Questions tagged [precipitation]

Precipitation is any form of moisture that falls from a cloud and reaches the ground. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, graupel... etc.

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How can snow be falling with consistent above freezing temperatures? [duplicate]

I'm a keen skier, and I've often been happily surprised by snow fall despite temperatures of 1 or even 2 °C. After some research I found that the explanation relies in assuming that these above ...
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Confusion with precipitation values in CORDEX MPI-ESM rcp data

I want to analyze climate projection data for the different RCPs for a region in north western India, which has an arid climate. I chose MPI-ESM data downscaled with CORDEX. An example filename looks ...
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How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
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How can I figure out the time it will take different clay and silt particles to precipitate out of water

I'm attempting to water some crops on my small plot of land using water from a downhill creek. I want to pump the water uphill to a tank then use gravity fed drip irrigation. Sometimes ( usually after ...
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Dissolved minerals

I have a question that I am confused about. If a mineral (say limestone) was added to a groundwater system, say like an aquifer and is completely dissolved in solution, can it ever be a solid again ...
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Does a hurricane classification exists where estimated rainfall is taken into account?

Hurricanes are classified with the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. However an extreme amount of rainfall can cause a disaster although the windspeeds are not extreme. Is there some sort of ...
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386 views

Area reduction factor reference for precipitation

For a large catchment (>1000ha) I'm looking for some method to use a area reduction factor to adapt precipitation values. I have a large dataset of daily precipitation values but I have to use some ...
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How are daily precipitation totals computed?

I would like to use ASOS data from Iowa State University to compute daily rainfall totals for specific locations. Using ASOS, I am unable to match the official NWS totals. I am assuming that the ...
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Timeline of Himalayas/Tibetan plateau formation

Note: edited based on helpful comments. In Walking with Cavemen, Robert Winston claims an African rainforest existed 8 mya, but by 4 mya it was gone. He attributes this to newly Himalayas-triggered ...
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To what degree do large lakes influence precipitation levels compared to the ocean?

I was wondering what percentage of precipitation could be estimated to have been contributed by large lakes such as the Great Lakes or Lake Baikal in the immediate vicinity of said lakes (say, within ...
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Is there any place on Earth that is permanently a desert?

I am interested to know if there is any place on Earth that is permanently a desert (except Antarctica). By permanent I do not mean to be the physical meaning of forever. It means the place has to be ...
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How to interpret the values of moisture flux convergence?

I have a time series of moisture flux convergence. The values show positive and negative. What are these positive and negative values say? Can somebody help me how to interpret it? How it is related ...
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Need help understanding rain rate formulas from drop sizes

I have come across different formulas by which the rain rate [mm/s] or [mm/h] can be computed from the drop size distribution. I'm somehow unable to convert the different formulas into each other. It ...
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Causes and concentration of red rain of Kerala

The red rain phenomenon in Kerala, India has been reported several times in history (1896, 2001, 2012). The color of the rain seems to be associated with the presence of airborne spores of the algae ...
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What is the difference between Precipitable Water (PW or PWAT) and Quantitive Precipitation Forecast (QPF) in terms of computer weather model data?

When I take a look at weather models, there is an option to take a look at PWAT or QPF. What's the difference?
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SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) for 40 years seasonal mean

I am working with SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and in particular I am interested in obtaining the seasonal mean observation over a period of 40 years. The meteorological season I am ...
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105 views

Wind speed, precipitation, extreme daily precipitation

I am trying to figure out what type of precipitation lifting mechanism occurs in a area that is unknown but I know some facts about the climate. So I know that there are 4 precipitation lifting ...
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Digitalizing precipitation data from the image of weather map

I have a set of very old precipitation anomaly maps, from 1995-2006 for Brazil. The data of these maps, is to the best of my knowlegde, lost. I would like to have them digitalized, ie, to NetCDF or ...
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How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received?

How does elevation affect the amount of rainfall received? Does elevation affect precipitation?
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Does the amount of rainfall relate to temperatures of a place?

Does the amount of rainfall relate to temperatures of a place? Is the amount of rainfall related to the maximum mean temperature of a place?
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Why is Egypt so dry?

If you look at this wind map (for July, but following the link you can also view other months): you will see that Egypt gets its air from the Mediterranean sea. During other months it could get less ...
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Recharge calculation for an aquifer

I want to calculate recharge for an aquifer for which I have calculated daily ET by Haude's method and I also have daily precipitation data. How can I calculate recharge per minutes.
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How to Compute Visibility [duplicate]

I have the following data about a region, and would like to compute the visibility for that region, i.e. the distance that a person could see ahead of them. I have: precipitation (mm/day) dewpoint(...
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Difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation?

What exactly is the difference between convergent precipitation and cyclone precipitation, their generation and characteristics?
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Is there a data source for annual global precipitation?

Is there a data source for cumultative global precipitation by year? Units would presumably be mass, volume, or height of water equivalent. Also, what about cumulative global precipitation over land ...
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352 views

Does cloud fraction of 0 for low clouds means it was raining?

