Questions tagged [rivers]

The tag has no usage guidance.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
6 votes
2 answers
109 views

Can "meanders in meanders" form naturally?

I recently rafted the San Juan river in Southern Utah, which flows into the Lake Powell reservoir. When the water levels in Lake Powell were very high, it extended far upstream into the San Juan ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

Why are the Himalayan rivers highly tortuous in the mountain reaches?

"In the Himalayan reaches, the course of these rivers is highly tortuous, but over the Plains they display a strong meandering tendency and shift their courses frequently." This is what I ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
119 views

What can make a river end just before an ocean?

In Mallorca, Spain, there is a river called Torrent Son Bauló. As visible in the picture, it ends just before the sea, seemingly blocked by the beach. What can be the cause of that? My guess is that ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
68 views

How deep is the water beneath a waterfall?

I always wondered about this, how deep is the water beneath a water fall? I would suspect erosion to erode even rock over time. Are there some visual clues to estimate the water depth? Or is the only ...
user avatar
  • 123
5 votes
0 answers
54 views

Salinity balance in the oceans, is it increasing over time? [duplicate]

My 13 yr old kid is studying the water cycle and has raised me some question I don't have answers to regarding how the salinity levels of the oceans are kept constant (over very long period of time) ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
124 views

What are these 'spine' land features on the banks of the Oder river?

Looking around on Google Maps, one can zoom in on the banks of the Oder river between Germany and Poland and find quite an extensive series of curious repeating land features along much of the river ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
48 views

Is initial stream formation in a drainage basin random?

It's known that stream orders are highly regular: Horton showed that stream order is related to number of streams, channel length, and drainage area by simple geometric relationships; that is, stream ...
user avatar
  • 143
4 votes
0 answers
37 views

Why is the delta part of Jezero crater higher than the surroundings?

In images of Jezero crater on Mars, it looks like the delta fan is higher than the surrounding crater floor. This indeed seems to be the case with closer-up images from the Perseverance rover taken ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

List of estuary/mouth size for European rivers

I am looking for a list that contains either the size of estuaries or river mouths of European rivers. Is there such a list available somewhere? I have been looking for a while but only found lists ...
user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
2 answers
79 views

What term to geologists use to refer to several rivers constrained to a particular area?

I am studying some maps of prehistoric cultures in North America, noting the relationship between their villages and the rivers they are near. I notice each civilization seems grouped around rivers ...
user avatar
  • 251
3 votes
1 answer
93 views

When does a stream become a river?

Does a stream require a certain width or volume before it can be classified as a river, and if so, what is it?
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
410 views

Calculating Stream Flow from Rainfall Data

I have been given the following data: Month N T (degrees C) Monthly Rainfall (mm) 1 0.68 1.12 391.1 2 0.82 1.40 163.1 3 0.98 3.04 296.5 4 1.15 4.77 157.7 The list goes on. From this and using ...
user avatar
  • 35
3 votes
1 answer
137 views

How to properly distinguish a transversal valley from a longitudinal valley?

I'm confused about how to distinguish the two. Prior to making this question. I've read the wikipedia entry on the subject but it mentions that for example a transverse valley makes 90 degrees with ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
215 views

What effect does river channelization have on the surrounding water table?

Correct me if I'm wrong, but most rivers lie where the water table protrudes into open air. In other words, the water table level is exactly the same as the river water level. (Wikipedia has a good ...
user avatar
  • 2,033
3 votes
0 answers
77 views

As small streams freeze solid, how can big rivers continue to carry water?

In areas of very cold temperatures (-20°C and below), it is not uncommon for small streams to freeze completely (as in, from top to bottom) and larger rivers to develop thick ice covers. However, ...
user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
24 views

How to map a comID to latitude/longitude?

I'm working with a dataset of river flow from NOAA and the locations of the measurements are indicated with a comID. From what I gathered these comIDs are rooted from a dataset called NHD, although I ...
user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Are Fluvial and River Terraces the same?

I study about fluvial terraces. However, resources related to this topic are limited. When I searched fluvial terraces in geomorphology books, I cannot find anything, but I find river terraces. My ...
user avatar
  • 23
1 vote
3 answers
118 views

Why would channelizing a river reduce any nearby wetlands?

Channelization is when you straighten a river to make a shorter path from A to B. This makes the water flow faster, since the path is shorter but the volumetric flow rate of water must be the same (...
user avatar
  • 2,033
0 votes
0 answers
557 views

How many years does it take for rivers to form?

I've looked this up as best as I could and couldn't find a clear answer. I've seen for example articles on the age of several rivers as being the oldest ones, but nothing regarding the opposite. Could ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
90 views

Calculation of river width in relation to contributing area

I'm looking for a mathematical method to estimate the river width based on the basic topographic information of the specific sections of stream under consideration. Is there a formula to estimate the ...
user avatar
  • 1,248
34 votes
9 answers
10k views

Is there any river that does not discharge into larger body of water?

