Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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Near Future Precipitation and Temperature estimations?

I was wondering if anyone here is familiar with temperature and precipitation estimation? I need to estimate P and T from April to July 2016. I am planning to use excel to do the calculation because ...
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A simple formulation to calculate the sequence and rate of salt precipitation in a brine?

Is there a simple formulation to estimate the rate of salt precipitation in a brine given its ion concentrations and the evaporation rate? For example: if we know the concentrations of Cl−, Na+, Mg2+...
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Where can I get historic hourly precipitation data for Italy?

I am looking for a time-series of hourly precipitation for Naples, Italy. I'd like to learn how to find this sort of data for Italy in general, as well. Ideally this data would cover a recent year ...
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ERA Interim, how to handle total precipitation

I am trying to compute accumulated annual precipitation for year 2000-2001 based on the ERA Interim, but I am stuck with some unresolved questions: If I download the synoptic monthly means of "total ...
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Why doesn't it snow even when it is below freezing?

I know the temperature of a place is determined by various factors, a few of which I can think of are: Altitude, distance from sea, latitude, wind etc. My question is basically regarding latitude. ...
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Need help understanding variables that relate to meterology terminology

I am working on a project in predicting the weather and I had a few brief questions. I understand that radar works by bouncing waves off of precipitation and measuring reflectivity. I have a variable ...
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Is there a risk with putting out smouldering underground coal reserves? [closed]

According to this Discovery News video about Centralia Pennsylvania and other underground coal fires, there are many smouldering underground coal reserves making the land above it uninhabitable to ...
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Why One Side of Mountain Range is Lush

I'm new to this site and certainly not someone with any real background in atmospheric science, so please forgive me if this question is a little stupid. I recall learning in High School about ...
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How to calculate hourly rainfall projections?

If the National Weather Service website shows increasing probability of precipitation (POP) over a 6 hour period (e.g. 10% rising gradually to 60%), what is the POP in this time interval if the ...
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Possibility to influence oceanic evaporation to protect Sahel/Sahara [closed]

When reading about the projects that want to plant trees on the Sahel-Sahara border, for protection of the Sahel, I wonder what other possibilities there are. Like, would it be possible to influence ...
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How can there be a hot summer with rain and no thunderstorms and lightning?

This summer in the south of France we have had two hot months with 29 days over 30'C, while the average maximum is 26'C in July. Normally there are violent storms with lightening up to 20 times a ...
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Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
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Why are there no CO2 snowfalls on Earth?

The CO2 phase diagram shows that at atmospheric pressure and about -78 °C temperature CO2 becomes solid: Wikipedia confirms this: At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits ...
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Deciphering NCDC data

I need US monthly climate data for the years 1992-2012. It would be great to get down to a county level, but by state would be just fine. Every site that I go to inevitably kicks me to the NCDC, but I ...
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Cell Size of Salt Pan Tessellations

Salt Pans (such as in Badwater Basin of Death Valley, California) often show a tessellation pattern which forms presumably due to contraction of the deposited salt crust forming irregular cracks ...
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How to interpret hourly precipitation forecast?

How should I interpret the hourly precipitation forecasts? Most of the time, when there is rain in the forecast, the maximum Probability of Precipitation (PoP) in the hourly forecast is about the ...
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Predicting school closures with historical weather prediction data?

I'm interested in predicting when the local schools will be closed due to snow and other winter weather. I have a list of school closure dates and a rough sense of the criteria used to determine the ...
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Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
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Can climate models reliably predict meteorological extremes?

This question is related to and extension of my previous question which was about the methodology used to predict future climatic extremes: What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes ...
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Snow from Fire: Could graupel, or even snow, fall from pyrocumulus clouds?

Pyrocumulus clouds often form in areas that experience prolonged fire conditions, particularly forest fires, but are also associated with volcanic eruptions and even nuclear explosions. This question ...
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Is there a database of global rainfall time series?

Is there any institute out there collecting time series data of precipitation, and making them accessible online? I need data for a few different locations, but: Low spatial resolution is fine. For ...
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Intuitive explanation of precipitation amount

I'm trying to learn how to make sense of numbers in a forecast. I can interpret temperature and wind speed, but I don't know what to make of rainfall. What does it mean, for a human, that there will ...
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What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes using the results of climate models?

What is the accepted methodology to predict future climatic extremes using the results of climate models? I have recently read a report about climatic extremes considering climate change (MICE, 2002)....
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How do urban areas affect rain?

Urban areas these days can be quite large, and they can have strong effects on the environment: the urban heat island effect being the most obvious, but there may be other, more subtle effects. The ...
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Is there a standard definition of a “dry-down” event in hydrology?

When studying the land surface, dry-down periods - periods after rain where the soil moisture is decreasing due to evapotranspiration and drainage - are of great interested, because soil moisture has ...
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Why do some places have rain frequently? [closed]

There are some places on Earth which holds the record of being "The wettest place on Earth". On what factors these places differ from other normal places? An example of wettest place on Earth is ...
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Am I observing orographic rainfall?

I don't know an awful lot about meteorology, so please bear with me. My wife (who has a Geography degree) told me that rain can be generated when moist air is pushed up the side of a mountain. This ...
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Does over-cropping large areas really change the amount of rainfall?

I heard that at one time the Sahara desert was cropped in wheat for the Roman Empire, and that cropping without adding back to the soil was what caused the desert to form. I also heard that this is ...
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How do climatologists define the “start” of a rainy season in a unimodal monsoonal climate?

For a number of gridcells, all between the 500mm and 800mm rainfall isohyets in sub-Saharan Africa, I've got dekadal rainfall (from FEWS). They are pretty spread out over the continent and there are ...
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How to perform precipitation data analysis? [closed]

I want to make precipitation data analysis for the Latvian territory. I only have meteorological stations and reanalysis data. My data from meteorological stations are in the format: ...
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How will climate change affect the latitudinal distribution of precipitation over each latitudinal region?

In other words... How will it affect precipitation in the tropics? The mid-latitudes? And the polar latitudes? I'm interested in both the mean and variance of the precipitation.
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Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
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Transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm

What conversion functions exist to transfer precipitation forecast in mm to expected snowfall in cm? Simple rules of thumbs as well as more advanced methods would be of interest.
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Why do those glaciers form on the lee side of the mountains?

In the Scandinavian mountains, there is a strong effect of orographic precipitation. The west receives far more precipitation than the east. This difference can be a factor 5 or more in some places. ...
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What factors affect the size of rain shadows?

Rain shadows are dry areas on the lee side of mountains. Due to humid air condensing and precipitating as they are lifted up and over the mountains, they lose moisture by the time they reach the lee ...
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What is the percentage of the global water cycle (evaporation, precipitation) that occurs over the ocean?

Most of the water cycle studies focus on the processes and changes occurring over land with little emphasis on the ocean. Meanwhile, the ocean covers almost 3/4 of the surface of Earth. How much of ...
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What do weather forecasters mean when they say “50% chance of rain”?

What do weather forecasters mean when they say "50% chance of rain"? Even more confusing: weather report often says something like "30% chance of rain. >10mm", then the next day "70% chance of rain &...
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Why is heavy precipitation from atmospheric rivers more likely to hit the West Coasts than the East Coasts?

As an example of an atmospheric river, see http://www.wired.com/2014/03/california-atmospheric-river-rain/. These events have been known to hit areas like California and Bergen, Norway.