# Questions tagged [temperature]

An objective measure of hot and cold, typically measured by a thermometer.

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### Why does air temperature decrease with height in the troposphere?

I've come across two different explanations when researching this topic in different areas: Adiabatic lapse rate: temperature falls naturally due to pressure decrease. Distance from the surface: ...
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### How to estimate temperature based on known points in a map?

Imagine I have a map with known current temperatures measured at certain map points provided by meteorologic stations: Source here What's the most robust/accurate model to deduce the temperature to ...
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### Is it possible to cool the troposphere using the stratosphere?

Because of the recent intense heat wave in India, I tried to think about possible mechanisms to mitigate such extreme heat waves. I had an idea that I'm pretty sure it's infeasible in any case, but it ...
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### What sets the temperature of the deep ocean?

My question centers around the temperature of the deep ocean at depths of <7000m. I know a few things already. The temperature of the ocean rapidly declines up to 1000m in depth, before falling ...
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### Celsius or degrees Celsius?

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, I was told (by more than one teacher) that the degree symbol should be omitted when using the Celsius scale: 20 C, not 20 °C. In fact, I was taught to say just ...
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### CMIP6 ts versus tos for Pontential Intensity calculation

As per the title, I am interested in computing the potential intensity (PI) and wondering what the difference between surface temperature (ts) over the ocean and sea surface temperature (tos) in CMIP6 ...
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### Since when are there global air temperature measurements?

I keep reading that global air temperature has been recorded since 1880, but considering that it wasn't until 1911 that Amundsen became the first person to reach the South Pole, it cannot be assumed ...
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### Rough empirical formula for average temperature and pressure

Is there a rough empirical formula that approximates local average annual air temperature and pressure from geographical latitude, altitude and distance from ocean shore?
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### Unexplained Jump in NOAA Climatological Data Post-2001

Earth Science community, I've encountered a puzzling issue with a dataset from NOAA's Local Climatological Data Airports Database (which can be accessed here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/local-...
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### How to Calculate Indoors Feels Like Temperature for All Seasons?

I want to calculate "feels like" temperature indoors, with no sunlight or wind. But I don't know which method to use or if I should combine methods. Below I've given some research results I ...
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### colder after snow

I had a physics professor that said that it becomes colder after snow because heat from the air is absorbed by the snow as it melts. This makes sense to me in that the snow should lower the ...
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### How did the Earth cool from a temperature of hundreds-of-degrees, if runaway greenhouse effects also happen?

From this article: the team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) studied what would happen if the greenhouse effect were trapped inside ...
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### Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of diatomite (also known as diatomaceous earth or kieselguhr)

Cross-posted on MMSE and on Chemistry. Does anyone know where can I find measured thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of diatomite for different temperatures? I'm looking for the temperature ...
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### How much cooler would the Earth’s surface be if there was no contribution from radiogenic heating?

According to Earth's internal heat budget (Wikipedia) “About 50% of the Earth's internal heat originates from radioactive decay”. However, this makes up only a small portion of the Earth’s heat budget ...
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### Is there such a thing as a "warm wind"?

Sometimes, people say things like "It's only $5^\circ\mathrm{C}$ outside, but there is a warm wind, and it feels much warmer" (I live in Austria, a region where there are Föhn winds). I have ...
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### Better method to identify seasons in temperature time series?

I'm trying to find a way to automatically detect the start/end of the 4 seasons based on a time series of daily mean temperature. According to this paper summer and winter can be defined as (smoothed) ...
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### Map showing monthly or weekly average low temperatures in Turkey and Iran

I am hoping to walk from Trabzon to Astara during October and November. I am hoping to take the route that will have the highest "average low" temperature across this period, to make camping ...
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### What is the baseline temperature for the climate-change debate

All of the literature at the heart of the current climate change debate talks about +1.5 degrees or +2.0 degrees above the pre-industrial average. I understand that, usually, pre-industrial means 1850-...
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### What causes the rapid change in temperature / climate at various points in the past 10 million years, generally speaking?

I am reading about the evolution of humans from ~2mya to today, and am running into some stuff on Geology like the 8.2-kiloyear event, and other "cooling" events and warming events. I ...
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### Shouldn't the permanent snow line be considerably higher in the Alps and on Mt Hood if temperature falls 6.5°C per 1000 meters?

The permanent snow line in the Alps is around 10,000 ft (3,000 m) elevation. This was further confirmed by a passenger flight I took late June where the screen showed 0°C (freeze point) around 10,000 ...
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### Assessment of Antarctic temperature anomalies

The University of Maine website climatereanalyzer.org has a plethora of data visualizations, among them a display of 2 meter temperature anomalies. The image of Antarctica today is below, with a green ...
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### Is the global temperature of the earth a physical quantity at all?

In discussions with physically educated among the deniers of the greenhouse effect, it is repeatedly claimed that it is completely pointless to state a quantity such as a global average temperature of ...
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### Dew-point temperature and absolute humidity

I am looking for a reference (e.g. book, peer-reviewed paper) that asserts that absolute humidity is "equivalent" to the dew-point temperature. Such statement should be true, AFAIU. Online, ...
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### What determines the outside temperature when the sun goes down?

My name is Steve. My question concerns two days in a row we had recently. Both days reached up to the high 90s, sunny with no rain or clouds. On the first day, the temperature only got down to about ...
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### Why do tropical areas have low air pressure?

