Questions tagged [pressure]

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Are rocks extracted from deep drilling, brittle due to pore pressure?

When a saturated rock sample is rapidly extracted from a place with high water pressure, as happens in oil drilling or deep mining, the water is trapped inside the rock at high pressure, trying to ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Air pressure, fronts and temperature

I have spent hours on this topic and I seem unable to make sense of it. If air moves from high pressure toward low pressure, and wind is the movement of air due to differences in pressure, how can, ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Altitudinal gradient in air density at poles

In the descriptions of polar cells, it is usually described as cold and dense air sinks at poles. But I don't understand why air at high altitude is denser than low altitude at poles. The polar cells ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Is there superionic ice in the earth? and how did it get there?

I recently researched about Superionic Ice which basically is Water under so much pressure and heat that it turns into a black hot ice. I read this article about it too. I found out Superionic ice ...
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2 votes
2 answers
547 views

ERA5 Single Level - Calculate relative humidity

for ERA5 hourly data on single level relative humidity can not be downloaded. However, dewpoint temperature is given and in the description it is stated that "combined with temperature and ...
6 votes
1 answer
62 views

Atmospheric pressure: intra-day time series

I would like to get access to a time series of data on atmospheric pressure over a short timescale. I need to get a feel for how much variation there is over seconds and minutes, so a data point every ...
2 votes
1 answer
52 views

Why does warmer maritime air create low pressure systems while continental land masses create high pressure systems?

From Hurth's book, The Lost Art of Finding Our Way , there is a section on Air Mass and Fronts (page 267) On average, since cold air is denser than warm air, the northern stretches of continental ...
1 vote
0 answers
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In terms of atmospheric pressure, why do pressure systems move and what factors affect the general pressure of an area?

With very limited background in the physics of air and weather, this question occurred to me for no particular reason. With that in mind, a simplified answer would be much appreciated. This weatherman'...
1 vote
2 answers
867 views

What is the relationship between air pressure and temperature?

I'm trying to reconcile a paradox regarding air pressure and temperature. On the one hand, compressing air heats it up, while expanding it cools it. So density and temperature are proportional. On the ...
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6 votes
2 answers
180 views

When diamonds "migrate" from deep underground to the surface, do they maintain pressure inside when there is no more pressure outside? If so, how?

From Science News' A mineral found in a diamond’s flaws contains the source of some of Earth’s heat: A tiny bit of rock trapped inside a diamond is now opening a brand-new window into what the planet’...
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15 votes
4 answers
7k views

What is the pressure at the center of the Earth?

In the question Does gravity increase the closer to the core you get?, it was determined that gravity reduces to zero at the center of the Earth. That is logical. However if pressure is proportional ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Why should wellbores be supported by pressure, but not mine tunnels?

I recently read about safe mud window - it states that the mud pressure in a wellbore should be high enough to prevent well collapse, and should not exceed the formation's fracture pressure. But ...
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How does the jet stream affect weather in Europe?

I researched how mid lattitude cyclones form and found it has to do with the jet stream, which is above the polar front. The pressure difference between the warm and cold air causes a pressure ...
1 vote
1 answer
360 views

How to calculate rate of change of temperature with pressure in Earth's troposhere?

I was given a problem in a competitive exam from previous year: Calculate the rate of change of temperature of the Earth's troposphere with pressure ($\frac{dT}{dP}$), given Scale height, $H$, where $...
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1 answer
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Is surface temperature relevant for the creation of high- and low pressures areas?

Trying to truly understand high- and low-pressure systems, I find explanations contradicting. The question is: Where is the mistake in my line of thoughts? Looking from a surface point of view: More ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What would happen if the inner core bulged and moved a tiny bit?

The inner core is solid only because of the very high pressure of the outer core and mantle . Say, if the inner core moved a teeny tiny bit would some of it liquify and melt? Or does it stay solid? ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What is the westerly index?

This was asked in aviation stack exchange and the best answer (credit:ymb1) was: The westerly index is the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure ...
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7 votes
2 answers
401 views

Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Can a Humidity Differential move PM2.5 Pollution?

Observations There is a higher level of PM2.5 pollution outside of the house. Readings are in the 80-150 range due to wildfires. (PM2.5 levels determined by sensors in PurpleAir.com's sensor network) ...
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1 vote
1 answer
84 views

How do I find the temperature of the air mass, and how do I use a t-skew chart?

So the first problem I'm stuck on is this one: An airmass is moving down a mountain from point A to B. At A the temperature is -10 Celsius and the pressure is 890hPa. At point B the pressure is 1010 ...
6 votes
1 answer
674 views

What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
3 votes
0 answers
263 views

Hybrid-Sigma pressure levels and geopotential heights

Taking a sounding prediction from GFS 1° horizontal resolution(from ready.arl.noaa.gov) with normal pressure levels looks like this: ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Extent of desert area influence in local climate

With reference to this image...: ...from this recent tweet, I was wondering to what extent would Mediterranean regions be affected by the large desert areas to its South? "Affected", here meaning ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
-3 votes
1 answer
807 views

Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to predict when the pressure will change

For example, on windy.com I see that there is a high pressure area to the west of Washington in the Pacific Ocean. What heuristic techniques could I use to guess if the high pressure area will migrate ...
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3 votes
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60 views

How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 12 C?

The deep-sea temperature was $12º$C higher $50$ My ago. I would like to know how much the atmospheric pressure at sea level had decreased and how much the water-vapour changed. One can consider no ...
0 votes
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70 views

How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 10 C?

In this paper Temperature-dependent hypoxia explains biogeography and severity of end-Permian marine mass extinction is established a link between an increase of the global temperature by $10^\circ ...