Questions tagged [oceanography]

Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It is also known as oceanology.

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Why is colder seawater more compressible?

I know compressibility is related to the pressure and temperature of the water parcel, but what is the physical/molecular reason as to why colder water is more compressible?
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Will the Southern Ocean act as a net source or sink for atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ in the future?

Some estimates claim that currently about one third of current human annual emissions of $\ce{CO2}$ are absorbed by the oceans. Some authors have calculated that about half of the global ocean total ...
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What is the (average) velocity of ocean currents?

Does anybody know where to find statistical (average, standard deviation) data on velocities of ocean currents, such as Equatorial countercurrent North of Madagascar Agulhas current East Australia ...
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What are the benefits of using conservative temperature in oceanography?

The new standard for ocean temperature is the "conservative temperature". It is based on a hypothetical adiabatic and isohaline change in pressure to the sea surface. Conservative temperature was ...
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What is the difference between an inertial instability and a symmetric instability?

Inertial and symmetric instabilities are fluid instabilities present in atmosphere and ocean. What are the difference between an inertial instability and a symmetric instability?
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Will the ocean eventually erode all land?

It seems as if the 'lowest energy' state for the Earth is to not have any mountains and that given enough time, the oceans would erode all land. Essentially it's an argument like entropy. And I mean ...
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Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense ...
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What efforts have been made to separate the microseismic events related to wind-related ocean waves from the components of volcanic origin?

I have read the question What generates the microseism? and it's accompanying answer. In [#1, cited below], they use the azimuth values of seismographic activity on the flanks of the volcano ...
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Use of Neodymium in Paleoceanography

$\varepsilon_{Nd}$ (i. e. the relative deviation of $\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}$ from a standard) is often used as a proxy in paleoceanography to identify the basin of origin of oceanic currents. But ...
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Waves on sandy beach separating differently-sized rocks?

I recently went to a beach, and I noticed that the sand seemed to have a few distinct regions. I'm wondering what would cause this, and how it works. One region is the part of the beach which is ...
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How can I find the nearest point on the coast from an ocean location?

Given some location of interest $X$ in a lake or in the ocean with known lat and lon, I'd like to find the lat and lon of the coastal location that is closest to $X$, as well as distance between the ...
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Deuterium-less oceans

Current fusion reactor schemes require deuterium and the plan is to extract it from the ocean where it can be found in small abundance. Does deuterium serve some purpose in the oceans? What would ...
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Undersea riverbeds?

On a meandering bit of research through Wikipedia, I was looking at the Google Maps location of Texas Tower 4. South-east of that location there is what looks like a river valley under the ocean. If ...
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What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

This question did arise when thinking on offshore solar power plants, what's their potential, and how efficient would they be compared with land based counterparts. Recently, it is becoming more ...
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What visual wave behaviour help to tell if a tide is going in or out?

I have always wondered how someone could tell, by a brief observation (a few minutes at most), whether a tide is receding or advancing on a rainy day. Assuming there is no access to tide times and ...
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How to measure ocean vertical velocity?

While horizontal velocities in the ocean are relatively easy to measure, what methods are available to measure vertical velocities? Is there some indirect way to estimate vertical velocities from ...
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How do I find the volume of ocean between any two layers of ocean depth?

I'm interested in this problem because I'm interested in obtaining a rough estimate of the average temperature increase of the sea given a net radiative forcing of 0.6 W/m^2. But in order to obtain ...
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What is the Calcite Compensation Depth and what is its significance for carbonate deposits?

What is the Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD) and what is its significance for carbonate deposits?
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How to estimate dispersion in stratified flows

Consider a 2-dimensional domain with the typical x-z coordinates. Given an arbitrarily stratified flow, how can we estimate the depth varying horizontal dispersion of passive particles induced by the ...
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What tidal databases are available to be used as model boundary conditions?

I am trying to set up a coastal ocean model simulation. I am looking for different ways to force the tidal boundary condition in the model to study how uncertainty in the tidal forcing in the boundary ...
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What methods exist for remote profiling of oceanic columns?

