# Questions tagged [temperature]

An objective measure of hot and cold, typically measured by a thermometer.

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### Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
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### Why is the air above the Himalayas warmer than surrounding areas?

Looking at earth.nullschool.net on 13.09.2021 you can see that the temperature above the Himalayas appear warmer than the surroundings (at 700 hPa): At the surface ...
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### Why does the magnitude of the uncertainty on temperature forecast fluctuate periodically

I remember several years ago, the weather report on the VRT (Flemish national media) would show the temperature forecast of the coming days and it would also show the uncertainty on that temperature. ...
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### Dynamic meteorology - calculating air temperature based off falling air

I'm not sure if this is the correct place to ask this. Basically I have an exercise in dynamic meteorology that is set up like this: 1 kg of dry air is falling with a constant speed of 0.5 cm / s ...
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### How much of Earth's internal heat comes from primordial heating and how has it changed since Earth's formation?

I'm trying to get a general idea of how Earth and other planets behave over time for a project. While I can find plenty of good data about how much radiative heating there was, I can't find anything ...
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### Does climate change cause increase in CO2?

My main question is how do we know that increase in global temperature does not CAUSE an increase in CO2 concentration? I am trying to develop my mental model of what's going on for the climate ...
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### I just read news that Antarctica had set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How can this be the case if it is currently winter there?

Currently it is winter in Antarctica. According to news I read, Antarctica has set a new record high temperature, above 18 °C. How did this temperature records occur?
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### Why are mornings cooler than nights?

In the morning, Google shows the temperature from four or five hours ago (around 2:00 a.m.). But then I update the report, and I get the temperature slightly lower than before. Why is the temperature ...
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### Why was there a negative temperature anomaly between 1950 to 1980?

If I understand the information from this link correctly, Instrumental temperature record between 1950 to 1980 there were negative temperature anomalies in the years of those decades. decade ...
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### What is the correct way to report historical daily Max / Min / Avg Temperature by City?

I starting a weather project where I'm using ERA5 hourly dataset (ref: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/reanalysis-era5-single-levels?tab=form). Using this dataset in python, I have ...
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### Why does relative humidity drop if I open the window in winter? What about the temperature drop?

I understand that 40% rel. hum. at 0 °C is less absolute humidity than 40% at 20 °C. However, assume that we have 2$~m^3$ of air. Both are 40% humid at 20 °C. Now we exchange 1$~m^3$ with air that is ...
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### How to get the exact temperature from 1880 to 2020? [closed]

Wherever I look, I find "Temperature Anamolies" which I assume is an annual temperature change relative to the previous year. If I wanted to find the exact temperatures (based on NASA's ...
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### Relation between Magnitude of Greenhouse Effect and the Concentration of GHGs like $CO_2$

The Average Surface Temperature of the Earth is calculated by the following equation: $$\sigma T_s^4=\frac{(1-A)\Omega}{4}+\Delta E$$ where, $\sigma$= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant $T_s$= Average Surface ...
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### How exactly is the "global average temperature" calculated and how reasonable is this method?

During the recent (2015) Paris climate negotiations there was a lot of talk in the media about "limiting the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius". I keep wondering about what ...
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### Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely and stop flowing?

Is it possible for rivers to freeze completely in the winter and stop flowing? Are there known examples of this? If yes, how large can these rivers be and where does the water go? There are several ...
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### Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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### Is there a website where I can freely download monthly average temperatures per city?

I am building a garden calendar app, that uses the average temperature for each month to create a calendar. Are there websites that allow me to easily download this data in json format?
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### How can we calculate the temperature of the atmosphere, including the greenhouse effect?

I've been struggling to find equations that express how many degrees of warming greenhouse gases contribute, given the composition of an atmosphere (and solar insolation). What I did find was the ...
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### Why is the pond in my backyard not frozen when it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside?

I am in O'Fallon, Missouri and today it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside. I was taught water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F). I could understand if it was exactly 0 °C (32 °F) that the water might not be turning to ...
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### Where do I get hourly temperature data for cities with a high resolution?

I want to do a project with very high resolution temperature data from a city (any city) with very high resolution (<10 m), in an attempt to create an animated 3D microclimate map for that city. ...
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### What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
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### What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
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### What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
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### How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
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### Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
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### Can minimum relative humidity be greater than maximum relative humidity?

I am trying to calculate minimum and maximum daily Relative Humidity values given a min/max Specific Humidity and min/max Temperature. I found some equations here that work with the given variables, ...
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### Find planetary temperature

I’ve asked this on Worldbuilding, but can anyone find/make me a formula that can be used to predict the mean temperature of a planet, while factoring in greenhouse effect?
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### To what degree does historical measurement inaccuracies contribute to climate change models?

Often the graphs depicting the earth's historical temperature, the time axis extends well over couple of centuries. Also there are few that extends over thousands of years. I wonder to what degree the ...
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### How do I find the temperature of the air mass, and how do I use a t-skew chart?

So the first problem I'm stuck on is this one: An airmass is moving down a mountain from point A to B. At A the temperature is -10 Celsius and the pressure is 890hPa. At point B the pressure is 1010 ...
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### How much of the Earth's surface was covered with water during the Mesozoic?

When the Earth was at its warmest, and there were no ice caps at all, not even during the winter, and thermal expansion meant a certain amount of water took up more space, what ratio of Earth's ...
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### Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
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### Is there a recent global gridded temperature dataset with 0.1 deg resolution?

I've been searching for a 2017 or 2018 or 2019 (or any combo) gridded dataset for surface temperature for the globe with a 0.1 degree resolution. Unfortunately even after hours of searching, for this ...
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### Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
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### Why it feels hotter at Night?

Why does the same temperature feel hotter at night? For example, 70 degrees literally feels hot at night when outside but during the day 70 degrees feels just mild when outside. Why is that? And ...
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### How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
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### Looking for the climate classification for a particular climate

I'm looking for the climate classification among the many different climate classification systems covering my absolute favorite form of climate. If a classification for this doesn't exist, and you ...
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### How it's possible to measure temperature 2000 years ago with such precision?

I saw this graph about the global temperature, it goes back for 2000 years. How is it possible to measure temperature 2000 years back with such a precision of like ~0.1 C? The image from Reddit post I ...
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### Where can I get archived hourly temperature data?

I am looking for historical hourly temperature data from many cities in the US what other data sources are there except wunderground? UPDATE: I will use the data to compare stations from the same ...
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### Is it hotter in different places with the same air temperature?

I am from (and live in) Minnesota, USA. In the summer here it always reaches temperatures in the 90s (F) for periods of time but not every week. The humidity is often high and the dew point often ...
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### Why are temperatures within a few degrees of the all-time high actually pretty common?

I see from a news report that the all-time high temperature, anywhere on Earth, is 129 F. But temperatures within 10 degrees of that record are not rare, and temperatures within 20 degrees are pretty ...