Questions tagged [solar-terrestrial-physics]

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What is the elevation angle of sun at lunar poles?

The Moon's orbital plane is inclined by about 5.1° with respect to the ecliptic plane, whereas the Moon's equatorial plane is tilted by only 1.5°.
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3 votes
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Do greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit photons or reflect them diffusely? Or both? (CO2, CH4, H2O, N20, HFC-134a, etc.)

Also, would it matter if a particular type of greenhouse gas molecule reflected rather than absorbed and then re-emitted light? Would its GWP be higher or lower? Perhaps this is more of a pure ...
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Does an increase in SR lead to an increase in strength and intensity of ionospheric lightning?

As explained in the following document: ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances Upper-Atmosphere phenomena like Sprites and Elves can be recorded with extremely low frequency ...
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1 answer
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Databases of all Astronomical Geomagnetic storms data

I am doing a project in which I need data from all the globe of geomagnetic storms, I need to ask that from where I can find a list of all sites where I can find the data of geomagnetic storms easily ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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How much would 5 gigatons of methane warm the atmosphere compared to 5 gigatons of CO2 if both were released in one go?

I don't know much about science, I'm just curious about how much warming a certain amount of CH4 would cause compared to a similar amount of CO2 (both 5 GtC). I'm sorry if the question sounded a bit ...
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Fresnel equations & emissivity of water

If you want to know what the actual emissivity of water is (which is terribly important to even get an idea what size the GHE has!), you can google. Regrettably you will get all kinds of results, so ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
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3 votes
2 answers
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Now Mars is pulsing 3 times per night in the UV, can anyone explain these waves in simple terms? Do these waves have analogies on Earth?

I link below to questions on another kind of Mars pulse) Phys.org's NASA's Maven observes Martian night sky pulsing in ultraviolet light links to the new paper Imaging of Martian Circulation Patterns ...
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How could the solar wind cause strange magnetic pulses on Mars at midnight?

24-Feb-2020 NASA News item A Year of Surprising Science From NASA's InSight Mars Mission says: A new understanding of Mars is beginning to emerge, thanks to the first year of NASA's InSight lander ...
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Mars' strange magnetic pulses at midnight; besides the solar wind what are other possible causes?

24-Feb-2020 NASA News item A Year of Surprising Science From NASA's InSight Mars Mission says: A new understanding of Mars is beginning to emerge, thanks to the first year of NASA's InSight lander ...
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Does a geomagnetic storm visibly deflect a compass?

Reading Solar Storms Could Confuse Whales and Cause Mass Strandings and the linked open access paper in Current Biology Gray whales strand more often on days with increased levels of atmospheric radio-...
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What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor? [closed]

CO2, methane and other gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. But most of the greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour in the atmosphere. There is always a lot average moisture present, but it ...
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2 answers
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Estimation on how cold will my pond get - intent is to know if certain fish can survive in it

I want to get an estimate on how cold my pond will get. It is a 1 acre pond in Central Florida USA. It has an average depth of 4 feet. There is not much circulation in the pond. It gets direct ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is the lowest latitude for which if the ideal solar energy received each day for a year is graphed, the graph would contain one peak?

I asked a question with the same meaning on Quora, but it seems no one got it, so I'm asking it here with a very different wording. I'm actually not sure if this would belong here or on the Astronomy ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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solar irradiance/radiation difference

I currently read a few papers and one of them stated to forecast solar irradiance using measures of solar radiation. I hope this question is not trivial as I'm actually from germany, but if there is a ...
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4 votes
2 answers
624 views

Effective Temperature of a Planet and Surface Temperature due to Greenhouse Effect

The effective temperature of the Earth is roughly 12 °F (- 11 °C), which means that in thermal equilibrium when it is emitting as much radiation as it is absorbing, the distribution of wavelengths and ...
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Is Earth getting heavier or lighter?

There is meteoric material falling on the Earth constantly, as well as some protons and other light nuclei from the solar wind as well as from cosmic rays. At the same time Earth's atmosphere looses ...
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1 answer
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Calculate the maximum power angle of a solar panel (photovoltaics)

I want to calculate the maximum power angle of photovoltaics depending of the coordinates on Earth. That means at which angle I should align my solar panel to get the maximum power over the year? I ...
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Why do climate experts from the UN/IPCC rarely mention Grand Solar Minimum?

I've read many papers about Grand Solar Minimums and Glassberg Minimums, known to science for a very long time, and studied and monitored with many public funds. History shows solar activity is the ...
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What is the relationship between net primary productivity and emergy?

Looking at the Earth system as a whole and considering ecological economics, net primary productivity and emergy are two concepts that strike me as fundamental and likely related. I'm not sure what ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Is there an atmospheric hydrogen cycle?

There are various physical, chemical and biological processes that free up hydrogen from molecules (often hydrocarbons or water). Once in the atmosphere, the hydrogen is lost to space (the Earth's ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Term for the thing that shines radiation onto a black body

I think I have the hang of black-body radiation: a black body receives radiation passively and then emits some portion of it (the earth emits stored solar heat, e.g.). Is there a parallel term for ...
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3 answers
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Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What would a graph of magnitude >7.5 earthquakes over last 400 years compared to Grand Solar Minimums look like?

I am a novice here and I really appreciate the graph of magnitude >7 earthquakes related to 11(22)yr solar minimum cycles. I was wondering what the correlation would be (if any) if we changed the ...
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Does the Earth 'Flare' like the Sun does?

