Questions tagged [seismology]

For questions about the study of earthquakes and various seismic sources.

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How well can they localize the sources of these marsquakes using only a single seismometer? Does being in the shadow zone of the core help or hinder?

Phys.org's April 23, 2022 Two largest marsquakes to date recorded from planet's far side links to The Far Side of Mars: Two Distant Marsquakes Detected by InSight which contains the image below. ...
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Seismicity associated with post glacial rebound

Allied to the question: Why is relative sea-level falling in Hudson Bay?, where the surviving answers mention post glacial rebound. Is seismicity associated with post glacial rebound and if so what is ...
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Book recommendation on waves

I am looking for a book about waves in the context of Earth Science, the two main topics I have in mind are ocean waves and seismic waves. Explanations in a book like Understanding earth1 is too ...
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3 votes
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Why core refracted phases like SKS polarise vertically when P to S conversion happens in the Core-Mantle boundary?

While working on investigation of seismic anisotropy I came to know that core refracted phases like SKS or SKKS polarise vertically when P to S conversion happens in the Core-Mantle boundary. Why is ...
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Source for USGS (probably not) seismic map of La Habra, California (Publication Date April 15, 1998)

I'm trying to find to original source (especially high quality version) of this conservation seismic map. I know that it probably came from USGS (or not) but looks like it out of print? I tried to ...
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Quality control in Seismic Acquisition - shot offset shift

I have a problem with seismic data where the minimum offset of the shot is not centered at the nearest receiver, this shift can be for 3 traces 2 or one and maybe more in the two sides !! So is there ...
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1 vote
1 answer
245 views

Does the Earth produces measurable gravity waves?

Does the Earth exhibit measurable gravity waves? Note: I'm not asking about gravitational waves. Some recent experiments looking at low-frequency (3$\times 10^{-5}$Hz) accelerometer data are showing ...
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Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
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Difference between Earthquake Seismographs

How can we tell the difference between a seismograph of a local earthquake and that of a distant earthquake?
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equivalent body force

I am currently reading "Introduction to seismology second edition, and I can't wrap my head around earthquake sources, especially equivalent body force. What is an “equivalent body force” and how ...
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Horizontal slowness in seismology

I am working on a seismology assignment and it starts with the fundamentals of seismology such as the wave equation, the slowness... such as the question below: write an equation describing the ...
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3 votes
2 answers
58 views

Would climate change result in an increase in seismic activities?

Would climate change result in an increase in seismic activities? I can see two potential forces acting: Temperature dilation of the Earth's surface. A change in the distribution of water mass, fewer ...
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Is an Earthquake Large Enough to Cripple the Entire West Coast of North America Possible?

I have an idea for a novel I want to turn into a reality, and I'm starting some research first to make my book at least plausible in very specific conditions. The main aspect of the story would be ...
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3 votes
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Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave upon reflection

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave a) when it hit the free surface b)when the free surface reflection goes down and hit a reflector and returned to the receiver placed on the ...
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What condition(s) need to be met to be able to determine the hypocenter of a microseism?

Today, this XKCD popped up in a chatroom: comic CC BY-NC 2.5 linked to the source User Rob mentioned that (as usual with XKCD) this is based on the findings in a research paper. In Source location of ...
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Beam forming FK analysis of a seismic wave

So after reading alot of literature on source localization, I found out that FK analysis is one of the most widely used methods to determine source location without explicitly calculating the ...
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1 answer
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How do we know the speed of S-waves (shear waves) in the Earth's inner core? Has this been measured?

Wikipedia's Seismic wave includes the plot below of the speed of S and P waves as a function of depth in the Earth. In the region of the outer core the speed of S-waves or shear waves is shown to be ...
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Do we know anything about the nature of Earth's core that hasn't come from magnetic or seismic measurements?

There is much known about Earth's core from painstaking analysis of seismic data, and from detailed magnetic field maps and trends over time. Are there any other measurements that have contributed to ...
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5 votes
2 answers
323 views

Performing time-frequency analysis (FTAN)

I am trying to do ambient noise tomography and I am quite confused on how to perform time-frequency analysis (FTAN) as shown in figure 13b and 13d of this paper by Bensen et al.. I am using Python and ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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What are today's methods in calculating the Local Magnitude of earthquakes?

I'm no expert and barely have any idea about this. But I want to know if the methods in calculating the Local Magnitude can only be done manually? I mean manually by first reading a seismograph, ...
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1 answer
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Where can I find broadband seismic reflection data?

or what type of companies should I contact to ask for the data? This data would be produced from Seismic Vibroseis survey trucks which are mostly used to locate oil and gas. I doubt most oil and gas ...
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3 votes
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Small earthquake happening every night at the exact same time

I experience this weird feeling for the last three months. Every night, at exactly 3AM I can feel small earthquake and I could not find anything on the internet related to it. Does anyone have any ...
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2 answers
734 views

How to read and plot seismic waveform data in Ascii format using Obspy?

