Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
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Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain [duplicate]

If a popular website provides an hourly forecast, and it states at 12:00pm there will be a 20% chance of precipitation and 2.5 mm of rain... What does the "2.5 mm of rain" mean? (A) ... If ...
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Rainfall Anomaly Index using satellite data

I'm working on a script for calculating the Rainfall Anomaly Index1 (RAI) for an area using satellite imagery to estimate precipitation. The context I have seen the RAI used in before is for weather ...
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Find optimum number and location of rain gauges

Is there any recommended method for finding the optimum number and location of rain gauges over a region based on the data from existing rain gauges. There is one Isohyetal method that does not give ...
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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37 views

When calculating a precipitation index, should it be constrained to a basin?

I am writing a script for calculating a precipitation index using satellite imagery, and am wondering if it can be applied to an arbitrary area or if it should be constrained to a basin. My gut says ...
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32 views

Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
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Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?

Note: I know this question sounds fit for aviation stack exchange, but other aspects of this question like cloud formation, atmospheric behavior, precipitation and overall water cycle can be better ...
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How to calculate change in volume of a container using rainfall data

I have 2 data. A container data, 3 containers(A1,A2 and A3) all are the same height, but each have varying water volume, the table consist of change of water volume (hourly) for the weeks 1 and 2. .. ...
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80 views

Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
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106 views

Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count?

The NASA Goddard science education page answer to Reading about Mars, I noticed that it has .03% of water vapor in it's atmosphere, and my question was if it has water vapor why doesn't it have ...
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Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
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R SPEI package on waterbalance timeseries for multiple locations with NA's: unexpected data output distribution

I want to use the spei() function in the SPEI package on a waterbalance dataset from 2015-2020 of 99 locations. The waterbalance is calculated out of MODIS PET values (8-day summed to monthly) and ...
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68 views

Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
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1answer
160 views

Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
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Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
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394 views

What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?

I've been reading about the Bergeron process, a process that generates much of the precipitation in the middle latitudes by generating ice crystals at the expense of water droplets. The part I don't ...
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Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 42.3mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (66.8mm) and May (61.9mm). This difference (almost ...
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Is there an index that evaluate how even temporal rainfall distribution is?

Like some biodiversity indices that account for species evenness (whether it is dominated by a few species), I am wondering do meteorologists use an index to describe how even a temporal rainfall ...
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53 views

Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
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How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
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How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
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Precipitation and Elevation

Does precipitation increase or decrease as elevation increases? Because I heard that in the mountains they get more precipitation due to the orographic effect and how the mountains drain the moisture ...
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How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
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Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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634 views

Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
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Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
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Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
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Rainfall Frequency Analyses

I have monthly precipitation data and would like to create the frequency curve for the 2, 5, 10, 100 year storms. I have access to NetStorm, STORMS 2000, CFA (from Environment Canada) and HEC-SSP. ...
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Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
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1answer
56 views

Artefacts in PERSIANN-CCS data

I downloaded PERSIANN-CCS for the region of Pawlowdar, Kazakhstan and this has stripes all over my downloaded data. For another AOI in Kazakhstan I do not have this problem. Does anyone of you have ...
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292 views

Circular rain cloud observed in rain radar

This circular rain pattern was observed in Sydney’s rain radar today. It remained for the entire loop, wiggling around a bit but mostly staying in the same place. The fact that it’s centred around ...
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How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
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Computation of absolute precipitation forecast from precipitation anomaly forecast in NOAA CFSv2

I am currently trying to use absolute precipitation forecasts for medium term range (3wk-2mth). As no models of NOAA have absolute precipitation on this timerange, my idea was to compute those ...
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140 views

How is heavy rainfall determined in National Climate Assessment

I'm trying to understand/reproduce/revise this chart in the Southeast section of the United States National Climate Assessment. The truncated scale for the bars is what caught by eye as a classic ...
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1answer
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Projecting rectangular stereography centred on 42°N, 10°E

I am reposting from GIS Stack Exchange as here might also be someone who might help: I have a precipitation GRIB2 file obtained at EUMETSAT H-SAF I am able to decode it to ascii but the software I am ...
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65 views

Why are climate anomalies calculated relative to 1981-2010 average?

What is the purpose for doing this? Is it inaccurate to calculate anomalies for variables such as sea surface temperature and precipitation based on a different time period?
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Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
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1answer
67 views

what is the best way to detect spatial and temporal pattern of precipitation in mountainous region?

The study area rang from 500 to 8000 m above ground and distributed into 4 elevation classes, above 5000,4-5000, 3-4000, below 3000 m above ground. This region has different climate zone/precipitation ...
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Precipitation Totals past days online?

I am looking for a website that can I look for to check and see the precipitation totals for past days.. I go to this site : https://www.cocorahs.org/ . It lacks in some areas where I live in the ...
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monthly temperatue by state

I am trying to find out monthly average temperature and average rainfall for states of USA from 2015 to 2017. To my surprise I am not able to find it anywhere. Please help. I could find this link - ...
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252 views

Is there a maximum size for a single snowflake?

Just based on my previous experiences a wetter snow, in general, has larger flakes. Some online sources say that raindrops do have a maximum size before they start to break apart when surface tension ...
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How to calculate the snow cover area from satellite data in better and efficient way?

Satellite retrievals contain cloud cover, biases e.t.c which is the main challenge to prepare the data for further analysis. After all, how we can efficiently calculate the snow cover and its ...
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219 views

Is there less precipitation (rain/snow) in cold weather than in warm weather?

To me it seems that there is a lot less precipitation when temperatures go below -5°C (23°F). Is there any evidence for that? Could this be a local phenomenon (I live in Germany)? What could be the ...
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1answer
413 views

Does the snow come from local moisture or transported moisture?

Currently there is a snow storm coming from Europe over the UK. This is drastically dropping the temperature and making it snow lots. Is the snow coming from moisture that has been brought over from ...
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204 views

How does temperature impact the elevation distribution of orographic precipitation?

Consider the case of two weather systems of different temperatures hitting the Andes Mountains from the west: After traveling a long distance over the Pacific ocean I would expect the air in both ...
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How can snow be falling with consistent above freezing temperatures? [duplicate]

I'm a keen skier, and I've often been happily surprised by snow fall despite temperatures of 1 or even 2 °C. After some research I found that the explanation relies in assuming that these above ...
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729 views

Confusion with precipitation values in CORDEX MPI-ESM rcp data

I want to analyze climate projection data for the different RCPs for a region in north western India, which has an arid climate. I chose MPI-ESM data downscaled with CORDEX. An example filename looks ...
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How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
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How can I figure out the time it will take different clay and silt particles to precipitate out of water

I'm attempting to water some crops on my small plot of land using water from a downhill creek. I want to pump the water uphill to a tank then use gravity fed drip irrigation. Sometimes ( usually after ...