Questions tagged [temperature]

An objective measure of hot and cold, typically measured by a thermometer.

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How temperature anomaly are measured

Temperature Anomaly is the measure used to show that the earth is warming. The formula for temperature anomaly involves in the subtraction of average temperature measurement over 30 years considered ...
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Are there rules to estimate average temperature

I have temperature data from a weather station, but there are missing data (not more than 80% of the daily temperature observations). The World Meteorological Organization has some rules to validate ...
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Estimating fog incidence based on ocean temperature

In the tropics, say the Caribbean, I have read that there is very often a lot of nighttime and morning fog. I have read that the crucial factors are The ocean temperature Cool nighttime air ...
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Near Future Precipitation and Temperature estimations?

I was wondering if anyone here is familiar with temperature and precipitation estimation? I need to estimate P and T from April to July 2016. I am planning to use excel to do the calculation because ...
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Did temperature for the US state of Illinois reach an all-time record low 1/31/2019?

The State Climatologist Office for Illinois says the all time low temperature of Illinois was -36 °F, with a report of -37 °F in 2009 being disqualified. This morning, the station Sinnissippi ...
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Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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Where on Earth has the least changing temperature? [closed]

Is there a map that shows places where the temperature changes the least season to season? Is there a place on Earth where the temperature is the most constant in a comfortable range?
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Why do anticyclones bring clear skies in summertime?

It's obvious that in summer anticyclones bring hot weather. But why clear skies? Heat evaporates the moisture and should lead to the cloud formation, shouldn't it?
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The temperature of the ocean below 1000 m

I have been trying to find data of sea temperatures in the deep sea (>1000 m), but I still haven't found any scientific papers. I have only seen websites talking about the temperatures, but without ...
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What kind of temperature unit is “cK”?

An article about ocean temperature history/modeling has this plot: Where the units are given as cK. cK does not seem to be a ...
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What are the possible mechanisms that could cause a rapid drop of temperature over few days?

I live in Hong Kong. Two days ago, the average daily temperature was around 27–28 °C and in yesterday, it was around 22–23 °C (during daytime it was rather hot i.e. 26–27 °C and it was at night that ...
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What is the second thermometer in the image from the Esperanza Antarctic temperature record?

Today, the Argentinian meteorological service tweeted about a new temperature record for Antarctica of 18.3°C, made on the Espezanza peninsula. This was subsequently reported by many other sources. ...
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Difference in surface temperature between the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Atlantic

Why is the surface waters in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean colder than the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean?
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What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor? [closed]

CO2, methane and other gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. But most of the greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour in the atmosphere. There is always a lot average moisture present, but it ...
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Where'd Summer go?

So I live in Texas, and it get awfully hot in the summer- like 37°C hot- and yet, when winter rolls around, it can get down to 4° or 5° pretty easily. So, my limited understanding or weather and stuff ...
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Given a 3 box model of the atmosphere,determine fraction of mass transport from lower layer

P = 300mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 375K P = 600mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 325K P = 900mb, Pot. Equiv. Temp = 350K (surface) Given that a deep convective plume sends a portion of the bottom layer to the ...
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Airports with longest continuous temperature records

Does anyone have a resource on what airports (or other recording stations) have been recording temperature continuously (daily) for quite a while? I remember reading that some back to the 1910s/1920s,...
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ISA Model and GFS data

I have a newbie question... I always used the International Standard Atmosphere model whenever I needed to calculate the temperature in a given altitude. It always looked accurate to me... However,...
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Global Gridded Daily Temperature (at 2m): difference between GEFS Reforcast and NCEP Reanalysis

I am looking for gridded/raster estimates of daily mean temperature (ideally ambient/at 2 meter) for a public health analysis. Specifically, I want to correlate daily mortality counts with daily mean ...
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How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
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Extent of desert area influence in local climate

With reference to this image...: ...from this recent tweet, I was wondering to what extent would Mediterranean regions be affected by the large desert areas to its South? "Affected", here meaning ...
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How do we calculate an average temperature for the air above a specific point from weather data?

