nd edition" by John Knauss is a popular oceanography textbook. I bought a copy. It ends at page 308, apparently in the middle of the index. (It seems unlikely ...
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2answers
5k views

What are baroclinic and barotropic waves?

I have a basic understanding of what baroclinic and barotropic mean but cannot seem to get my head around baroclinic waves and barotropic waves.
4
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1answer
579 views

What are the effects of underwater “windmills”?

Most early examples of tidal energy generators used barrages (damns) to generate electricity (La Rance, Kislaya Guba, Annapolis Royal). Meanwhile, a lot of newer projects use rotary blades in the ...
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0answers
75 views

Relationship between obliquity, antarctic circumpolar current, and atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$

Hannah's text on the biology of climate change appears to suggest that forcing due to changes in obliquity can act in opposite ways in Antarctic waters. On one hand, "Low obliquity brings cool ...
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0answers
184 views

A Wide-Open Passage Between the Indian and the Pacific [closed]

Today, through plate tectonics, the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines stand as barriers between the Indian and Pacific oceans. In fact, there once was a warm ocean current flowing from the ...
6
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2answers
802 views

SST and air temperature differences

I'm trying to understand what causes the sea-surface temperature (in the open ocean and coastal areas) and the air temperature immediately above it to be different. I know very little about the ...
12
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1answer
267 views

How different is the proportion of heavy water ($\ce{^2H2O}$) in the different oceans?

The average proportion of naturally occurring semi-heavy water or deuterated water, $\ce{^2HHO}$ or $\ce{HDO}$, is about 1 molecule in 3200. The proportion comes from the fact that one hydrogen in ...
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1answer
759 views

If the Oceans Were Deeper

Back home, the average depths of the world's oceans--and the Mediterranean Sea--are as follows: Atlantic--3926 meters Pacific--4028 meters Indian--3963 meters Arctic--1205 meters Southern--4500 ...
4
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1answer
94 views

Are oceans a major factor in creating high winds on a planet?

This question only pertains to oceans of water and how much they account for the process of creating high winds on a planet with any type of atmosphere.
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2answers
693 views

How can I find the nearest point on the coast from an ocean location?

Given some location of interest $X$ in a lake or in the ocean with known lat and lon, I'd like to find the lat and lon of the coastal location that is closest to $X$, as well as distance between the ...
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0answers
467 views

Does the Labrador current affect North Atlantic climate?

This summer has seen very low sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic. Using animations of these over the last year I feel the runoff of freshwater from Hudson Bay, into the Labrador ...
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2answers
356 views

Is this scientific explanation of The Bible flood accurate?

I googled "the flood and freshwater fish" and came up with this question Christianity StackExchange: How did Noah preserve fresh water fish?. The writer makes a lot of claims like how the salinity of ...
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2answers
81 views

Observations of sea ice typology in the Arctic

What are the main datasets characterizing sea ice typology, thickness, density, "passability", presence of pressure ridges in the Arctic? Is it something that can be detected from the air or a space ...
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1answer
1k views

Impact craters under water

What would be the resulting impact crater of a meteorite hitting bodies of water on Earth? Let's take for example the impactor that resulted in Meteor Crater, Arizona. What would the impact look like ...
4
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1answer
326 views

Best book/s of oceanic data treatment and analysis?

I would like to purchase a/some books which are really good and practical references to get into the oceanic data (wave heights,currents and sea level) treatment and statistical analysis, coming from ...
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0answers
78 views

Spatial variability in ocean surface winds

For the near-surface winds over the ocean, many model products and satellite footprints have spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. I'm interested in knowing how much the winds (both ...
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2answers
302 views

What causes these odd-looking currents in the Tasman Sea?

I was looking at the model ocean current maps from earth :: a global map of wind, weather, and ocean conditions for 2015-10-07 00:00 UTC and there are a lot of odd-looking 'whirlpool' areas off the ...
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2answers
1k views

How to measure ocean vertical velocity?

While horizontal velocities in the ocean are relatively easy to measure, what methods are available to measure vertical velocities? Is there some indirect way to estimate vertical velocities from ...
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1answer
79 views

How to create a model to predict the salmon run

Are there any publicly available models that show you how to accurately predict the salmon run in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans? This has been such a long interest of mine, I often see the ...
9
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2answers
528 views

What are the striations or ridges in the eastern Pacific Ocean?

Messing around on Google Earth recently I noticed a number of striations in the Eastern Pacific. These appear in an East-West orientation and seem to start on the North and South American continental ...
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2answers
163 views

Why is the ocean paleotemperature trend downwards?

In The Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments by Vivien Gornitz (2008, Springer) it is found that 50 My ago the sea temperature was about 13ºC above the present value. . AFAIK the ...
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1answer
239 views

What is the mass of our planet's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere combined?

What is the mass of our planet's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere combined? How accurate can our estimates be?
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1answer
2k views

How can the world's sea level rise and fall simultaneously?

I have just been reading this article on Gizmodo (known for its hard science I know), that talks about sea level rising by up to 3 feet(!). In the article and video, created from information from ...
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55 views

Weekly atmospheric or oceanic oscillation within Arctic region

I'm in the middle of writing my Master's thesis. I've analyzed Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) signals derived from observations by the GRACE satellites.These observations are able to reproduce sub-...
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1answer
122 views

Possibility to influence oceanic evaporation to protect Sahel/Sahara [closed]

When reading about the projects that want to plant trees on the Sahel-Sahara border, for protection of the Sahel, I wonder what other possibilities there are. Like, would it be possible to influence ...
7
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1answer
299 views

Ship turning causing calm water

Can anyone tell me the official or technical term for the effect of when extremely calm water appears when a ship turns sharply in a full circle? I realise it could be related to wakes, but is not a ...
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4answers
455 views

Do “water-worlds” not have plate tectonics?

Water-worlds are becoming increasingly important in the exoplanet/astrobiology community. If plate tectonics create land masses, then can we say that a water-world (a planet with a global ocean and no ...
9
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3answers
792 views

Are there sufficient quantities of limestone to dump in the ocean to reverse acidification?

This question asked: What is the evidence it is feasible to reverse ocean acidification by adding large quantities of a base (bicarb soda)? The result was: Danny Harvey of the University of ...
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2answers
291 views

Can rocks have pressure signatures?

Since rocks can have magnetic signatures, as is the case with paleomagnetism, can they store past pressures also? For example, when researchers are trying to determine past ocean levels, they ...
7
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1answer
2k views

How to read a NetCDF4 file in Matlab?

I have downloaded the sea surface temperature data from the Ocean Color website, the file is in NetCDF format and contains no of geophysical_data variables like sst,...
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0answers
31 views

What are the impacts of pollutants from North America and elsewhere on Arctic wildlife?

What are the impacts of pollutants from North America and elsewhere on Arctic wildlife?
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1answer
122 views

What is the evidence it is feasible to reverse ocean acidification by adding large quantities of a base (bicarb soda)?

A commenter made the following reflection: Ocean acidification is different than sea level rise and global warming, however. With ocean acidification, we're making an excursion unlike anything the ...
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2answers
1k views

Undersea riverbeds?

On a meandering bit of research through Wikipedia, I was looking at the Google Maps location of Texas Tower 4. South-east of that location there is what looks like a river valley under the ocean. If ...
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2answers
2k views

What are the benefits of using conservative temperature in oceanography?

The new standard for ocean temperature is the "conservative temperature". It is based on a hypothetical adiabatic and isohaline change in pressure to the sea surface. Conservative temperature was ...

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