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Questions tagged [rivers]

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3
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1answer
49 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
11
votes
1answer
101 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
0
votes
2answers
105 views

Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Need help identifying this cylindrical layered rock found in Bolivia

I found this rock in a tropical climate river in Bolivia (specifically Ivirgarzama). It seems to have 5 or 6 layers. 1st layer is a slightly course matte rock layer 2nd layer is a more glossy rock ...
7
votes
1answer
70 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
2
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0answers
20 views

For how long have the great karst springs of the Aachtal been active?

Aachtal, along with Lonetal, is a valley in the Swabian Jura, Germany, and the site of many famous archaeological sites of the upper Pleistocene. It also hosts a series of very large karst springs (...
4
votes
2answers
171 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
1
vote
2answers
81 views

Results of large woody debris in river/lake

In the following questions I am wondering how large woody debris and/or submerged trees enhance river or lake environments. Also I am wondering how they are detrimental to humans. I know that large ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Classification of rivers according to width

I'm looking for a simple classification of rivers according to their width. In which size categories should I split them? This may usually be done according to catchment area but I'm more interested ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
0
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0answers
69 views

Water gaps in mountain ranges: which is older, the river or the mountains?

"Water Gaps", where rivers cut through montains, seem impossible. What came first? If the mountain was there first, the river would have simply found lower ground. If the river was there first, it ...
7
votes
1answer
131 views

What is the rock I found on the Delaware river yesterday?

I spotted this large striped rock found on Delaware River. Note the fossil in the first picture. What kind of rock is this?
4
votes
0answers
68 views

Estimate the flow velocity of a river with satellite images

I'm looking for a more or less straightforward (and not very mathematical) way to roughly estimate the flow velocity of a river based on satellite imagery (e.g. Google Earth). In more detail: I would ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Does the length of a river depend on the scale of measurements?

Coastlines are highly fractal, leading to the coastline paradox: the length increases to surprisingly large numbers as your scale of measurement gets smaller. Does the same thing apply to rivers, ...
4
votes
0answers
57 views

How does the estaurine turbidity maximum vary depending on the type of estuary?

An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is the area of an estuary that has maximum values in suspended particles in the water column. My questions are What are the main characteristics of the ETM? How ...
16
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2answers
3k views

Where do rivers like the Rio de la Plata end and the ocean begin?

We just had visitors (in Monterey, California) from Montevideo, Uruguay. Not being very familiar with Uruguay, after having taken them to Big Sur, I asked them how far they lived from the ocean. ...
4
votes
1answer
227 views

During an average winter, what part (if any) of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable?

What part of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable (either freezes or accumulates too much ice to navigate) during an average winter? Perplexingly I could not find this through Google. I suppose ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the temperature of the flowing water in icy river?

Boundaries of the question: The question is about rivers where water flows in cold area of the earth. Whether it's because of the winter or it's simply cold all year long. Usually, the top layer of ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

How does the Coriolis effect affect rivers and estuaries

I'm quite confused about this since it is said to influence major currents in the sea the winds to the formation of gyres in the ocean and as well as influencing the weather at times due to the planet'...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

Is it possible to infer the depth of a river from the shapes of the islands and the banks?

Look at the photo below. Presumably, the river bed is a smooth shape. Therefore, it should be possible to infer the depth of the water from the photo, right? I am not even an amateur of geo-science. ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Do any rivers deposit sediment in their deltas fast enough to counteract sea level rise?

Assume a 1m per century sea level rise. Looking at a topographic map it quicly becomes clear that Bengal, the Netherlands, the lower Mississippi, South American Mesopotamia, etc will all soon be ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Different peak and mininum discharge times for Newfoundland rivers

I have been studying the Humber, Gander and Terra Nova rivers in Newfoundland. I have been given a table of discharges, and for the peak discharges I see: Gander: around April and May (rougly from ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Flooding lakes in geography

Came across the following problem on a question sheet. At its maximum level following deglaciation, approx 11,000 years ago, Lake Melville flooded the Sebaskachu River valley to an elevation of 135m ...
3
votes
2answers
45 views

Is it possible to have an AR(0) for streamflow?

Autoregressive models (AR) are extensively used to understand the behavior of streamflow. The literature abounds with examples of AR models from different families applied "everywhere" to fully ...
67
votes
17answers
25k views

Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
3
votes
0answers
221 views

What is the biggest periodic river?

