Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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27 views

What are those precipitation and water droplet characterization instruments called that they put on meteorological aircraft? How do they work?

A long time ago I did some reading on Mie scattering and atmospheric particulate counting and I got sidetracked on raindrop characterization. I remember reading about light and laser based ...
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Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
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Rainfall Anomaly Index using satellite data

I'm working on a script for calculating the Rainfall Anomaly Index1 (RAI) for an area using satellite imagery to estimate precipitation. The context I have seen the RAI used in before is for weather ...
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How to reconcile hourly vs. daily probability of precipitation in the forecast?

How should I interpret the hourly precipitation forecasts? Most of the time, when there is rain in the forecast, the maximum Probability of Precipitation (PoP) in the hourly forecast is about the ...
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Relationship between Probability of Precipitation and Predicted Amount of Rain [duplicate]

If a popular website provides an hourly forecast, and it states at 12:00pm there will be a 20% chance of precipitation and 2.5 mm of rain... What does the "2.5 mm of rain" mean? (A) ... If ...
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Find optimum number and location of rain gauges

Is there any recommended method for finding the optimum number and location of rain gauges over a region based on the data from existing rain gauges. There is one Isohyetal method that does not give ...
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What effect would a slowdown of the AMOC have in particular on North America's climate/weather?

From what I know so far, a slowdown/shutdown in the gulf stream would cause climate change to run counter to the way that it would normally progress (i.e. poles warming faster than the tropics.) Warm ...
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When calculating a precipitation index, should it be constrained to a basin?

I am writing a script for calculating a precipitation index using satellite imagery, and am wondering if it can be applied to an arbitrary area or if it should be constrained to a basin. My gut says ...
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32 views

Is there any open source, stochastic rain forecast data available for the UK?

I'm sometimes frustrated by publicly available precipitation forecasts, such as those offered by the Met Office or Google. If I understand these forecasts correctly, they tell me: The expected volume ...
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Why is Egypt so dry?

If you look at this wind map (for July, but following the link you can also view other months): you will see that Egypt gets its air from the Mediterranean sea. During other months it could get less ...
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Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?

Note: I know this question sounds fit for aviation stack exchange, but other aspects of this question like cloud formation, atmospheric behavior, precipitation and overall water cycle can be better ...
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How to calculate change in volume of a container using rainfall data

I have 2 data. A container data, 3 containers(A1,A2 and A3) all are the same height, but each have varying water volume, the table consist of change of water volume (hourly) for the weeks 1 and 2. .. ...
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Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
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106 views

Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count?

The NASA Goddard science education page answer to Reading about Mars, I noticed that it has .03% of water vapor in it's atmosphere, and my question was if it has water vapor why doesn't it have ...
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Causes and concentration of red rain of Kerala

The red rain phenomenon in Kerala, India has been reported several times in history (1896, 2001, 2012). The color of the rain seems to be associated with the presence of airborne spores of the algae ...
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R SPEI package on waterbalance timeseries for multiple locations with NA's: unexpected data output distribution

I want to use the spei() function in the SPEI package on a waterbalance dataset from 2015-2020 of 99 locations. The waterbalance is calculated out of MODIS PET values (8-day summed to monthly) and ...
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Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
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634 views

Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
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Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
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1answer
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Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
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How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
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Is there a risk with putting out smouldering underground coal reserves? [closed]

According to this Discovery News video about Centralia Pennsylvania and other underground coal fires, there are many smouldering underground coal reserves making the land above it uninhabitable to ...
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What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?

I've been reading about the Bergeron process, a process that generates much of the precipitation in the middle latitudes by generating ice crystals at the expense of water droplets. The part I don't ...
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Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
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Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 42.3mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (66.8mm) and May (61.9mm). This difference (almost ...
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Is there an index that evaluate how even temporal rainfall distribution is?

