Questions tagged [statistics]

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2
votes
1answer
37 views

Discrete distribution of daily rainfall [closed]

How can I estimate the rainfall rate every ten minutes during a day having the total amount of rainfall during that day ?
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Seismic amplitude distribution

Recorded (or raw) and processed pre/post-stack seismic data (relative amplitudes) usually display a standard normal distribution, albeit with a very small amount of skewness. What would be possible ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

I have been reading some documents about meteorological data and many of them mention the second moment of wind velocity. I guess it has to do with the way the wind is changing but in such case I ...
7
votes
2answers
246 views

What are good metrics to compare climates?

I'm interested in visualizing climate data across the conterminous U.S. to determine regions that I would be interested in living in. So far, I've pulled in NOAA data, and I've: averaged the maximum ...
5
votes
0answers
124 views

regression map vs correlation map

What is the exact difference between regression and correlation maps? I know that they are often used in climate science but which is the difference in the information they provide? Here an example I ...
3
votes
2answers
162 views

Current temperature increase VS decrease during the little ice age

Looking at the following temperature reconstructions i have two questions (source: wikipedia): Why is the y-axis centered around -0.2 °C? Why are the consequences of the current temperature ...
15
votes
1answer
195 views

Break in human nitrogen input in 1990s

I'm in an AP Environmental Science course, and while reading part of the chapter in my textbook about the nitrogen cycle, I saw this picture. What I was wondering is what caused that dip in the ...
4
votes
4answers
127 views

What are the technical solutions to measure $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I'm currently at COP24 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) in Katowice, Poland. (some editing since I took a screenshot of my laptop) I've asked some guys about $\ce{CO2}$ emissions but very ...
6
votes
2answers
108 views

Probability ( weather tomorrow = weather today)?

What is the probability that the weather tomorrow will be equal to the weather today (e.g. more specifically, if we know there had been more than 1mm precipitation during one day, what is the ...
11
votes
1answer
218 views

Minimum flow duration curves

It is common to prepare flow duration curves from a set of daily river flow data, but does it make sense to build a flow duration curve from a set of monthly minimum flow data? I searched on internet, ...
3
votes
0answers
33 views

statistical methods for analysis of stability tailored for multiple short time series

I am a graduate student of Ecology working on a species diversity problem and am not much educated in time series methods. i have searched 3 general time-series books and could not find a clue on how ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

How to know to which PC (Principal Component) a sample belongs in EOF/PCA

I applied EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function, a type of Principal Component Analysis, PCA) analysis to a dataset(geopotential height at 925hpa from ECMWF-interim reanalysis data) that contains 3 ...
3
votes
0answers
67 views

Is the probability distribution of earthquakes memoryless?

What I want to know is more specific than the title: If a city sits on major fault lines (let's say Tehran), and has a history of severe earthquakes (greater than 7 magnitude) once every 150 years in ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Where can I find detailed historical breakdowns of U.S. lightning fatalities on a year-by-year basis?

e.g. Something like this, but for historical years (preferably covering 1980-2007, since the NWS detailed lists only start from 2008). Location of strike, victim name, where the victim was at (under ...
15
votes
0answers
214 views

How to compute the earthquake occurrence probability under ETAS model

I have fitted an ETAS model (unmarked) with an independent exponential magnitude distribution to a set of earthquake data. However, I do not know how to calculate the probability of the earthquake ...
6
votes
2answers
7k views

What kind of data is best shown in a rose diagram?

I am looking for some geological data where presenting it in a rose diagram is desirable. I don't really know what kind of data is suitable. Any suggestion of data — preferably from the field of ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Calculating mean time spent precipitating for a specified period/area?

I would like to calculate the prior probability of active precipitation currently taking place at any random moment during a year. The area I’m looking at (London, UK) has averages of 601.7mm of rain ...
10
votes
2answers
186 views

Do warnings verify better nearer radars?

As radar beams travel away from radars, they increase in elevation and widen. Have any studies attempted to quantify the rate at which warning skill (such as in FAR and POD) deteriorates as a ...
3
votes
2answers
45 views

How can I account for rainfall effects on air pollution?

How can I adjust black carbon surface mass air pollution concentrations (ug/m3) for rainfall effects? Specifically, I have monthly and daily averaged black carbon pollution data (i.e. 2.0ug/m3 Jan ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

What statistics do we have regarding the probability of window breakage by wind speed?