What is the biggest and longest periodic river in the world ? (river that runs dry on occasion and flows during a season of heavy rain)
1
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2answers
91 views

Quotient farthest mouths/nearest sources

Much googling has not left me any the wiser, so here goes. Let FM be the distance between the mouths of two rivers X and Y. Let NS be the distance between the sources of the same two rivers X and Y. ...
5
votes
0answers
36 views

Dealing with uncertainty in source apportionment

I have a dataset of dissolved load (major and trace elements), the associated error is specified as <10% for all the cases, in the same way I have rock analysis (major and trace) with the same ...
4
votes
1answer
160 views

What is the source of the Big Sur river?

While hiking in the Ventana Wilderness in Big Sur, Calfornia, I kept trying to figure out one question: what is the source of the Big Sur river? Wikipedia reports its tributaries being the Redwood ...
3
votes
2answers
383 views

Could a massive flood have formed the Grand Canyon?

I believe that the accepted theory for how Arizona's Grand Canyon was formed was that erosion caused by the Colorado River flowing through the area over millions of years was the force at work. Yet ...
2
votes
0answers
220 views

What is difference between Riverbed conductance term and streambed leakance/retardation coefficient?

In literature some times to account for semi-pervious sediments at bottom of stream, streambed leakance also called retardation coefficient ($L$) is used. This is equal to the ratio of conductivity of ...
3
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4answers
2k views

Why do rivers have 'wells' in mountains?

Why/how can rivers have sources in places high above the sea level?
1
vote
2answers
96 views

Do ice crystals form in running super-cold water?

Crystals of sugar form in hot saturated sugar solution as it cools down, due to excess sugar molecules not fitting in the solution and precipitating as crystals. In a similar situation, if we have a ...
7
votes
2answers
570 views

How far upstream would severe sea level rise (1m) noticably affect a large river?

The projection for sea level rise due to global warming seem to hover about 1m by 2100, let's use this figure. How far upstream would this noticably affect a large river, e.g. the Rhine? I think it ...
9
votes
1answer
158 views

Continental collision – evidence left of river mouths and estuaries along the boundary?

Are there any examples of now completely landlocked former river mouths or estuaries that became so after continental collision? As an example, consider the closure of the ocean between India and the ...
7
votes
2answers
194 views

Why is the Yarkant River braided in the Pamir mountains?

The formation section in the braided river Wikipedia says that very erodible soil causes braided rivers. Intuitively, a rising mountain range like the Pamirs would not be easily erodible. The ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

How do long rivers exist?

I was recently on a long-haul flight over Siberia and it struck me as rather remarkable that something like the Lena River could exist. It seems very surprising that there's a route from some random ...
10
votes
2answers
830 views

Undersea riverbeds?

On a meandering bit of research through Wikipedia, I was looking at the Google Maps location of Texas Tower 4. South-east of that location there is what looks like a river valley under the ocean. If ...
13
votes
2answers
5k views

Do rivers/creeks flow underground when they dry up at the surface?

In my local area there is a creek which dries up completely in the summer and is flowing strongly in the winter. Is it the case that, at the location where the creek dries up, it continues flowing ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

What are Horton's laws?

Robert E. Horton coined these four laws: the law of stream numbers, the law of stream lengths, the limits of infiltration capacity, and the runoff-detention-storage relation. What are they ...
9
votes
1answer
279 views

When calculating flood recurrence intervals, do you use annual instantaneous peak flows?

I would like to calculate the bankfull flow for a certain point on a river. The recurrence interval of bankfull flow varies for different rivers, but is typically always found to be between 1 and 2 ...
11
votes
1answer
406 views

What causes the different colours of the salt pits in the Saloum Delta in Senegal

What causes the different colours of the salts pits in the Saloum Delta in Senegal?
11
votes
1answer
166 views

Minimum flow duration curves

It is common to prepare flow duration curves from a set of daily river flow data, but does it make sense to build a flow duration curve from a set of monthly minimum flow data? I searched on internet, ...
15
votes
2answers
402 views

How and why do these tree-like river structures form?

I noticed these detailed tree-like river structures in Google Earth Google Maps link How and why do these form? Rivers don't typically split. What would cause the water to keep branching off again ...
29
votes
3answers
24k views

Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely and stop flowing?

Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely in the winter and stop flowing? Are there known examples of this? If yes, how large can these rivers be and where does the water go? There are several ...
23
votes
3answers
17k views

Why are alpine river water green - blue?

I recently visited Slovenia where I saw several rivers with a strong blue-green color. Here is an example from one of the tributaries of the Soča river near Kobarid. The locals refer to it as an "...
7
votes
0answers
174 views

What's the contribution of different types of river sources? [closed]

There are different types of river sources, most people might think of springs, melting snow or glaciers, but other types of sources can include wet meadows or marshland. In terms of volume, what is ...