I wish to plot seismic waveform data using Obspy, bu they are in Ascii format. Is it possible to read and plot Ascii file using Obspy?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Using an accelerometer as a geophone to conduct a seismic survey

I am doing a capstone project for a sensor systems course and I would like to write a python program to acquire, process and present seismic data like that of seismic surveys. Is it possible using ...
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1 answer
142 views

Zoeppritz equations derivation

I have been long looking for the derivations and step by step explanation of Zoeppritz matrix but either internet is full of final versions or I can’t find it...I would be very thankful if anyone can ...
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Can an igneous rock have a Vp of less than 1000 m/s and need blasting to excavate?

I have run a 60 m refraction seismic line on a mountain summit. The environment was noisy (wind would be the principal agent) and quite difficult to pick first arrivals. It resulted in 800 m/s. A ...
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1 answer
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Is it reasonable to approximate the swinging building (base of the building) during an earthquake to a simple harmonic motion?

I am thinking of making a model of swinging building during earthquake and study the methods to minimize the swinging. So does it even makes sense to approximate the swinging buildings (the base of ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Wave train 200 m/s meaning

I ran a 60 m line intended for surficial seismic refraction. Energization with hammer. 12 (10 hz vertical 5 m spaced) geophones and 5 shots (15 m spaced). Record length 0.5 s. Thanks to a borehole ...
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3 votes
1 answer
368 views

Where can I download historical sesimic data in CSV/Excel format for processing in R?

I'm not familiar with these kinds of data sets but I'm looking for some data for a project I'm working on. Essentially I would like multiple time series of seismic data from different stations over ...
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1 answer
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wave speed is smaller than both horizontal wave speed and vertical wave speed?

I am new to GIS and just get the idea of slowness. I can understand why people need the slowness in GIS rather than just the reciprocal of velocity. However, I feel the definition of slowness is weird ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
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1 vote
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What are "young thrust faults" and how does one identify them on the Moon?

The abstract of the new Nature Geoscience paper Shallow seismic activity and young thrust faults on the Moon reads: The discovery of young thrust faults on the Moon is evidence of recent tectonic ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Travel Times for Seismic Wave Types - Why reflected t-x plot curves

I do not understand how the reflected wave in a seismic survey has a steepening slope (slows down) Please bear with me as I lay out my thoughts because I feel like I can grasp all of this except this ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Near-Surface Investigations: FWI vs. MASW

MASW is a common processing method for civil/geotechnical and even for oil/gas exploration (usually weathering static corrections) applications. In my experience, it seems to work well for most ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Love-Wave Propagation

Love-waves cannot exist in a half-space. Layering must be present and there also must be accompanied impedance contrasts associated with the layering. Because layering naturally induces seismic ...
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Determining the spatial orientation of a fault given ground acceleration magnitude in different directions

Accelerographs measure ground acceleration in three different components of motion: east-west, north-south, and vertically (up-down). I know that fault orientation is important here, so let's say we ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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Rayleigh waves generation

Good day, I do not fully understand the physical mechanism of formation of Rayleigh waves at the free surface. While their derivation is quite clear and obey free-boundary conditions, it is not clear ...
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6 votes
1 answer
116 views

How sensitive are typical seismometers?

NASA recently landed a seismometer on Mars, with what sounds an impressive detection ability, with press reports gushing it is "able to detect vibrations smaller than a hydrogen atom." A more ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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Could an earthquake create a design in a sand pendulum?

Is it possible for an earthquake to generate such a design in a sand pendulum during an earthquake? I saw an article online describing the story of a shop owner finding one of his pendulums had ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Difference between landslide waves and earth quake waves

I am new to this field, recently started working on landslide monitoring mainly in signal processing part. I have the following questions? 1.Will each land slide and every vibration have p wave, s ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Quality control in Seismic Acquisition - How much data is required?

When it comes to land or marine acquisition (oil exploration, for instance), I can see from literature that quality control (QC) is performed during the survey to ensure that the seismic traces ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Using acoustics to measure the composition, density, and hardness of layers

I am an engineering student at Alfred University and some fellow classmates and I are doing a competition, but one of the tasks we need to complete is autonomously measuring the composition, density, ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Could glacial melt alter plate tectonic movement?

Let's say some event caused runaway glacial melt, and removed half of the ice currently locked away in specific areas of the planet. Would the significant weight changes on various plates and fault ...
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4 votes
1 answer
204 views

Why do major earthquakes keep happening in Lombok recently?

So I've been following the situation in Lombok, Indonesia from both online news and friends on the ground. One thing that I can't seem to figure out is why there are so many earthquakes over an ...
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4 votes
0 answers
41 views

statistical methods for analysis of stability tailored for multiple short time series

I am a graduate student of Ecology working on a species diversity problem and am not much educated in time series methods. i have searched 3 general time-series books and could not find a clue on how ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Seismology - PPV / VDV from geophone waveform data

I'm using an inexpensive seismometer to try and measure the effects of local HGV traffic on buildings. The device is connected to a Raspberry PI that has a Cirrus Logic Audio Card. The signal is fed ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What does 'reghosted' mean in a seismic cube label?

I came across to a seismic volume labeled as reghosted. In my understanding, a seismic survey is deghosted as part of a processing step. Then I wonder why one would like to reghosted the data? Is ...
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0 votes
3 answers
153 views

Need seismic data and digital well log data from the same area?

I am currently working on a project that involves the input of seismic attributes (instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous frequency etc.) to a machine learning/deep learning model (eg. A Neural ...
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