Questions tagged [temperature]

An objective measure of hot and cold, typically measured by a thermometer.

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3
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1answer
105 views

How does the subsurface earth temperature vary around the world?

In the US, when constructing a geothermal heat pump, common knowledge holds that anywhere in the country the subsurface ground temperature at a depth of 5 m will be around 10 to 15 C, which is a good ...
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Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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Climate Change in the North

Why has it been so warm in Moscow, Russia the past few winters where the temperatures even overnight have been above freezing when normally it gets brutally cold?
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How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
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1answer
547 views

Heat at High Altitudes

Why does the temperature of let’s say 85 degrees Fahrenheit in southern California feel hotter at 7,500 ft elevation than it does at sea level?
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1answer
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Difference between isotherms and isotheres

I encounter both similar terms while reading, isotherms and isotheres. Could someone help distinguish and explain to me the difference between them?
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On the solidity of the Earth's core [duplicate]

From what I know from various textbooks, pop-science shows and my classes, the earth's core is solid. But how does the concept of solid and liquid make sense at these high temperatures.
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2answers
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Did global temperature increase or drop in the last 2 years (2017-2018)?

This website Climate change global temperature from a governmental organization, shows 2 graphs , one called "History of global surface temperature since 1880" and the other called "Yearly surface ...
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Where can I find csv or json data on absolute global average temperature

I am essentially looking for a list of raw datasets without any processing. I can find anomaly datasets, but have had no luck with 100% unprocessed (other than averaging, of course) data. This data is ...
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Do hurricanes cool the earth?

I noticed that temperature drops in the surrounding area of a hurricane. Is the heat converted into kinetic energy? Could the shape of the hurricanes reflect sunlight? Do they create more lightning ...
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Is there a way to calculate the ground and 10m temperature from standard 2m temperature measurements?

I am wondering if it is possible at all to calculate the ground temperature and air temperature at 10m above ground from 2m measurements, or at least using data that a standard weather station ...
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364 views

Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...
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Cooling effect from the oceans in global warming

The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ $\Delta F=\alpha\...
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Model relating reservoir releases with downstream temperature

Are there any statistical/numerical models developed relating release from reservoirs with the downstream river temperatures? I know of complicated hydrodynamic models such as CE-QUAL-W2 etc. but I am ...
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1answer
104 views

Were there times during human inhabitated Earth were Earth average temperature was hotter than today?

This article, Earth's temperature in the past 18,000 years seems to show Earth temperature during 5000-3000 years ago was approximately a degree hotter than today. Is this true, were there times ...
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By how much did the Earth's diameter decrease due to cooling, if at all, since it was formed?

The answer to How long until Earth's core solidifies? question cites an estimation that the Earth (as a planet, not the surface of it) has cooled down by about 250K since it was formed. The question ...
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How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
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1answer
42 views

Definition of Surface-based atmospheric duct

I am writing a literature review for a project and I have a problem. Namely, I cannot figure out the the condition required for surface-based duct to occur. Literature does not help either. In one of ...
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Temperature of the earth [closed]

What are the main factors that contribute to the temperature fluctuations/cycles of a location? Is the earth's temperature cycle dictated mainly by the temperature cycle of the ocean? How does the ...
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1answer
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How much energy does the Moon transfer to the Earth, does this affect the Earth's surface temperature?

I'm wondering by how much the gravitation effects, tides etc caused by the moon (and other energy such as moonlight IR) increase the surface temperature of the Earth. So how much warmer than the ...
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2answers
601 views

What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
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How does total pressure affect relative humidity and how do I correct my hygrometer for pressure?

Obviously pressurized air can hold more water than regular air, so an increase in overall pressure would result in an inversely proportional decrease in relative humidity. However, I can't seem to ...
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1answer
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How to classify the ENSO phase of a year?

I am using the ONI index to classify the years of high rainfall seasons (December–February) as El Niño, Neutral or La Niña. El Niño year is classified as one if the ONI index value is +0.5 °C for 5 ...
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What's the largest known range of natural temperature variations of human inhabited Earth across history?

I was reading about the ice age when temperature dropped 11 celsius degrees in relation with our current temperature. Then I found another article which says the temperature fluctuated 15 degree ...
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How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 12 C?

The deep-sea temperature was $12º$C higher $50$ My ago. I would like to know how much the atmospheric pressure at sea level had decreased and how much the water-vapour changed. One can consider no ...
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How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 10 C?