Solar Flares are a commonly discussed phenomenon, which have effects ranging from geomagnetic storms to radio disruptions to absolutely nothing noticeable. Given that part of the core of the Earth ...
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Calculating a cloud cover index based on comparison of horizontal and tilted irradiance from pyranometers

I have data from 2 pyranometers, one in the horizontal plane and one in a tilted plane. The relevance of the tilting relates to their useage in solar-power plants whereby the tilt is in the same plane ...
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8 votes
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Changes in Earth's orbital and rotation speeds

What are the Earth's maximum and minimum orbital speeds around the Sun? Is there any way to calculate orbital speed at any point of Earth's orbit? Is there a way to relate this to the calendar? Does ...
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10 votes
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What are the sunniest places on Earth? (including oceans)

This question did arise when thinking on offshore solar power plants, what's their potential, and how efficient would they be compared with land based counterparts. Recently, it is becoming more ...
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Is there any correlation between Grand Solar Minimums (GSM) and earthquakes? [closed]

I've found many claims arguing that the periods of minimum solar activity are associated with increases earthquakes and volcanic activities. Some of these claims are supported by articles in ...
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Mass balance for calculating mantle composition

I've seen some problem sets given without answers / solutions regarding how to calculate the composition of the mantle given solar composition (and assuming the same would apply to the Earth). For ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Could we cool the ocean by reflecting away sunlight to influence hurricanes?

I was wondering if we could possibly reduce the severity of, or steer a hurricane by changing albedo (e.g. dying the part ocean with a temporary light colored dye)? My thought would be to put this ...
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10 votes
3 answers
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Why don't weather forecast models normally take solar eclipses into account?

Since there is a total solar eclipse somewhere almost every year, I would have thought it would be included as a standard option in weather forecast models. However, I've learned that is not really ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Calculating Solar Noon from Sunrise and Sunset [closed]

I've seen the solar noon formula described as snoon = 720 – 4*longitude – eqtime. I'm curious if it is equally reliable within a relatively small margin of error (+-...
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Changes in Real Solar size around 1979? [closed]

Has been observed any changes in the real sun´s size on ocassion of the 1979 solar storm event ? (after and before)
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7 votes
2 answers
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How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Where is the Arctic Circle for civil and astronomical twilight?

The Polar Circles are located at 66°33′46.7″ North and South, defining the minimum latitudes at which, for at least one 24 hour period during the year, the limb of the Sun never becomes invisible ...
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10 votes
1 answer
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Does the Earth receive a net charge from the aurorae?

The sun radiates a lot of charged particles to the Earth. When the magnetic field of the Earth lines up to the poles, we get the beautiful polar lights. But are there as many negative charged as ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the meaning of integral of negative magnetic field (nT) over time?

I have a plot of the magnetic field (y-axis) over time (x-axis), one measure each hour (Dst - Disturbance Storm-Time). From time to time, there is a negative peak, which indicates a magnetic storm. ...
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2 votes
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Why do the magnetic poles move? [closed]

Does the Earth position in the galaxy or solar system affect the orientation of the magnetic axis?
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7 votes
1 answer
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Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

Imagine that we've improved the level quality, affordability, and ease of use of photo-voltaic solar, and it's use is widely distributed in the USA. We've improved the grid for power distribution, we ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Convert satellite image data (GOES 15) into solar irradiance values?

I have GOES 15 satellite image data (GVAR_IMG) for a project that I am working on. The files are end in .BAND_01, .BAND_02, etc. I use the Panoply tool to view these files, but am looking for an ...
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6 votes
5 answers
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Why wouldn't the earth be "always daytime" if the "daily cycle of sunlight" was drawn full-scale?

The question is clear enough in my opinion but, I've found out that if you redraw this picture here: You'll notice that the Sun is as big as the Earth. But if you scale up the Sun to it's real size ...
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3 votes
1 answer
276 views

How much reduction of insolation (solar energy) would be required to stop global warming?

Suppose a giant sheet of semi-reflective mylar (or some other kind of partial sun-screening material) was temporarily placed into space between the Earth and the Sun with the intent to lower the ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Where can I find solar radiation data for specific land areas?

NOAA has solar radiation data for 1991-2010 http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/land-based-station-data/land-based-datasets/solar-radiation But I need data for Nov 1 2012-present! Is this data ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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Dependence of solar irradiation through the atmosphere on Sun's altitude

I want to show that the higher the Sun's altitude, the higher the solar irradiation through the atmosphere, through simple experiments. However, I don't have the instrument that measures irradiation. ...
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13 votes
1 answer
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Did Jupiter really make Earth (in)habitable?

A new study by Batygyin and Laughlin suggest that a Jupiter migration toward the inner region of the Solar System during the early stages of system formation cleared the habitable region (Goldilocks ...
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21 votes
3 answers
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Why is March colder than September in Northern Hemisphere?

Forgive my ignorance of the subject but I was always wondered about the exact reason of this phenomenon. Vernal equinox happens around March 20, whereas autumnal equinox happens around September 22, ...
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14 votes
1 answer
873 views

Temperature as a function of luminosity and greenhouse gas concentrations

The evidence seems clear that there is an interrelationship between solar luminosity, greenhouse gas concentrations, and temperature. Has temperature as a function of luminosity and greenhouse gas ...
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43 votes
2 answers
5k views

(How long) would Earth's atmosphere last without a global magnetic field?

The Earth's magnetic field provides an important protection against the solar wind (for example, see Wikipedia on Earth's magnetic field and references therein). Mars may have lost its atmosphere ...
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