What information does cloud fraction provide about weather on a certain day? Do low-level (1000-700 hPa) cloud fraction, optical thickness of all clouds and total cloud fraction provide any ...
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357 views

How can we predict if it's raining, drizzling or there is snow fall by using precipitation intensity (inches/hour)?

I was analyzing a dataset in which precipitation intensity(inches/hr) and the type of precipitation was given. For example: ...
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Near Future Precipitation and Temperature estimations?

I was wondering if anyone here is familiar with temperature and precipitation estimation? I need to estimate P and T from April to July 2016. I am planning to use excel to do the calculation because ...
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351 views

A simple formulation to calculate the sequence and rate of salt precipitation in a brine?

Is there a simple formulation to estimate the rate of salt precipitation in a brine given its ion concentrations and the evaporation rate? For example: if we know the concentrations of Cl−, Na+, Mg2+...
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975 views

Where can I get historic hourly precipitation data for Italy?

I am looking for a time-series of hourly precipitation for Naples, Italy. I'd like to learn how to find this sort of data for Italy in general, as well. Ideally this data would cover a recent year ...
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ERA Interim, how to handle total precipitation

I am trying to compute accumulated annual precipitation for year 2000-2001 based on the ERA Interim, but I am stuck with some unresolved questions: If I download the synoptic monthly means of "total ...
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Why doesn't it snow even when it is below freezing?

I know the temperature of a place is determined by various factors, a few of which I can think of are: Altitude, distance from sea, latitude, wind etc. My question is basically regarding latitude. ...
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Need help understanding variables that relate to meterology terminology

I am working on a project in predicting the weather and I had a few brief questions. I understand that radar works by bouncing waves off of precipitation and measuring reflectivity. I have a variable ...
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Is there a risk with putting out smouldering underground coal reserves? [closed]

According to this Discovery News video about Centralia Pennsylvania and other underground coal fires, there are many smouldering underground coal reserves making the land above it uninhabitable to ...
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Why One Side of Mountain Range is Lush

I'm new to this site and certainly not someone with any real background in atmospheric science, so please forgive me if this question is a little stupid. I recall learning in High School about ...
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How to calculate hourly rainfall projections?

If the National Weather Service website shows increasing probability of precipitation (POP) over a 6 hour period (e.g. 10% rising gradually to 60%), what is the POP in this time interval if the ...
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Possibility to influence oceanic evaporation to protect Sahel/Sahara [closed]

When reading about the projects that want to plant trees on the Sahel-Sahara border, for protection of the Sahel, I wonder what other possibilities there are. Like, would it be possible to influence ...
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How can there be a hot summer with rain and no thunderstorms and lightning?

This summer in the south of France we have had two hot months with 29 days over 30'C, while the average maximum is 26'C in July. Normally there are violent storms with lightening up to 20 times a ...
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Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
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Why are there no CO2 snowfalls on Earth?

The CO2 phase diagram shows that at atmospheric pressure and about -78 °C temperature CO2 becomes solid: Wikipedia confirms this: At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits ...
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Deciphering NCDC data

I need US monthly climate data for the years 1992-2012. It would be great to get down to a county level, but by state would be just fine. Every site that I go to inevitably kicks me to the NCDC, but I ...
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Cell Size of Salt Pan Tessellations

Salt Pans (such as in Badwater Basin of Death Valley, California) often show a tessellation pattern which forms presumably due to contraction of the deposited salt crust forming irregular cracks ...
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How to reconcile hourly vs. daily probability of precipitation in the forecast?

How should I interpret the hourly precipitation forecasts? Most of the time, when there is rain in the forecast, the maximum Probability of Precipitation (PoP) in the hourly forecast is about the ...
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Predicting school closures with historical weather prediction data?

I'm interested in predicting when the local schools will be closed due to snow and other winter weather. I have a list of school closure dates and a rough sense of the criteria used to determine the ...
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Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
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Can climate models reliably predict meteorological extremes?

This question is related to and extension of my previous question which was about the methodology used to predict future climatic extremes: What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes ...
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Snow from Fire: Could graupel, or even snow, fall from pyrocumulus clouds?

Pyrocumulus clouds often form in areas that experience prolonged fire conditions, particularly forest fires, but are also associated with volcanic eruptions and even nuclear explosions. This question ...
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Is there a database of global rainfall time series?

Is there any institute out there collecting time series data of precipitation, and making them accessible online? I need data for a few different locations, but: Low spatial resolution is fine. For ...
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Intuitive explanation of precipitation amount [duplicate]

I'm trying to learn how to make sense of numbers in a forecast. I can interpret temperature and wind speed, but I don't know what to make of rainfall. What does it mean, for a human, that there will ...
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414 views

What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes using the results of climate models?

What is the accepted methodology to predict future climatic extremes using the results of climate models? I have recently read a report about climatic extremes considering climate change (MICE, 2002)....