Do you know any example of a river that does not flow into sea or lake? For example, if water rises from the underground spring and forms a river but water vaporises in hot climate before it reaches ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
125 views

Which is the longest River in Germany and Russia?

Danube is 2850 km long and yet Rhine (1233 km) is considered the longest River in Germany. Likewise,the confusion between Yenisei and Volga in Russia.
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
146 views

Has a scientific consensus been reached concerning the formation of the Grand Canyon?

new student of Oceanography here! I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado ...
user avatar
  • 61
3 votes
0 answers
97 views

Modeling the total water inflow across multiple reservoirs

I'm new to hydrology and I have a question regarding the modeling of multiple reservoirs. I need to estimate the total water inflow to multiple reservoirs that will be observed tomorrow, conditional ...
user avatar
  • 81
8 votes
1 answer
172 views

What are these river/canyon-like carvings in the ocean?

Browsing around Google Maps, I came across this off the south-west coast of Ireland It looks very consistent with the shape rivers and their tributaries might make, but it has me puzzled since it's ...
user avatar
  • 255
1 vote
1 answer
109 views

What is the origin of the River Citarum on Java, Indonesia?

The Citarum river seems to pass through Bandung. The Cikapundung River seems to empty into the Citarum, but this means Citarum starts somewhere else, right? I tried to follow it in a map. It seems to ...
user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
109 views

Tidal flow in an estuary

I am working on a project. Where this bacteria has been deposited at a port in the Humber Estuary. Where it has been deposited has been marked in red. I am trying to work out the limits of where this ...
user avatar
  • 73
0 votes
1 answer
50 views

Natural Raw Water [closed]

I have been drinking natural unfiltered raw water straight from rivers, streams, springs and ponds and I haven’t ever gotten sick from it. I strongly believe and know it in my heart that water from ...
user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
4k views

Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Relationship between sediment concentration of flow and erosion - streampower equation

I am trying to understand how the sediment concentration of a flow affects erosion. I stumbled across this paper by Bagnold (1968) today that uses a form for the stream power equation that I had not ...
user avatar
  • 131
7 votes
2 answers
486 views

Could the Grand Canyon be flooded by the ocean if it got deep enough?

The Colorado River has been carving the Grand Canyon for a few million years now, such that the canyon floor is around 6000 feet lower in elevation than the surrounding area, at about 2400 feet above ...
user avatar
  • 73
5 votes
1 answer
70 views

How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
301 views

What is the purpose of analyzing the bed-load of a river?

A group of students and I have gone to a field trip where we performed tasks like: measuring the velocity of the river flow, finding the width and depth to produce a cross section along with valley ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
223 views

What is cluster situation with respect to sand mining?

Guideline on handling cluster issues : The original Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) notification does not provide for the procedure to handle cluster situation, which has been proposed in ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

California length, source, and mouth of rivers

How can I find out / where can I find the length, "source" (beginning point), "mouth" (ending point) of the California portion of rivers? For example, it's easy to find the length, source, and mouth ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
494 views

Material used in river embankment and difference between levees and dykes

What is the difference between levees and dykes in terms of river embankment and also which type of materials are generally used in making river embankment ?
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
user avatar
  • 403
11 votes
1 answer
290 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
91 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
user avatar
  • 31
11 votes
1 answer
381 views

Lake outflow forming a "reverse delta"?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
user avatar
  • 113
2 votes
1 answer
333 views

Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
user avatar
  • 131
0 votes
2 answers
1k views

Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
399 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
69 views

Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
user avatar
  • 173
3 votes
0 answers
26 views

For how long have the great karst springs of the Aachtal been active?

Aachtal, along with Lonetal, is a valley in the Swabian Jura, Germany, and the site of many famous archaeological sites of the upper Pleistocene. It also hosts a series of very large karst springs (...
user avatar
  • 191
4 votes
2 answers
912 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
115 views

Results of large woody debris in river/lake

In the following questions I am wondering how large woody debris and/or submerged trees enhance river or lake environments. Also I am wondering how they are detrimental to humans. I know that large ...
user avatar
  • 11
4 votes
3 answers
870 views

Classification of rivers according to width

I'm looking for a simple classification of rivers according to their width. In which size categories should I split them? This may usually be done according to catchment area but I'm more interested ...
user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
3k views

Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
user avatar
  • 121
7 votes
1 answer
227 views

What is the rock I found on the Delaware river yesterday? [closed]

I spotted this large striped rock found on Delaware River. Note the fossil in the first picture. What kind of rock is this?
user avatar
  • 71