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Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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Best way to analyze changes in locally triggered convective precipitation? Isolating from MCSs?

I have been analyzing hourly precipitation data from stations X, Y, and Z, spanning from 1980 to 2020. My focus is on understanding the trends and triggers behind the gradual increase in afternoon ...
code_error's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Why hasn't all the water on earth evaporated and been frozen at the poles?

It seems like over a long enough time scale, if the surface temperature of a planet varies between perennially below freezing and occasionally above freezing, that all of the water on the planet would ...
Cirdec's user avatar
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1 answer
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Unexplained Jump in NOAA Climatological Data Post-2001

Earth Science community, I've encountered a puzzling issue with a dataset from NOAA's Local Climatological Data Airports Database (which can be accessed here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/local-...
code_error's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
198 views

colder after snow

I had a physics professor that said that it becomes colder after snow because heat from the air is absorbed by the snow as it melts. This makes sense to me in that the snow should lower the ...
Campbell Hutcheson's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
119 views

What causes the absence of rainfall during dry seasons?

I've learnt that water evaporates from the Earth's surface into the atmosphere. However, during hot/dry seasons, evaporation and transpiration occurs continuously without any sign of rainfall. What ...
Appiah Biney Kelvin's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

How to convert precipitation rate from kilogram per square meter per second (kg m-2 s-1) to millimeter per hour (mm h-1)?

I need some guidance or clarification regarding the units for precipitation rate or precipitation intensity (esp. for rainfall). I'm used to precipitation intensity being expressed in millimeters per ...
Brian Añano's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
33 views

Drought Prediction

I have read many articles about drought forecasting, but I always come across the concept of 'lead time' for SPI forecasting. Please can someone who knows the subject briefly explain the concept of '...
Ertugrul Ozupek's user avatar
8 votes
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How do you determine the % of precipitation falling as snow in the case below?

I have just started a course in hydrology (a totally different field from mine which is computer science) and I can't find the link between the fact that a river flows into a lake and the % of ...
narutoArea51's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Download faster era5 data [closed]

I want to download multiple files for a specific area, one file daily for an specific variable like total rainfall in one month. I'm having problems with the for loop and changing the output file name ...
user28173's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
24 views

Daily data for snow water equivalent (not including rain)

Do you know a way to find daily snow water equivalent data, for just snow and not any rain that may have fallen same day? Backstory: Hi, I'm pretty new to all this. I work for a small city that wants ...
fnea's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
302 views

How to simulate rainfall for a 1 in 100 year storm event?

I have information about total rainfall during a 24-hour, 1 in 100-year storm event for a location. (source: https://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/index.html). I would like to use this information and ...
user1889930's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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How much variation in total precipitation does the Earth receive each year?

I'm interested in this question because we invariably get persistent headlines year after year about drought. If it's true that the Earth receives roughly the same amount of precipitation every year, ...
ROGER T STOCKEMER's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

Do geographic features like large lakes or a moraine make it more difficult to predict precipitation?

I've noticed that Environment Canada's precipitation forecasts for the Great Lakes region (east of Toronto) are usually one of the following: 30% rain 40% rain 60% rain 70% rain But not usually ...
User1974's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
32 views

How has precipitation changed in Europe?

I was just wondering if the precipitation in Europe has changed, for example, in its intensity or source? Has the source of the precipitation also changed? The water evaporates in the Atlantic. Is it ...
Weiss's user avatar
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Empirical adjustment factors for generating sub-daily precipitation values (for IDF curves)

I am trying to generate an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using 6-hourly precipitation data. These curves are used to estimate the return period for a rain event with a specific intensity (...
AR1p's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
499 views

At what latitudes does the precipitation water for Europe evaporate?

I'm currently wondering at what latitudes the precipitation water for Europe evaporates. For some reason I can hardly find any data on where the source of the vapour can be, which is then transported ...
Weiss's user avatar
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3 votes
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290 views

Best method for weather station data interpolation with external parameters

I'm part of an organization maintaning a large network of weather stations (~3000 stations) over a European country. Besides storing data measured from the stations into a database, we also produce ...
Droid's user avatar
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Compute upwind flux for gridded data

I'm trying to compute something called the "Drying Ratio" following: Eidhammer, 2018 The drying ratio is the ratio of the precipitation to the incoming vapor flux. So, $DR = \frac{F_{in} - ...
William Rudisill's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
84 views

How might 25% lower gravity affect precipitation on an Earth-like planet? [closed]

I'm working on a science fiction project and hoping someone who knows something about climate can answer this question for me: if Earth had 25% less gravity, how would that affect precipitation? I ...
Elhammo's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
128 views

Drought in Scotland?

