Questions tagged [rivers]

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1answer
45 views

Natural Raw Water [closed]

I have been drinking natural unfiltered raw water straight from rivers, streams, springs and ponds and I haven’t ever gotten sick from it. I strongly believe and know it in my heart that water from ...
71
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18answers
37k views

Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
16
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2answers
3k views

Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
3
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2answers
178 views

Classification of rivers according to width

I'm looking for a simple classification of rivers according to their width. In which size categories should I split them? This may usually be done according to catchment area but I'm more interested ...
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0answers
18 views

Relationship between sediment concentration of flow and erosion - streampower equation

I am trying to understand how the sediment concentration of a flow affects erosion. I stumbled across this paper by Bagnold (1968) today that uses a form for the stream power equation that I had not ...
30
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4answers
37k views

Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely and stop flowing?

Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely in the winter and stop flowing? Are there known examples of this? If yes, how large can these rivers be and where does the water go? There are several ...
7
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2answers
138 views

Could the Grand Canyon be flooded by the ocean if it got deep enough?

The Colorado River has been carving the Grand Canyon for a few million years now, such that the canyon floor is around 6000 feet lower in elevation than the surrounding area, at about 2400 feet above ...
5
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1answer
63 views

How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
11
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1answer
224 views

Lake outflow forming a “reverse delta”?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
1
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1answer
81 views

What is cluster situation with respect to sand mining?

Guideline on handling cluster issues : The original Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) notification does not provide for the procedure to handle cluster situation, which has been proposed in ...
3
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1answer
110 views

What is the purpose of analyzing the bed-load of a river?

A group of students and I have gone to a field trip where we performed tasks like: measuring the velocity of the river flow, finding the width and depth to produce a cross section along with valley ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
5
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3answers
1k views

Could a massive flood have formed the Grand Canyon?

I believe that the accepted theory for how Arizona's Grand Canyon was formed was that erosion caused by the Colorado River flowing through the area over millions of years was the force at work. Yet ...
2
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0answers
52 views

California length, source, and mouth of rivers

How can I find out / where can I find the length, "source" (beginning point), "mouth" (ending point) of the California portion of rivers? For example, it's easy to find the length, source, and mouth ...
0
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1answer
203 views

Material used in river embankment and difference between levees and dykes

What is the difference between levees and dykes in terms of river embankment and also which type of materials are generally used in making river embankment ?
5
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1answer
555 views

Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
9
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1answer
223 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
10
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1answer
86 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
16
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3answers
3k views

How does a meandering river form?

I read this explanation about rivers: "As the river erodes laterally, to the right side then the left side, it forms large bends, and then horseshoe-like loops called meanders" Why does the river ...
3
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1answer
79 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
15
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2answers
598 views

How and why do these tree-like river structures form?

I noticed these detailed tree-like river structures in Google Earth Google Maps link How and why do these form? Rivers don't typically split. What would cause the water to keep branching off again ...
11
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1answer
225 views

Minimum flow duration curves

It is common to prepare flow duration curves from a set of daily river flow data, but does it make sense to build a flow duration curve from a set of monthly minimum flow data? I searched on internet, ...
2
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1answer
168 views

Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
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2answers
713 views

Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
3
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1answer
165 views

Need help identifying this cylindrical layered rock found in Bolivia [closed]

I found this rock in a tropical climate river in Bolivia (specifically Ivirgarzama). It seems to have 5 or 6 layers. 1st layer is a slightly course matte rock layer 2nd layer is a more glossy rock ...
4
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1answer
62 views

Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
24
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3answers
24k views

Why are alpine river water green - blue?

I recently visited Slovenia where I saw several rivers with a strong blue-green color. Here is an example from one of the tributaries of the Soča river near Kobarid. The locals refer to it as an "...
4
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2answers
490 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
2
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0answers
23 views

For how long have the great karst springs of the Aachtal been active?

Aachtal, along with Lonetal, is a valley in the Swabian Jura, Germany, and the site of many famous archaeological sites of the upper Pleistocene. It also hosts a series of very large karst springs (...
2
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4answers
6k views

Why do rivers have 'wells' in mountains?

Why/how can rivers have sources in places high above the sea level?
2
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0answers
279 views

What is difference between Riverbed conductance term and streambed leakance/retardation coefficient?