Remote sounding of the atmosphere is a well-established method used extensively used extensively for operational weather forecasting and scientific research. Active or passive instruments carried on ...
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Differences between TEOS-10 and EOS-80 for salinity

In 2009, the oceanographic community decided to adopt the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010 (www.teos-10.org) as the standard to calculate the properties of seawater. As part of that, they ...
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Does temperature affect partial pressure of gas dissolved in water?

I am trying to understand the behavior of oxygen dissolved in seawater. I have always been under the impression that if a gas is in equilibrium between its gaseous and aqueous forms, that it will ...
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What is the geochemical origin of carbon dioxide with the 'white smokers' of the Champagne Vent?

Associated with the NW Eifuku volcano, a small submarine volcano in Japan's Volcano Island chain in the Pacific Ocean is a carbon dioxide rich hydrothermal vents called white smokers by NOAA (see ...
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How deep could the surface of the Earth's crust get?

In theory, how deep can a natural formation on the surface of the Earth's crust be? What are the limits to this depth?
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How do Rossby Waves in the ocean form?

So on land, I believe that one factor in their formation is due to inhomogeneities in surface heating between land and ocean (and also inhomogeneities in surface heating due to terrain effects like ...
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What happens to sea level when a ship sinks?

Let's assume that a ship is traveling on the ocean and it sinks, what is the effect on the sea level? Even if the effect is small, would it go up, down or remain the same?
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How is sea level measured?

In comments on Earth changes due to global climate change, sea level changes is a common topic. I hear quotes about sea level changes in the centimeter and even millimeter range and wonder how such ...
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How much does sea level rise due to sediment deposition?

There has been a lot of noise in the news in the last few days because Congressman Mo Brooks from Alabama claimed that erosion played a role in rising sea levels. Quoting from Science magazine: ...
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The motion of tides

I found this animation from a satellite: which shows the motion and elevation of tides on a certain date. Can you find an animation of a date when there is a spring tide? my question is as follows: ...
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What are the striations or ridges in the eastern Pacific Ocean?

Messing around on Google Earth recently I noticed a number of striations in the Eastern Pacific. These appear in an East-West orientation and seem to start on the North and South American continental ...
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How does a tsunami affect biology and other matter in its path while in deep water

Is everything in the water column going to be affected?
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Does bathymetry affect ocean topography/height?

Here is a map of ocean surface height or topography: Source: http://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/images/esa_multimedia/images/2010/12/mean_dynamic_topography_of_global_ocean/9930795-2-eng-GB/...
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Given the well known effects of the inverse turbulence cascade for 2D flow, does it make sense to use grid resolutions that resolve turbulence?

As is well known, 2D simulations of turbulent flows in the ocean follow an inverse energy cascade, as opposed to a forward energy cascade observed in fully 3D flows. Because in 2D fluid filamentation ...
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What tools are available to build unstructured grids for ocean models?

Generating finite element/volume grids is tricky, especially when you are dealing with complex coastlines. What are the more common tools to create the grids and to check the quality (e.g., minimum ...
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Are there sufficient quantities of limestone to dump in the ocean to reverse acidification?

This question asked: What is the evidence it is feasible to reverse ocean acidification by adding large quantities of a base (bicarb soda)? The result was: Danny Harvey of the University of ...
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How can I create a CF compliant netCDF file?

I have been looking for a proper way to create a netCDF file that is compliant with the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Convention. It is amazing that I can find a compliance checker for NetCDF ...
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How much is Iceland/Norway/Western Europe warmed up by the Meriodional Overturning Circulation?

A shutdown in the circulation was associated with the Younger Dryas stadial, also referred to as the Big Freeze, so I'm curious how much warmer Western Europe is due to the MOC, and how much heat (in ...
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How much has the total transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current changed over time?

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the oceanic current that flows around the Antarctic continent, has many links to weather and climate processes (e.g., Is there conclusive evidence for the ...

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