One thing that has stood out from our past hurricanes in central Florida and also from watching those around the country is the real large propensity for folks to board up windows. But it has also ...
24
votes
3answers
7k views

What do weather forecasters mean when they say “50% chance of rain”?

What do weather forecasters mean when they say "50% chance of rain"? Even more confusing: weather report often says something like "30% chance of rain. >10mm", then the next day "70% chance of rain &...
4
votes
3answers
205 views

Prevailing Winds: Is the speed relevant?

The Wikipedia entry for prevailing winds notes (in my understanding) that the prevailing wind direction is determined solely by the mode of the directions. They note another qualifier called 'dominant ...
7
votes
3answers
461 views

Correlation and causation

Linear correlation (Pearson's) is vastly applied in meteorology/climatology to assess the relationship between two variables, say precipitation and SST, for example. However, we know that correlation ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Good practices and pitfalls when fitting models $y = f(weather)$ and predicting $\hat{y} = \hat{f}(GCM)$

I've got a phenomenon of interest, $y$. It is determined in large part by the weather. Naturally, one becomes interested in what climate change may do to $y$, so one fits a model of the form $y = f(\...
14
votes
1answer
245 views

How do climatologists define the “start” of a rainy season in a unimodal monsoonal climate?

For a number of gridcells, all between the 500mm and 800mm rainfall isohyets in sub-Saharan Africa, I've got dekadal rainfall (from FEWS). They are pretty spread out over the continent and there are ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

What does mean “background” in statistics or geostatistics? [closed]

somebody told me it was a bottom value , but I still don't get the whole picture.
20
votes
0answers
273 views

How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
3
votes
1answer
229 views

What statistical methods are best for analyzing long-term rainfall data?

What statistical tools are best analysing rainfall data (overall trends, decadal trends, intensity distribution, extremes, etc.)?
9
votes
3answers
761 views

Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

I've been trying to make sense of the argument surrounding sea level rise and not getting very far. Those who claim that Sea Level Rise is insignificant generally assert that we have been unable to ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Determining '< x' values as numeric

I do have a large dataset containing nearly a decade of particulate matter measurements. At the lower precision limit of the measuring instrument, there are values given like ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

How to determine constant $C$ in $p(x) = Cx^{-D}$?

Given a distribution obeying the power-law (fractal) relation, such as the cumulative distribution function $L_{cf}(> X) = CR^{-D}$, if $X$ is given, how does one find the constant $C$ from a given ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Can anyone give share reference for quadrat size in vegetation

In sampling vegetation, what is the size of a quadrat needed? And I need a reference too plz. If the type matters, pick any vegetation all I need is an example of crops and the quadrat size. With ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

How are wind speeds typically distributed?

What probability distribution do wind speed measurements typically follow? I have seen a Weibull distribution used, but the page was a bit lacking on background information so I would appreciate ...
5
votes
1answer
123 views

Are 'Return Periods' being recalculated? If so, how?

The concept of 'return period' (= 'average recurrence interval', or ARI) is widely used in hydrology, and to a much lesser extent in geology, geomorphology, geophysics, etc. Whatever the application, ...
4
votes
0answers
75 views

How to do frequency analysis of an index when some years have zero value?

I want to do frequency analysis of drought severity, but unlike precipitation data here I have few zero values in some of the years. how to do this? Here is the sample data: ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

What is the technical term for spatially aggregated measures?

Is there an adjective to describe data that has areal weight, like area, biomass, population, etc. — data that has to be aggregated by sum for example — vs. data that doesn't, such as landcover ...
11
votes
2answers
296 views

Has the number of natural disasters per year increased significantly in the years since human-caused climate change started?

Human-caused global warming has had an increasingly significant effect on the earth since the industrial era began. Since the beginning of the industrial era, has there been a significant increase in ...
7
votes
1answer
819 views

Statistical weather prediction

Assuming I have time evolution of air temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and cloudiness, how can I predict weather based on this information? I know that high ...
7
votes
1answer
314 views

Historical atmospheric partial pressure & Henry's law constant

The explanation given for the fact that temperature has historically led CO₂ levels is Henry's law. Figure 1: Vostok ice core records for carbon dioxide concentration (Petit 2000) and temperature ...
14
votes
1answer
535 views

Temperature as a function of luminosity and greenhouse gas concentrations

The evidence seems clear that there is an interrelationship between solar luminosity, greenhouse gas concentrations, and temperature. Has temperature as a function of luminosity and greenhouse gas ...