In literature some times to account for semi-pervious sediments at bottom of stream, streambed leakance also called retardation coefficient ($L$) is used. This is equal to the ratio of conductivity of ...
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2answers
107 views

Results of large woody debris in river/lake

In the following questions I am wondering how large woody debris and/or submerged trees enhance river or lake environments. Also I am wondering how they are detrimental to humans. I know that large ...
16
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2answers
3k views

How do long rivers exist?

I was recently on a long-haul flight over Siberia and it struck me as rather remarkable that something like the Lena River could exist. It seems very surprising that there's a route from some random ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Different peak and mininum discharge times for Newfoundland rivers

I have been studying the Humber, Gander and Terra Nova rivers in Newfoundland. I have been given a table of discharges, and for the peak discharges I see: Gander: around April and May (rougly from ...
7
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1answer
186 views

What is the rock I found on the Delaware river yesterday? [closed]

I spotted this large striped rock found on Delaware River. Note the fossil in the first picture. What kind of rock is this?
9
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1answer
4k views

What is the temperature of the flowing water in icy river?

Boundaries of the question: The question is about rivers where water flows in cold area of the earth. Whether it's because of the winter or it's simply cold all year long. Usually, the top layer of ...
5
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0answers
113 views

Estimate the flow velocity of a river with satellite images

I'm looking for a more or less straightforward (and not very mathematical) way to roughly estimate the flow velocity of a river based on satellite imagery (e.g. Google Earth). In more detail: I would ...
2
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1answer
55 views

Does the length of a river depend on the scale of measurements?

Coastlines are highly fractal, leading to the coastline paradox: the length increases to surprisingly large numbers as your scale of measurement gets smaller. Does the same thing apply to rivers, ...
8
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1answer
2k views

How does the Coriolis effect affect rivers and estuaries

I'm quite confused about this since it is said to influence major currents in the sea the winds to the formation of gyres in the ocean and as well as influencing the weather at times due to the planet'...
16
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2answers
3k views

Where do rivers like the Rio de la Plata end and the ocean begin?

We just had visitors (in Monterey, California) from Montevideo, Uruguay. Not being very familiar with Uruguay, after having taken them to Big Sur, I asked them how far they lived from the ocean. ...
3
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0answers
134 views

How does the estaurine turbidity maximum vary depending on the type of estuary?

An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is the area of an estuary that has maximum values in suspended particles in the water column. My questions are What are the main characteristics of the ETM? How ...
3
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1answer
1k views

During an average winter, what part (if any) of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable?

What part of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable (either freezes or accumulates too much ice to navigate) during an average winter? Perplexingly I could not find this through Google. I suppose ...
5
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3answers
4k views

How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...
12
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1answer
534 views

What causes the different colours of the salt pits in the Saloum Delta in Senegal

What causes the different colours of the salts pits in the Saloum Delta in Senegal?
4
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1answer
98 views

Is it possible to infer the depth of a river from the shapes of the islands and the banks?

Look at the photo below. Presumably, the river bed is a smooth shape. Therefore, it should be possible to infer the depth of the water from the photo, right? I am not even an amateur of geo-science. ...
3
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1answer
111 views

Do any rivers deposit sediment in their deltas fast enough to counteract sea level rise?

Assume a 1m per century sea level rise. Looking at a topographic map it quicly becomes clear that Bengal, the Netherlands, the lower Mississippi, South American Mesopotamia, etc will all soon be ...
3
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1answer
226 views

What is the source of the Big Sur river?

While hiking in the Ventana Wilderness in Big Sur, Calfornia, I kept trying to figure out one question: what is the source of the Big Sur river? Wikipedia reports its tributaries being the Redwood ...
0
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1answer
69 views

Flooding lakes in geography

Came across the following problem on a question sheet. At its maximum level following deglaciation, approx 11,000 years ago, Lake Melville flooded the Sebaskachu River valley to an elevation of 135m ...
3
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2answers
57 views

Is it possible to have an AR(0) for streamflow?

Autoregressive models (AR) are extensively used to understand the behavior of streamflow. The literature abounds with examples of AR models from different families applied "everywhere" to fully ...
3
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0answers
296 views

What is the biggest periodic river?

What is the biggest and longest periodic river in the world ? (river that runs dry on occasion and flows during a season of heavy rain)