The BBC reported on March 28, 2022 that Guinard Island was on fire. That strikes me as odd. The west of Scotland should be wet in spring. A wildfire in Scotland in March seems strikingly out of place ...
Peter - Reinstate Monica's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
69 views

Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
robbieperry22's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
65 views

Easiest way to visualize precipitation drainage using raster elevation files in R?

As a non-specialist, enviro-enthusiast, I am curious about visualizing post-precipitation run-off in my local area. I have been able to access and download appropriate elevatio rasters for my local ...
CharismaticChromoFauna's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
107 views

Are carbonated stalactite deposits sedimentary deposits?

Acording to britanica.com: sedimentary rock, rock formed at or near Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal ...
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1 vote
1 answer
156 views

How can I calculate the relative change in Precipitation using CMIP models without producing unrealistic results in Dry areas?

I am calculating changes in precipitation using the Delta method, wherein the relative changes are calculated thus: Delta change = (modelled Future climatology (2050s) - modelled historical ...
matlabcat's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
94 views

What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,052
3 votes
1 answer
505 views

Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain [duplicate]

If a popular website provides an hourly forecast, and it states at 12:00pm there will be a 20% chance of precipitation and 2.5 mm of rain... What does the "2.5 mm of rain" mean? (A) ... If ...
Yosef's user avatar
  • 31
4 votes
1 answer
195 views

Rainfall Anomaly Index using satellite data

I'm working on a script for calculating the Rainfall Anomaly Index1 (RAI) for an area using satellite imagery to estimate precipitation. The context I have seen the RAI used in before is for weather ...
Mach's user avatar
  • 65
3 votes
3 answers
382 views

Find optimum number and location of rain gauges

Is there any recommended method for finding the optimum number and location of rain gauges over a region based on the data from existing rain gauges. There is one Isohyetal method that does not give ...
ajilesh's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
69 views

What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
K. Mooney's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
44 views

When calculating a precipitation index, should it be constrained to a basin?

I am writing a script for calculating a precipitation index using satellite imagery, and am wondering if it can be applied to an arbitrary area or if it should be constrained to a basin. My gut says ...
Mach's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
45 views

Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
Captain Hat's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
102 views

Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?

Note: I know this question sounds fit for aviation stack exchange, but other aspects of this question like cloud formation, atmospheric behavior, precipitation and overall water cycle can be better ...
lousycoder's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

How to calculate change in volume of a container using rainfall data

I have 2 data. A container data, 3 containers(A1,A2 and A3) all are the same height, but each have varying water volume, the table consist of change of water volume (hourly) for the weeks 1 and 2. .. ...
dan.potato_baker's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
273 views

Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
rwallace's user avatar
  • 705
3 votes
1 answer
264 views

Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count?

The NASA Goddard science education page answer to Reading about Mars, I noticed that it has .03% of water vapor in it's atmosphere, and my question was if it has water vapor why doesn't it have ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,052
3 votes
0 answers
63 views

Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
TheEnvironmentalist's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

R SPEI package on waterbalance timeseries for multiple locations with NA's: unexpected data output distribution

I want to use the spei() function in the SPEI package on a waterbalance dataset from 2015-2020 of 99 locations. The waterbalance is calculated out of MODIS PET values (8-day summed to monthly) and ...
Maarten Meijer's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
88 views

Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
Alireza Amani's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
740 views

Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
fof's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
105 views

Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
user26529's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?

I've been reading about the Bergeron process, a process that generates much of the precipitation in the middle latitudes by generating ice crystals at the expense of water droplets. The part I don't ...
wheelix's user avatar
  • 23
4 votes
0 answers
99 views

Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 41.6mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (57.8mm) and May (59.3mm). This difference (about ...
Glorfindel's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
48 views

Is there an index that evaluate how even temporal rainfall distribution is?

Like some biodiversity indices that account for species evenness (whether it is dominated by a few species), I am wondering do meteorologists use an index to describe how even a temporal rainfall ...
y chung's user avatar
  • 704
2 votes
1 answer
70 views

Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
Jared's user avatar
  • 123
3 votes
2 answers
274 views

How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
bobuhito's user avatar
  • 231
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
Dan's user avatar
  • 231
1 vote
1 answer
213 views

Precipitation and Elevation

Does precipitation increase or decrease as elevation increases? Because I heard that in the mountains they get more precipitation due to the orographic effect and how the mountains drain the moisture ...
Ryan Amalfitano's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
user130306's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
322 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
Prayon's user avatar
  • 51
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
bentheiii's user avatar
  • 113