Questions tagged [temperature]

An objective measure of hot and cold, typically measured by a thermometer.

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Where Do I FInd IPCC RCP Global Mean Temperature Predictions?

We have written a free textbook at (http://climate-change.world). Its main focus is on the social science side of changing emissions. We are not atmospheric scientists, so all we want to do is to ...
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Why do the isotherms bulge north of the Bering Strait in winter, and bulge south of the Bering Strait in summer?

My grade-7 geography textbook contains these world average temperatures for January and July. Average air temperatures in January (winter in the northern hemisphere) Average air temperatures in July ...
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What is a wind chill formula that will work from -10 C to +50 C and uses wind speed in km/h?

I'm looking for a wind chill formula that will work from -10 °C to +50 °C and uses wind speed in km/h so that I can use this formula to add this element to a weather station I am programming. I don't ...
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What are the coldest and hottest ever recorded temperatures at the stratopause?

The stratopause is separating the stratosphere from the mesosphere around 47-53 km (29-33 mi) altitude. Standard atmosphere models give its temperature as minus 2.5°C, but how strong are its ...
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Maximum Air Temperature Decrease Over Time

Based on the maximum air temperature Time series plot plot below. What could be a possible reason(s) for Maximum Temperature to ...
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Which atmosphere model(s) put the upper end of the tropopause isothermal layer at 25 km and why?

The International and U.S. Standard atmospheres have a layer between 11 km (36,000 ft) and 20 km (66,000 ft) where the temperature is constant with altitude. This includes older versions of the U.S. ...
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How to calculate greenhouse effect for planet as well as for the atmosphere?

I recently found a calculation on how to calculate the greenhouse effect for Earth from another question here, but I couldn't make heads or tails of the calculations that were provided in one of the ...
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Mean free path and Scale height

Banks and Kockarts, in Aeronomy (Part B), has provided an illustration of the vertical distribution of the mean free path of atomic hydrogen for several thermopause temperatures (Fig. 16.3, p.84/362). ...
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Best method for weather station data interpolation with external parameters

I'm part of an organization maintaning a large network of weather stations (~3000 stations) over a European country. Besides storing data measured from the stations into a database, we also produce ...
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How does the increase in CO2 concentration model explain the extreme lower colder temperatures

With burning of fossil fuels resulting in increased CO2 concentration, I get how increase in CO2 leads to a hotter planet and global warming because Earth's heat balance has been affected by CO2 ...
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What would the approx. min and max temperatures be for Snowball Earth with no atmosphere?

I saw a similar previous question on this website about the temperature of the Earth with no atmosphere. It sounds like if the Earth did lose its atmosphere we’d end up with either Snowball Earth or ...
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Is there a simple model for the interaction between greenhouse gases and infrared radiation?

I am thinking (in the simplest model) that the Earth emits $N$ photons per unit time, some proportion $p$ hit a greenhouse gas particle and will be re-emitted back towards the earth with a probability ...
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Urban heat island effect during winter time?

Say a given populated area is considered an "urban heat island", this would mean that during summer, temperatures will be higher in that area. But what about winter? One could argue that ...
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Minimum temperature in Growing Degree Day (GDD) - from daytime or from the whole day?

I want to calculate growing degree days. I have hourly data of temperature between the hours of 00:00 and 23:59. I want to calculate the growing degree days and I saw that I need the minimum,maximum ...
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Which atmospheric parameters will give accurate result of electricity consumption of an area by using multiple regression model?

I have a dataset that gives values of temperature, Relative humidity Geopotential Ozone mass mixing ratio Potential vorticity Fraction of cloud cover Specific cloud ice water content Specific cloud ...
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How does carbon dioxide accumulate in the upper atmosphere if it is heavier than air [duplicate]

I am not a scientist but how does carbon dioxide make its way to the upper atmosphere form fossil fuel burning if it is heavier than oxygen (air), especially as the air is thinner in the upper as you ...
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Why is my intuition wrong about the significance of a few degrees' temperature rise?

There has been a lot discussed about historical and future global temperature increases of a few degrees (e.g. the goal of limiting the rise this century to 1.5 °C or 2 °C). Intuitively, I'm tempted ...
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Skin temperature, live update satellites, are there any? If not, why not?

It would be good to have satellites that gave current readings of skin temperature so that farmers could see if their crop was freezing or too hot, as well as for other global warming monitoring. ...
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How much does a global model's accuracy change with the timestep?

I've been working with ICON, ICON-EU and GFS forecasts, and it seems like the temperature results are "close" for the same location, 6 hour forecasts and 120 hour forecasts - MAE: 5.7 and 6....
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Modelling atmospheric temperature as function of elevation

If I have a body that is exposed to light of intensity $I$, then its temperature should follow the ODE $$\dot{T} = a I - b T^4$$ Mountains are covered with snow, yet $I$ should be the same as at sea ...
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Why does the mainstream greenhouse gas theory for global warming ignore the mass of the surface?

The theory says that the energy absorbed by carbon dioxide is returned to the Earth's surface and raises its temperature. But, the surface has mass, earth, soil, rocks, etc., and this needs energy if ...
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If there was no ozone layer, would the temperature decrease all the way from sea level to the mesopause?

The temperature increase with altitude in the stratosphere is caused by the UV radiation absorbed in the ozone layer, isn't it? What if there was no ozone layer? Would temperature keep decreasing ...
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What is the unit impact of $\small\sf{CO_2}$ on global temperature?

