Questions tagged [rivers]

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0answers
28 views

Why is the delta part of Jezero crater higher than the surroundings?

In images of Jezero crater on Mars, it looks like the delta fan is higher than the surrounding crater floor. This indeed seems to be the case with closer-up images from the Perseverance rover taken ...
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0answers
17 views

List of estuary/mouth size for European rivers

I am looking for a list that contains either the size of estuaries or river mouths of European rivers. Is there such a list available somewhere? I have been looking for a while but only found lists ...
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2answers
57 views

What term to geologists use to refer to several rivers constrained to a particular area?

I am studying some maps of prehistoric cultures in North America, noting the relationship between their villages and the rivers they are near. I notice each civilization seems grouped around rivers ...
3
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1answer
73 views

When does a stream become a river?

Does a stream require a certain width or volume before it can be classified as a river, and if so, what is it?
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39 views

Why Sutluj, Ravi and Beas rivers are called eastern rivers? Is it related to their geography?

Indus water treaty says eastern rivers are Indias and western river control are with Pakistan. All rivers origin from west of Tibet I think and flow from west to east but why this nomenclature of ...
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2answers
121 views

Calculating Stream Flow from Rainfall Data

I have been given the following data: Month N T (degrees C) Monthly Rainfall (mm) 1 0.68 1.12 391.1 2 0.82 1.40 163.1 3 0.98 3.04 296.5 4 1.15 4.77 157.7 The list goes on. From this and using ...
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1answer
50 views

How to properly distinguish a transversal valley from a longitudinal valley?

I'm confused about how to distinguish the two. Prior to making this question. I've read the wikipedia entry on the subject but it mentions that for example a transverse valley makes 90 degrees with ...
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1answer
93 views

What effect does river channelization have on the surrounding water table?

Correct me if I'm wrong, but most rivers lie where the water table protrudes into open air. In other words, the water table level is exactly the same as the river water level. (Wikipedia has a good ...
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0answers
42 views

As small streams freeze solid, how can big rivers continue to carry water?

In areas of very cold temperatures (-20°C and below), it is not uncommon for small streams to freeze completely (as in, from top to bottom) and larger rivers to develop thick ice covers. However, ...
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20 views

How to map a comID to latitude/longitude?

I'm working with a dataset of river flow from NOAA and the locations of the measurements are indicated with a comID. From what I gathered these comIDs are rooted from a dataset called NHD, although I ...
2
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1answer
36 views

Are Fluvial and River Terraces the same?

I study about fluvial terraces. However, resources related to this topic are limited. When I searched fluvial terraces in geomorphology books, I cannot find anything, but I find river terraces. My ...
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3answers
110 views

Why would channelizing a river reduce any nearby wetlands?

Channelization is when you straighten a river to make a shorter path from A to B. This makes the water flow faster, since the path is shorter but the volumetric flow rate of water must be the same (...
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210 views

How many years does it take for rivers to form?

I've looked this up as best as I could and couldn't find a clear answer. I've seen for example articles on the age of several rivers as being the oldest ones, but nothing regarding the opposite. Could ...
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1answer
65 views

Calculation of river width in relation to contributing area

I'm looking for a mathematical method to estimate the river width based on the basic topographic information of the specific sections of stream under consideration. Is there a formula to estimate the ...
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9answers
10k views

Is there any river that does not discharge into larger body of water?

Do you know any example of a river that does not flow into sea or lake? For example, if water rises from the underground spring and forms a river but water vaporises in hot climate before it reaches ...
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120 views

Which is the longest River in Germany and Russia?

Danube is 2850 km long and yet Rhine (1233 km) is considered the longest River in Germany. Likewise,the confusion between Yenisei and Volga in Russia.
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1answer
139 views

Has a scientific consensus been reached concerning the formation of the Grand Canyon?

new student of Oceanography here! I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado ...
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0answers
93 views

Modeling the total water inflow across multiple reservoirs

I'm new to hydrology and I have a question regarding the modeling of multiple reservoirs. I need to estimate the total water inflow to multiple reservoirs that will be observed tomorrow, conditional ...
7
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1answer
115 views

What are these river/canyon-like carvings in the ocean?

Browsing around Google Maps, I came across this off the south-west coast of Ireland It looks very consistent with the shape rivers and their tributaries might make, but it has me puzzled since it's ...
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1answer
77 views

What is the origin of the River Citarum on Java, Indonesia?

The Citarum river seems to pass through Bandung. The Cikapundung River seems to empty into the Citarum, but this means Citarum starts somewhere else, right? I tried to follow it in a map. It seems to ...
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1answer
85 views

Tidal flow in an estuary

I am working on a project. Where this bacteria has been deposited at a port in the Humber Estuary. Where it has been deposited has been marked in red. I am trying to work out the limits of where this ...
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1answer
46 views

Natural Raw Water [closed]

I have been drinking natural unfiltered raw water straight from rivers, streams, springs and ponds and I haven’t ever gotten sick from it. I strongly believe and know it in my heart that water from ...
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2answers
4k views

Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
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0answers
21 views

Relationship between sediment concentration of flow and erosion - streampower equation

I am trying to understand how the sediment concentration of a flow affects erosion. I stumbled across this paper by Bagnold (1968) today that uses a form for the stream power equation that I had not ...
7
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2answers
366 views

Could the Grand Canyon be flooded by the ocean if it got deep enough?

