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Questions tagged [sedimentology]

Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, mud, and clay, and the processes that result in their deposition.

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Is it appropriate to call trough cross-stratification a 'bedform'?

This is a somewhat inane question of semantics, but words are important in science, so I ask: is it appropriate to call trough cross-stratification a 'bedform'? The Blatt et al (1980) definition says ...
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What is a good definition for "lattice bound" and is iron within octahedral sites of illite considered lattice bound or interstitial?

The title pretty much says it all. I cannot find a satisfactory definition of "lattice bound", just a number of examples of it being used in literature. For example, in this paper about ...
Josiah's user avatar
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How exactly does "shear stress" and "viscosity" work when it comes to a fluid?

From Crash Course Engineering, understanding the movement of fluids requires knowing: Shear Stress Shear Strain Viscosity Now, I understand that Shear Stress causes Shear Strain, and depending on ...
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What would Earth's atmosphere be like today if life had never existed on it?

I'm also interested in understanding the mechanisms that affect what happens to the various gases in the atmosphere over time. That is, do they get locked away in minerals, stay in the atmosphere, or ...
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Good modern paper demonstrating differentiation of glauconite and berthierine using xrd or FTIR

I'm looking for a recent paper that demonstrates how one would unambiguously differentiate glauconite from berthierine and have yet to find something useful. I'm running across a lot of papers seeming ...
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When was the thickness of the Earth's crust calculated?

When was the average thickness of the Earth's crust first calculated or estimated? What did scientists know about the thickness of the Earth's crust before the 20th century? In what interval(s) fell ...
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Understanding the Facies and its Interpretation in Terms of Processes and Possible Depositional Environments

Fellow sedimentologists and geoscientists! I'm seeking your expertise in understanding a particular facies and its implications in terms of sedimentary processes and potential depositional ...
Lora_madis's user avatar
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Suspended sediment yield

I am finding it difficult to understand the factors that affect the suspended sediment yield in an area. I was thinking of the Rouse number and how it is affected by the particle diameter, slope and ...
spongpop's user avatar
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How were the rainbow mountains formed?

There are several examples of rainbow mountains in various countries. How were they made?
American woman's user avatar
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3 answers
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If dinosaurs lived in cities, would we be able to find traces?

Suppose that at least 65m years ago, the dinosaurs (or, for that matter, another species) would have sufficiently developed to build settlements with houses, roads and the like. Would archaeologists ...
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How is it possible that natural gas fields are so deep?

How is it possible that gas is stored kilometers deep? Where does all the material on top come from? If new plankton would create more gas, would the new gas be at similar depth in a few 100 million ...
Wouter's user avatar
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Why does the sandstone in Yehliu and other scenic coastal northern Taiwan look like vanilla fudge swirl ice cream?

I had the photos below handy from a recent trip, but in other areas of northern taiwan you can see very long, thin sheets of this dark, rust-like "chocolate swirl" separating very large, ...
uhoh's user avatar
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How to convert Carbon stored in surface sediments (kg/m2) to percent?

I need to convert organic carbon provided in kg C/m2 to percent. Any help would be appreciated.
Pooran khedri's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does a sepiolite deposit form?

I'm interested in a material known as sepiolite. Wikipedia has the articles sepiolite in English and Sepiolita. in Spanish. I'm more a person who tends to be more mathematical. But I'm interested in ...
user27578's user avatar
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What chemical or physical parameters altered during the usage of buffered versus unbuffered extractant for leachability of a soil or sediment?

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is an extraction method to simulate a soil or sediment leaching. The method employed two extraction fluids - one is a buffered solution of acetic acid ...
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Is this kind of sediment location sampling on river acceptable?

Yesterday, we performed a sediment sampling along both sides of a river. On various research papers, it seems that they always made it successfully to perform the sampling at both left and right side ...
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Why are the Himalayan rivers highly tortuous in the mountain reaches?