From the question Why are pressure levels raised on warm days?, my understanding is that the air pressure at surface level is not affected by temperature, as the mass of the imagined air column stays ...
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### Is the air temperature usually below the dewpoint above the top of a cloud?

Rising from the ground in an airplane, I fly into the bottom of a cloud. I can explain the bottom of the cloud as air temperature (which decreases with altitude) being decreased to the dewpoint. I fly ...
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### How is this global temperature chart compiled?

In this BBC News article, there is a chart labelled "Hottest day on record globally - Daily average air temperature, 1940-2023". It shows temperatures that are higher in summer and lower in ...
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### Temperature Data Software

I'm looking to create a map of the U.S. that depicts mean winter and summer temperatures. Is there a software suitable for this? I found CSVs of data here: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/normals-daily/...
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### Where is seasonally latent heat stored?

The hottest and coldest days of the year lag the solstices by several weeks. Where is the latent heat stored that causes that? Obviously, it's some combination of land, sea, and air, but which (if ...
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### How to download atmospheric/oceanographic data for a given region in the sea?

I am trying to get data of atmospheric temperature, wind intensity and/or atmospheric pressure for a specific region of the sea, since I have ocean bottom pressure data from a fixed instrument (lat,...
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### How to calculate wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) using only temperature and humidity?

Greetings fellow scholars, I'm trying to answer the question above because I've come across WBGT calculators like this one (https://www.climatechip.org/heat-stress-index-calculation) and I don't ...
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### Is it cold or hot on top of a tropical cyclone?

So I know that cloud tops of the thunderstorm in a tropical cyclone can reach -80 degrees Celsius according to infrared satellite imagery. Is the temperature of the air above the storm's eyewall ...
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### Is equivalent potential temperature constant also for dry adiabatic processes?

Equivalent Potential Temperature, defined as $$\theta_e = \theta \cdot e^{qL/c_pT}$$ with $\theta$ denoting potential temperature and q the specific moisture of water remains constant for wet ...
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### Planetary surface temperature from first principles

How can you calculate planetary surface temperatures from first principles? The obvious application is for Earth, with a surface temperature of $288$K. I want a calculation with no fudge factors (i.e.,...
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### Map of earth subsurface temperature

I see similar flavours of this question have been asked a few times, but I still don't see a satisfying answer. I am looking for data (maps) of the earth subsurface temperature at a depth sufficient ...
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### How much average temperature increase in India is due to Urbanisation and population growth?

There is an article on the BBC talking about an alarming increase of heatwaves in India. It also says that: Average temperatures in India have risen by around 0.7% between 1901 and 2018, partly due ...
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### Why is geothermal heat insignificant to surface temperature?

I believe the temperature gradient underground is as high as 30°C per kilometer of depth. Thus, it is very warm only 1 kilometer below the Earth's surface. Yet, it is commonly stated that geothermal ...
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### At what depth does the ground stop getting cooler/hotter(summer/winter) and it starts to warm up?Where is the MAT depth or geothermal crossover?

Lookin into geothermal cooling, and want to learn more about how temperature behaves at different depths, not too deep like 100 meters or so, ignoring unusual stuff like geysers and things. I want to ...
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### What is the average temperature of the whole planet Earth, not just the surface?

What is the average temperature of the Earth when you take into account all of the layers, not just the surface? Everything I've found so far concern only the surface or each layer individually. But ...
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### Why aren't weather balloons left in the atmosphere permanently?

I was reading about weather balloons and the articles said that weather balloon flights usually last about two hours. When I looked up why, some articles said that when the balloons get high enough in ...
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### Why does the temperature change about every 50-100 meters near hills

So I was in this place called Chamundi hills, Mysore. I was riding back at around 7pm down hill and noticed this strange behavior. About every 50-100 meters the temperature fluctuated. It was ...
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### Forecasted temperature in the shade vs. theoretical "feels-like" temperature in the sun

I understand that different objects absorb different amounts of light (blackbody absorption). I wonder how feasible it would be to calculate the approximate temperature in the sun based upon the ...
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### How has the earth's temperature stayed relatively stable despite all the heat released in the atmosphere by humans? [duplicate]

If one considers the sum total of human heat emissions, especially over the last 3 centuries, the temperature increase over the time period does not seem to be commensurate. What gives? What self ...
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### How to remove effect of topography on Air temperature in Excel?

I traversed a route in a city. The route has different elevation. So I need to remove the effect of elevation from my air temperature measurements. The measurements done by temperature data logger ...
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### What consequences of the global climate change are expected in the next 50 years?

It is known, that due to global warming, the average temperature on Earth over the past 100 years has increased by 1.2 degrees. At the same time, I heard that earlier the temperature of the Earth was ...
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### What are the main differences between the reference temperature and the average air temperature?

Last week when I was dealing with the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecasting system, a variable named “tref,” or Reference Temperature, caught my attention. I read some ...
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### Why does a temperature inversion act like a lid?

I do not understand why the fact that warm air is above cold air causes a lid like effect and traps pollutants below? What is it about that order? Why does warm air below cold air not restrict any ...
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### Where Do I FInd IPCC RCP Global Mean Temperature Predictions?

We have written a free textbook at (http://climate-change.world). Its main focus is on the social science side of changing emissions. We are not atmospheric scientists, so all we want to do is to ...
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