The Colorado River has been carving the Grand Canyon for a few million years now, such that the canyon floor is around 6000 feet lower in elevation than the surrounding area, at about 2400 feet above ...
5
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1answer
68 views

How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
3
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1answer
217 views

What is the purpose of analyzing the bed-load of a river?

A group of students and I have gone to a field trip where we performed tasks like: measuring the velocity of the river flow, finding the width and depth to produce a cross section along with valley ...
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1answer
189 views

What is cluster situation with respect to sand mining?

Guideline on handling cluster issues : The original Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) notification does not provide for the procedure to handle cluster situation, which has been proposed in ...
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0answers
65 views

California length, source, and mouth of rivers

How can I find out / where can I find the length, "source" (beginning point), "mouth" (ending point) of the California portion of rivers? For example, it's easy to find the length, source, and mouth ...
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1answer
409 views

Material used in river embankment and difference between levees and dykes

What is the difference between levees and dykes in terms of river embankment and also which type of materials are generally used in making river embankment ?
5
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1answer
1k views

Rivers - How to calculate maximum velocity from average velocity in a cross section

I'm studying flow velocities in a small river. I have a lot of data of average flow velocities in cross sections throughout the entire catchment. And I know the river develop a stream velocity profile ...
11
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1answer
255 views

Rocks sparking under water

I have searched for an answer to this question for years, to verify if it was true. A man that lived on a river in the rugged part of the northern Washington Cascades told me an interesting story. He ...
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1answer
89 views

How did the Rhine originally look like? (before human intervention)

For personal reasons I decided to examine the shape and formation of the Rhine. Unfortunately though, the Rhine has long been diverted from its original course by human intervention, so I tried to ...
11
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1answer
347 views

Lake outflow forming a "reverse delta"?

While rivers often form a delta when they flow into a lake, the outflow of a lake is usually a single stream. Are there lakes where the water flows off in multiple channels that merge into a single ...
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1answer
301 views

Clarification of overbank flows

Apologies for what may be a very basic question, but I am struggling to understand the definition of overbank flow. Overbank flow is defined along the lines of this: Water flow over the top of the ...
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2answers
1k views

Rivers flowing into Pakistan

Why do Rivers flowing into Pakistan come from either Afghanistan or India and not from inland mountains? Is it possible for Pakistan to source fresh water from its northern mountains avoiding India ...
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1answer
354 views

Is there a special name for along-course elevation profiles of rivers, and where you can you find them?

Was discussing the terrain and rivers of Europe today with my father and it became apparent that a graph of the elevation versus course of a river would offer interesting insight, including a quick ...
4
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1answer
64 views

Looking for a reference for identifing stream regimes(Intermittent, Perennial)

I'm a hydrologist with a good background in GIS. I'm looking for a reference (Methodology, Technical guide) for identification of temporary, intermittent and perennial streams. I google and only found ...
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0answers
24 views

For how long have the great karst springs of the Aachtal been active?

Aachtal, along with Lonetal, is a valley in the Swabian Jura, Germany, and the site of many famous archaeological sites of the upper Pleistocene. It also hosts a series of very large karst springs (...
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2answers
852 views

Could parallel rivers flow in opposite directions?

Some rivers have been moving backwards. This got me thinking about an unusual idea. Could there be terrain that causes two rivers, within a few miles of each other (10?), to flow in opposite ...
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2answers
108 views

Results of large woody debris in river/lake

In the following questions I am wondering how large woody debris and/or submerged trees enhance river or lake environments. Also I am wondering how they are detrimental to humans. I know that large ...
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3answers
657 views

Classification of rivers according to width

I'm looking for a simple classification of rivers according to their width. In which size categories should I split them? This may usually be done according to catchment area but I'm more interested ...
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1answer
3k views

Where does the Amazon River really begin?

Where is the true source of the River Amazon? Searching Wikipedia, it suggests the River Apurímac has traditionally been considered the source. However, Google says it is the River Mantaro. In other ...
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1answer
216 views

What is the rock I found on the Delaware river yesterday? [closed]

I spotted this large striped rock found on Delaware River. Note the fossil in the first picture. What kind of rock is this?
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0answers
165 views

Estimate the flow velocity of a river with satellite images

I'm looking for a more or less straightforward (and not very mathematical) way to roughly estimate the flow velocity of a river based on satellite imagery (e.g. Google Earth). In more detail: I would ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Does the length of a river depend on the scale of measurements?

Coastlines are highly fractal, leading to the coastline paradox: the length increases to surprisingly large numbers as your scale of measurement gets smaller. Does the same thing apply to rivers, ...
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0answers
138 views

How does the estaurine turbidity maximum vary depending on the type of estuary?

An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is the area of an estuary that has maximum values in suspended particles in the water column. My questions are What are the main characteristics of the ETM? How ...
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2answers
3k views

Where do rivers like the Rio de la Plata end and the ocean begin?

We just had visitors (in Monterey, California) from Montevideo, Uruguay. Not being very familiar with Uruguay, after having taken them to Big Sur, I asked them how far they lived from the ocean. ...
3
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1answer
3k views

During an average winter, what part (if any) of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable?

What part of the Mississippi River becomes unnavigable (either freezes or accumulates too much ice to navigate) during an average winter? Perplexingly I could not find this through Google. I suppose ...
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3answers
6k views

How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...