"In the Himalayan reaches, the course of these rivers is highly tortuous, but over the Plains they display a strong meandering tendency and shift their courses frequently." This is what I ...
Sasikuttan's user avatar
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Blueberries, cauliflower, chert, concretions, accretions and diagenetic crystal clusters on Mars, can you help me sort these all out?

Curiosity has actually seen these types of features before, which are called diagenetic crystal clusters. Diagenetic means the recombination or rearrangement of minerals, and these features consist of ...
uhoh's user avatar
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What makes sand dunes shaped asymmetrically?

I have been working on a simulation to approximate the formation process of dunes. I understand that their formation is a result of saltation and aeolian processes, but I don't understand the exact ...
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Reconstructing lake level from organic and magnetic sediment data

I would like to understand why any of the following conditions in a layer of a lacustrine sediment core appear to imply that the lake level was low at the relevant time: low C/N ratio low δ13C low ...
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What does the term "founder" in "load and founder structure" mean in sedimentary geology?

In the context of sediment deformation, why are some structures called load and founder structures? I know what a load is, but what is a founder? I read it in Sam Boggs, Jr's Principles of ...
Jove Rogers's user avatar
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Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks' Susceptibility to landslide

Which is more susceptible to landslide based on lithology compared to one another? Granite, Conglomerate, Sandstone, Mudstone I've been tasked to create a hazard map and was given a Geologic Map, ...
Account 1 Shlope's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are carbonated stalactite deposits sedimentary deposits?

Acording to britanica.com: sedimentary rock, rock formed at or near Earth’s surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal ...
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Why is the delta part of Jezero crater higher than the surroundings?

In images of Jezero crater on Mars, it looks like the delta fan is higher than the surrounding crater floor. This indeed seems to be the case with closer-up images from the Perseverance rover taken ...
usernumber's user avatar
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Is Radiocarbon dating flawed?

I posted this before on physics stack exchange, but it was deemed off topic, which is understandable, so I hope it won't be here. Recently, I stumbled upon an article by an individual named A.M. ...
JohnnyBBS's user avatar
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What is the sedimentary form of gabbro/diabase? What would it look like?

Gabbro is an intrusive, mafic, and igneous rock. How would it turn into sedimentary rock?
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How to tell whether sediment was laid in ocean or on land

What are the features of terrestrial lithographic/clastic sediment that indicate it was deposited into an oceanic as opposed to a terrestrial (e.g. fluvial or lacustrine) environment? How to tell ...
charlie_sar's user avatar
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1 answer
132 views

Are we observing sedimentary rock formation today?

For instance, are we able to see the microscopic accumulation of shale or limestone? Can anyone reference me to sandstone formation observation, that would have to occur more rapidly. I’ve heard it ...
Colin Skinner's user avatar
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1 answer
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Permeability test

What are the different ways permeability of a core specimen can be determined accurately for fluids with different viscosities and their mixtures?
Prasenjit Gorai's user avatar
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SC7 and SC10 Lithology Classifications

I am looking for the full names of the lithology classifications SC7 and SC10. According to the FAO's guidelines for soil description SC3 e.g. refers to silt-, mud-, claystone. What do SC7 and SC10 ...
user's user avatar
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Have we looked for human-like signals in the geological record?

This is somewhat of a follow up to some interesting discussion here about using synthetic radioisotopes to define the start of the anthropocene. It is also sort of related to a question asked here, ...
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What kind of soil is being worked in this video? [closed]

I have recently stumbled across this video on Youtube, where quite a magnificient building is carved into the soil with simple tools like a shovel and hoe. The location is somewhere in South America, ...
pat3d3r's user avatar
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Mass budget of coastal erosion and ocean deposion

This question made me wonder: how much mass (or volume) of material is eroded by the sea each year? Of this mass, how much is deposited in the oceans? (As Michael pointed out in his answer, part of ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
147 views

Can we separate a sandy, clayey & salt layer on basis of their rheological properties?