In this paper Temperature-dependent hypoxia explains biogeography and severity of end-Permian marine mass extinction is established a link between an increase of the global temperature by $10^\circ ...
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Debunking weather conspiracy with statistics - why does temperature rise then fall for last weekend in June in recent years

I have a conspiracy-prone friend who believes that people are controlling the weather to ensure good weather for a large, annual festival (last weekend in June in San Francisco). As a scientist, (not ...
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What was the highest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

The article entitled "54 Celsius degrees in Iran, the highest temperature ever recorded?" says 56,6 Celsius may be the highest temperature ever recorded, in Death Valley, California, and it also ...
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What are the hottest temperatures ocean life can survive at [closed]

What are the hottest average annual temperature for life in the ocean to withstand? Particularly algae This could include life from all points in earth history.
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Is this XKCD comic an accurate timeline of the earth's average temperature?

Apologies for the length of the image, which I found at http://xkcd.com/1732/. I'm mostly interested in the temperature line itself, both the historical data and the forward projections. The reason I ...
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1answer
184 views

How closely related is surface air temperature to pressure?

Obviously with a given mass and volume of air, pressure is directly proportional to temperature. However, I would expect the total mass of air within a column of atmosphere to vary over time, due to ...
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151 views

Did temperature for the US state of Illinois reach an all-time record low 1/31/2019?

The State Climatologist Office for Illinois says the all time low temperature of Illinois was -36 °F, with a report of -37 °F in 2009 being disqualified. This morning, the station Sinnissippi ...
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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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Stratosphere height vs. Temperature based on ozone concentration

Why does temperature increase as height increases in the stratosphere (15 km - 60 km above earth), when the ozone molecules are most concentrated at about 25 km?
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1answer
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How much warming there was over time for a specific month?

I'm calculating warming trends in specific places and periods of time, that are related to the time a migratory bird spends in a stopover. But using different methods I got different results and I'm ...
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Why do anticyclones bring clear skies in summertime?

It's obvious that in summer anticyclones bring hot weather. But why clear skies? Heat evaporates the moisture and should lead to the cloud formation, shouldn't it?
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How do I explain why the Tibetan plateau is colder than lowlands at similar latitudes?

A common layman explanation for why does it get colder to higher elevations (considering only the troposphere here) qualitatively boils down to The Sun heats the Earth's surface and the Earth's ...
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1answer
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Does the extension of the absorption line of $\text{CO}_2$ with temperature play a role in the climate change?

I've read not long ago that the absorption line of the $\text{CO}_2$ becomes larger with temperature thanks to Doppler effect (if it's false it would be great to tell me). My question is the following:...
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Rainbow dynamics?

How would steam refract light compared to fog and how would the rainbow appear? Does the temperature of the water drop or ice crystal effect the rainbow in any way? I know the size of the water drop ...
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How much could Earth's temperature increase by the time we run out of oil reserves?

According to this article How long will world's oil reserves last?: At the current rate of extraction oil reserves will last 53 years. And according to this another article, Global temperature - ...
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Is there an approximate rate for water temperature by depth that could be modeled simply?

I know that there are a couple of questions covering latitude and longitude for water temperature, but overall I'm more interested in the rate of temperature change by depth. Thought Process: ...
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Does the US National Weather Service use Celsius or Fahrenheit?

This tweet from the National Weather Service in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, USA says: We have officially hit -30 here at the NWS La Crosse office as of 520 a.m. The wind chill is -54. Be sure to dress ...
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What are the benefits of using conservative temperature in oceanography?

The new standard for ocean temperature is the "conservative temperature". It is based on a hypothetical adiabatic and isohaline change in pressure to the sea surface. Conservative temperature was ...
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1answer
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Do daily operations (max, min etc) on climate model data reference different periods because of UTC?

If I calculate daily accumulated precipitation or daily maximum temperature from global climate data, will I be getting statistics over different local times, because the operation uses the climate ...
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1answer
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What kind of temperature unit is “cK”?

An article about ocean temperature history/modeling has this plot: Where the units are given as cK. cK does not seem to be a ...
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How to predict when contrails are likely to form over a specific location using public data?

I saw the image below used as a click-attractor to an unrelated story about tourism, but found a larger version here. Contrails, or water condensation trails happen when planes pass through the ...
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Does human body temperature impact climate change?

The human body temperature is about 37 °C (99 °F), so as the population increases does this cause the Earth's temperature to rise?
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Temperature rise when snowing

Why does the temperature rise when it is snowing? Is it due to: cloud cover snow requires humid air and warmer air can carry more humidity (so in this case it would be the other way around, i.e. it ...
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1answer
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How is the distribution of Argo floats managed over the Earth's oceans?

The BBC News article Climate change: Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated' mentions Argo floats as one technology to measure the temperature of the oceans, and links to argo.ucsd.edu where ...
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Given a 3 box model of the atmosphere,determine fraction of mass transport from lower layer

P = 300mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 375K P = 600mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 325K P = 900mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 350K (surface) Given that a deep convective plume sends a portion of the bottom layer to the ...