Like some biodiversity indices that account for species evenness (whether it is dominated by a few species), I am wondering do meteorologists use an index to describe how even a temporal rainfall ...
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Precipitation and Elevation

Does precipitation increase or decrease as elevation increases? Because I heard that in the mountains they get more precipitation due to the orographic effect and how the mountains drain the moisture ...
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Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
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How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
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How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
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How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
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What is the percentage of the global water cycle (evaporation, precipitation) that occurs over the ocean?

Most of the water cycle studies focus on the processes and changes occurring over land with little emphasis on the ocean. Meanwhile, the ocean covers almost 3/4 of the surface of Earth. How much of ...
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How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received?

How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received? Does elevation affect precipitation?
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Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
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46 views

Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
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Rainfall Frequency Analyses

I have monthly precipitation data and would like to create the frequency curve for the 2, 5, 10, 100 year storms. I have access to NetStorm, STORMS 2000, CFA (from Environment Canada) and HEC-SSP. ...
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Model impact of atmopsheric circulation changes on precipitation dD of a region

I'm looking to model the impact of broad scale atmospheric circulation changes on the hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitation for a given region. As an example, what impact does a high pressure system ...
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Why are there no CO2 snowfalls on Earth?

The CO2 phase diagram shows that at atmospheric pressure and about -78 °C temperature CO2 becomes solid: Wikipedia confirms this: At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits ...
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1answer
292 views

Circular rain cloud observed in rain radar

This circular rain pattern was observed in Sydney’s rain radar today. It remained for the entire loop, wiggling around a bit but mostly staying in the same place. The fact that it’s centred around ...
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1answer
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Artefacts in PERSIANN-CCS data

I downloaded PERSIANN-CCS for the region of Pawlowdar, Kazakhstan and this has stripes all over my downloaded data. For another AOI in Kazakhstan I do not have this problem. Does anyone of you have ...
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How can I convert a CERA-20C total precipitation dataset of "monthly means of daily means' (edmo) to mm/month?

I downloaded an edmo dataset of 1 ensemble of the cera-20c model. I want to convert these data, which are in [m], to mm/month. Further specifications: 0.125/0.125 grid, -29/30/-30/31 area. Example of ...
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Computation of absolute precipitation forecast from precipitation anomaly forecast in NOAA CFSv2

I am currently trying to use absolute precipitation forecasts for medium term range (3wk-2mth). As no models of NOAA have absolute precipitation on this timerange, my idea was to compute those ...
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1answer
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How is heavy rainfall determined in National Climate Assessment

I'm trying to understand/reproduce/revise this chart in the Southeast section of the United States National Climate Assessment. The truncated scale for the bars is what caught by eye as a classic ...
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1answer
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Projecting rectangular stereography centred on 42°N, 10°E

I am reposting from GIS Stack Exchange as here might also be someone who might help: I have a precipitation GRIB2 file obtained at EUMETSAT H-SAF I am able to decode it to ascii but the software I am ...
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1answer
65 views

Why are climate anomalies calculated relative to 1981-2010 average?

What is the purpose for doing this? Is it inaccurate to calculate anomalies for variables such as sea surface temperature and precipitation based on a different time period?
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Does a hurricane classification exists where estimated rainfall is taken into account?

Hurricanes are classified with the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. However an extreme amount of rainfall can cause a disaster although the windspeeds are not extreme. Is there some sort of ...
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1answer
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what is the best way to detect spatial and temporal pattern of precipitation in mountainous region?

The study area rang from 500 to 8000 m above ground and distributed into 4 elevation classes, above 5000,4-5000, 3-4000, below 3000 m above ground. This region has different climate zone/precipitation ...
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Statistical dependence of mean annual soil evaporation and mean annual precipitation globally

I am studying a simple dynamical system that represents a plant and water system, similar to Klausmeier. In Klausmeier model the mean annual precipitation and the soil evaporation are introduced as ...
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Precipitation Totals past days online?

I am looking for a website that can I look for to check and see the precipitation totals for past days.. I go to this site : https://www.cocorahs.org/ . It lacks in some areas where I live in the ...