Since, given enough compaction, salt is able to behave like a fluid & buoyant too if it's overlain by a higher density rock (it could be fine grained clay or a sandy sequence). But in another case,...
Diksha's user avatar
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3 answers
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When sediments are deposited, do they sink into the earth?

I was listening to a geology podcast describing how sedimentary rock forms and later turns into metamorphic rock. As a river lays down sediment, the lower layers can eventually be several kilometers ...
Nathan Long's user avatar
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Sandstone Layer Question

I have been exploring the sandstone of southern Utah for many years and I have a question about the area around Sidestep Canyon (near Wahweap, near Page, AZ). There are many amazing hoodoos there and ...
stan wagon's user avatar
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How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
serekani's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
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Can a braided stream create thick relatively continuous siltstone beds?

I am attempting to interpret an outcrop I went to. I suggested it was created by a braided stream. The one thing I cannot explain are prominent alternating siltstone and sandstone beds. There are ...
PattyWatty27's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
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Is there any significance of lacustrine gastropoda fossils regarding paleoenviroment interpretation?

How to interpret lots of gastropoda fossils seen in lacustrine marls? Do they indicate any paleoenvironment conditions? Depth, temperature, chemistry, ph?
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
179 views

How do I plot Troels-Smith lithological symbols in R?

I'm trying to plot lithological data using the Troels-Smith scheme. I have tried psimpoll but as I only have lithological data I cannot create a main input file which is required. I also do not have ...
cviiitie's user avatar
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A few questions about the morphology and sediment dynamics of Wissant Bay (France)

Could someone please explain what exactly is shown on the following image? I have a few questions such as: How did the 'Banc à la Ligne' come about? (I know it has something to do with the fact that ...
Tine's user avatar
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How do you interpret Oxygen Isotope changes?

In a paper I am reading, the authors note "large (5-7%) negative shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of geologic proxy materials" (Davis 2008, pg. 102) in several regional basins. This is then ...
Thomas's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are these basal rip up clasts in North Dakota?

Ther's an graph that appears that the KT asteroid turned the rocks into rubble 3000 km away, else there was a rain of big rocks from the sky. What are the rip up clasts and what is the way they were ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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How much climate history can be reconstructed using marine sediment cores?

Today I learnt in college that marine sediments can be used to reconstruct the climate up to 500 million years back. I find that number very strange because in another class we learnt that the ocean ...
Jasmijn vdG's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
74 views

How do we detect floods?

How do we know that there was a flood at a certain place at a certain time. For example if there was a flood in place A 200 years ago. How could we detect it?
vorpal professor's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
201 views

Geological feature - what is it?

Hello, We were walking in Bundoran in Donegal County, Ireland today and we encountered the geological feature shown in the picture (from above from cliffs and from very close up at beach level). We ...
user132290's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
289 views

What caused this waterfall to have rounded formations?

This is at Bua Tong Waterfalls in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Tried to find scientific information about this waterfall, but google turns up only travellers' vague guesses, suggesting calcium carbonate ...
Filthy Dante's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

In an Earth-like planet with no history of carbon-based life forms, would there be limestone?

The extent of my understanding of limestone is about what Wikipedia says at the very top of the page: Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such ...
TylerH's user avatar
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1 answer
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Where can I find papers on the geology of the Wastach Range in Utah

I am looking for papers on the stratigraphy, geochronology and/or compositional make up of the Wastach Range and its formations. I prefer a broad overview paper and I can't seem to find one. Any help ...
WiscoBadger456's user avatar
27 votes
3 answers
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Is there sand in Antarctica?

There's a song "Blizzard's Never Seen the Desert's Sand". Given Antarctica is a desert, someone questioned the title's validity. BUT is there sand in Antarctica? I'd imagine yes as it's a pretty ...
cr0's user avatar
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