# Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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### Do geographic features like large lakes or a moraine make it more difficult to predict precipitation?

I've noticed that Environment Canada's precipitation forecasts for the Great Lakes region (east of Toronto) are usually one of the following: 30% rain 40% rain 60% rain 70% rain But not usually ...
28 views

### How has precipitation changed in Europe?

I was just wondering if the precipitation in Europe has changed, for example, in its intensity or source? Has the source of the precipitation also changed? The water evaporates in the Atlantic. Is it ...
12 views

### Empirical adjustment factors for generating sub-daily precipitation values (for IDF curves)

I am trying to generate an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using 6-hourly precipitation data. These curves are used to estimate the return period for a rain event with a specific intensity (...
460 views

### At what latitudes does the precipitation water for Europe evaporate?

I'm currently wondering at what latitudes the precipitation water for Europe evaporates. For some reason I can hardly find any data on where the source of the vapour can be, which is then transported ...
54 views

### Best method for weather station data interpolation with external parameters

I'm part of an organization maintaning a large network of weather stations (~3000 stations) over a European country. Besides storing data measured from the stations into a database, we also produce ...
1 vote
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### Compute upwind flux for gridded data

I'm trying to compute something called the "Drying Ratio" following: Eidhammer, 2018 The drying ratio is the ratio of the precipitation to the incoming vapor flux. So, \$DR = \frac{F_{in} - ...
59 views

### How might 25% lower gravity affect precipitation on an Earth-like planet? [closed]

I'm working on a science fiction project and hoping someone who knows something about climate can answer this question for me: if Earth had 25% less gravity, how would that affect precipitation? I ...
88 views

### What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
57 views

### Easiest way to visualize precipitation drainage using raster elevation files in R?

As a non-specialist, enviro-enthusiast, I am curious about visualizing post-precipitation run-off in my local area. I have been able to access and download appropriate elevatio rasters for my local ...
1 vote
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### Drought in Scotland?

The BBC reported on March 28, 2022 that Guinard Island was on fire. That strikes me as odd. The west of Scotland should be wet in spring. A wildfire in Scotland in March seems strikingly out of place ...
37k views

### Transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm

What conversion functions exist to transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm? Simple rules of thumbs as well as more advanced methods would be of interest.
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### Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
11 views

### I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4⁰C warmer in every month. What are my options?

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4 degrees Celsius warmer in every month. What are my options?
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### Are carbonated stalactite deposits sedimentary deposits?

Acording to britanica.com: sedimentary rock, rock formed at or near Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal ...
129 views

### Rainfall Anomaly Index using satellite data

I'm working on a script for calculating the Rainfall Anomaly Index1 (RAI) for an area using satellite imagery to estimate precipitation. The context I have seen the RAI used in before is for weather ...
67 views

### Find optimum number and location of rain gauges

Is there any recommended method for finding the optimum number and location of rain gauges over a region based on the data from existing rain gauges. There is one Isohyetal method that does not give ...
1 vote
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### How can I calculate the relative change in Precipitation using CMIP models without producing unrealistic results in Dry areas?

I am calculating changes in precipitation using the Delta method, wherein the relative changes are calculated thus: Delta change = (modelled Future climatology (2050s) - modelled historical ...
197 views

### Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
39k views

### Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
3k views

### How to reconcile hourly vs. daily probability of precipitation in the forecast?

How should I interpret the hourly precipitation forecasts? Most of the time, when there is rain in the forecast, the maximum Probability of Precipitation (PoP) in the hourly forecast is about the ...
154 views

### Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain [duplicate]

If a popular website provides an hourly forecast, and it states at 12:00pm there will be a 20% chance of precipitation and 2.5 mm of rain... What does the "2.5 mm of rain" mean? (A) ... If ...
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### What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
41 views

### When calculating a precipitation index, should it be constrained to a basin?

I am writing a script for calculating a precipitation index using satellite imagery, and am wondering if it can be applied to an arbitrary area or if it should be constrained to a basin. My gut says ...
1 vote
39 views

### Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
5k views

### Why is Egypt so dry?

If you look at this wind map (for July, but following the link you can also view other months): you will see that Egypt gets its air from the Mediterranean sea. During other months it could get less ...
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### Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?

Note: I know this question sounds fit for aviation stack exchange, but other aspects of this question like cloud formation, atmospheric behavior, precipitation and overall water cycle can be better ...
33 views

### How to calculate change in volume of a container using rainfall data

I have 2 data. A container data, 3 containers(A1,A2 and A3) all are the same height, but each have varying water volume, the table consist of change of water volume (hourly) for the weeks 1 and 2. .. ...
1 vote
153 views

### Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
112 views

### Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count?

The NASA Goddard science education page answer to Reading about Mars, I noticed that it has .03% of water vapor in it's atmosphere, and my question was if it has water vapor why doesn't it have ...
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### Causes and concentration of red rain of Kerala

The red rain phenomenon in Kerala, India has been reported several times in history (1896, 2001, 2012). The color of the rain seems to be associated with the presence of airborne spores of the algae ...
1 vote
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### R SPEI package on waterbalance timeseries for multiple locations with NA's: unexpected data output distribution

I want to use the spei() function in the SPEI package on a waterbalance dataset from 2015-2020 of 99 locations. The waterbalance is calculated out of MODIS PET values (8-day summed to monthly) and ...
60 views

### Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
984 views

### Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
1 vote
78 views

### Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
353 views

### Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
5k views

### How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
130 views

### Is there a risk with putting out smouldering underground coal reserves? [closed]

According to this Discovery News video about Centralia Pennsylvania and other underground coal fires, there are many smouldering underground coal reserves making the land above it uninhabitable to ...
1k views

### What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?

I've been reading about the Bergeron process, a process that generates much of the precipitation in the middle latitudes by generating ice crystals at the expense of water droplets. The part I don't ...
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### Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
60 views

### Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 42.3mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (66.8mm) and May (61.9mm). This difference (almost ...
45 views

### Is there an index that evaluate how even temporal rainfall distribution is?

Like some biodiversity indices that account for species evenness (whether it is dominated by a few species), I am wondering do meteorologists use an index to describe how even a temporal rainfall ...
1 vote
100 views

### Precipitation and Elevation

Does precipitation increase or decrease as elevation increases? Because I heard that in the mountains they get more precipitation due to the orographic effect and how the mountains drain the moisture ...
60 views

### Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
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### How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
1 vote
28 views

### How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
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### How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
21k views

### What is the percentage of the global water cycle (evaporation, precipitation) that occurs over the ocean?

Most of the water cycle studies focus on the processes and changes occurring over land with little emphasis on the ocean. Meanwhile, the ocean covers almost 3/4 of the surface of Earth. How much of ...
22k views

### How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received?

How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received? Does elevation affect precipitation?