I'm trying to find the impact of X tonnes of CO2 on global temperature so I can infer the unit impact of CO2 on temperature. While we know there is a positive correlation, I can't seem to find a study ...
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What is the reason behind some of the biome anomalies in Africa?

For example : The center of Africa lies in the Equatorial region and yet, does not have tropical rainforests all the way across. The island of Madagascar has two different biomes Since altitude and ...
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Potential temperature constant in a well-mixed atmospheric layer?

Why is the potential temperature, defined as $\theta = T\Big(\frac{P_0}{P}\Big)^{R/c_p}$, constant in a well-mixed layer? I understand that the dew point temperature has to be parallel to a line of ...
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Pressure vs Temperature effect on humidity

I am a bit confused about pressure vs temperature effect on relative humidity. I know that air density is decreased with altitude, which means that there is more "space" between air ...
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Is there really less diurnal temperature variation in the mountains than at sea level?

I live in the Los Angeles area, at sea level. Nearby we have tall mountains where I like to go hiking. I've noticed something strange about the NOAA forecasts, which is that the forecasts in the ...
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Meterological measures -formula containing temperature, humidity, cloud, wind

I am looking for a meteorological measure (formula) of something which combines 2 or more of the following: temperature, humidity, cloud, wind, precipitation, UV I have searched, and for example, ...
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Is there a bigger diurnal temperature variation in the summer because of a greater humidity?

It seems there is a greater variation in temperature during summer than during winter (image: maximal and minimal temperatures in Britain - source). My hypothesis is that this is because there's a ...
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Why is the snow line higher in the Himalayas than on the equator?

Excerpt from WP page Snow line: "At or near the equator, it is typically situated at approximately 4,500 metres (14,764 ft) above sea level. As one moves towards the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic ...
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Is there any measured atmospheric temperature profile made public?

I'm looking for a temperature-with-altitude measurement by a sounding rocket having gone through the tropo, strato- and mesosphere, have any such results been published after temperatures were ...
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Why would it be drier indoors during the winter vs the summer?

Yesterday during the day, inside my house it was 16% relative humidity. Outside it was 69% relative humidity and cold, around 35 degrees Farenheit. It is always 72 degrees Farenheit inside the house. ...
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Why is the isothermal layer being considered a part of the stratosphere rather than the troposphere or being an independent layer?

At altitudes from 12-20 km (7-12.5 mi) above the midlatitudes the temperature remains constant with altitude (minus 56.5°C in the ISA). This part is usually considered to be in the stratosphere, but ...
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Why is NYC so much colder than Rome despite being at the same latitude? [duplicate]

New York City and Rome are at about the same latitude, but their climates are different. Rome has subtropical climate and it doesn't snow in winter. NYC has temperate climate and it's extremely cold ...
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What is the relationship between air pressure and temperature?

I'm trying to reconcile a paradox regarding air pressure and temperature. On the one hand, compressing air heats it up, while expanding it cools it. So density and temperature are proportional. On the ...
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How to determine the annual harmonics of temperature and salinity data?

This is a question on methodology. But I have 4d temperature and salinity gridded data (time, depth, lat and lon). The time is in monthly time steps. How would I get the annual harmonics of ...
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Python - How to write interpolated raster to netcdf file

Currently i am dealing with a bunch of coordinates (epsg:4326 => lat/lon) and their corresponding value (temperature). The goal is to write these coordinates and their values into a simple netcdf ...
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Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
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How to calculate mean annual maximum temperatures from monthly temperature values?

Apologies, this is a simple question. But I just want to make sure I am calculating the mean, annual maximum temperatures correctly. I have monthly temperature data from 1980 - 2019. In order to get ...
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Is there a more accurate method for estimating ground or soil temperatures

Context We have geothermal, engineering and construction clients who often need accurate estimates of ground temperatures for project sites before they have physical access to the sites (for ...
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Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
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Why does the magnitude of the uncertainty on temperature forecast fluctuate periodically

I remember several years ago, the weather report on the VRT (Flemish national media) would show the temperature forecast of the coming days and it would also show the uncertainty on that temperature. ...
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Dynamic frontogenesis derivation

On page 142 of Lackmann's Midlatitude Synoptic Meteorology, Equation 6.7 gives the derivative of the Boussinesq buoyancy $b = \frac{g \theta'}{\theta_0 (z)}$ (perturbation potential temperature $\...
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How is weather formation prevented in the stratosphere?

Water diffuses from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. By that principle, I would expect water from the troposphere to diffuse into the stratosphere, where water content ...
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How much does earth's core temperature affect earth's global surface temperature

Has anyone managed to read the (latest) full IPCC-report and do you know whether they have taken into account the Earth's core temperature in their models. Besides the IPCC-report, do we know how much ...
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Temperature Inversion

According to my environmental management textbook, the conditions necessary for a temperature inversion are: High air pressure, which causes the upper air to sink Calm conditions resulting from high ...
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How much of Earth's internal heat comes from primordial heating and how has it changed since Earth's formation?

I'm trying to get a general idea of how Earth and other planets behave over time for a project. While I can find plenty of good data about how much radiative heating there was, I can't find anything ...
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I just read news that Antarctica had set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How can this be the case if it is currently winter there?

Currently it is winter in Antarctica. According to news I read, Antarctica has set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How did this temperature records occur?
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Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
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