I'm doing a school project on cosmic rays (using data from the HiSPARC database), and we need to be able to calculate the average temperature of the atmosphere above specific cities on a specific date ...
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Trewartha climate classification overlap?

By my reading of the wikipedia page on the Trewartha climate classification, climate classifications are not mutually exclusive. Let's take a look at the climate classification of Iowa City, IA. The ...
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Distribution of thermometric devices on earth

In complex climate models, measurements of Earth-based thermometers are used. What is their geographic distribution - historically? Does each measurement get equal weight?
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What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
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Is it hotter in different places with the same air temperature?

I am from (and live in) Minnesota, USA. In the summer here it always reaches temperatures in the 90s (F) for periods of time but not every week. The humidity is often high and the dew point often ...
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Why do heat waves affect Australia unevenly?

Firstly, I would like to express my deepest condolences to those affected by the extreme heat and catastrophic wildfires on NSW's south coast and in Gippsland (east of Melbourne). When I was looking ...
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Climate change hoax [closed]

I see many scientific articles and newspapers out there saying that the climate change is happening. Yet, there are people who believe climate change is a hoax and a lie. But I haven't seen any '...
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To what degree does historical measurement inaccuracies contribute to climate change models?

Often the graphs depicting the earth's historical temperature, the time axis extends well over couple of centuries. Also there are few that extends over thousands of years. I wonder to what degree the ...
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Is there less precipitation (rain/snow) in cold weather than in warm weather?

To me it seems that there is a lot less precipitation when temperatures go below -5°C (23°F). Is there any evidence for that? Could this be a local phenomenon (I live in Germany)? What could be the ...
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What is Celsius degrees to tenths? [duplicate]

I'm looking at a historical weather data report and the TMAX and TMIN are like this: 44 and -21, the following day 72 and 17. First I thought it was Fahrenheit, but the conversion didn't make any ...
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Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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How long it takes to cool a planet?

Suppose a planet like Earth or Venus is totally isolated from sunlight. How quick would it cool down? On Earth it seems to me that the air temperature drops significantly even during a night. Does it ...
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What do the researchers in Antarctica wear if they must go outside during winter? [closed]

The Vostok station can observe temperatures as low -90 C during winter. Human skin gets frozen wounds on the spot on direct contact with such cold air and precautions must be made to avoid open ...
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How does the subsurface earth temperature vary around the world?

In the US, when constructing a geothermal heat pump, common knowledge holds that anywhere in the country the subsurface ground temperature at a depth of 5 m will be around 10 to 15 C, which is a good ...
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What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
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How Hot was the Oligocene?

When studying the paleoenvironment of the Oligocene epoch, a period in Earth's history spanning from 34 to 23 million years ago, I had a really hard time understanding what the climate was like in ...
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How much of the Earth's heat is caused by the hot centre?

What is the percentage of the Earth's warmth that the Earth's hot centre is responsible for? What would be the temperature of the atmosphere if the Earth's centre was 18° C (average temperature on the ...
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How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
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Stratosphere height vs. Temperature based on ozone concentration

Why does temperature increase as height increases in the stratosphere (15 km - 60 km above earth), when the ozone molecules are most concentrated at about 25 km?
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Accurately Measuring Indoor/Outdoor Air Temperature & Relative Humidity

I’m conducting an independent study as a concerned citizen on the indoor temperature at an animal shelter to support the need of improved air conditioning by documenting how hot it can reach during ...
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The effect of buildings on frost

I have see this morning this curious garden where one part was covered with frost while the other was frost free. Question 1: What are the factor that play a role in this configuration? My guess ...
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By how much can rain temperature vary from the ground-level air temperature?

I'm guessing that falling rain equilibrates fairly quickly to the temperature of the air it's falling through. However, it isn't always at the exact same temperature, which is why we can get the ...
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Where do I get hourly temperature data for cities with a high resolution?

I want to do a project with very high resolution temperature data from a city (any city) with very high resolution (<10 m), in an attempt to create an animated 3D microclimate map for that city. ...
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Given only pressure and potential equivalent temperature, can I determine other variables?

I am given a 3 box model of atmosphere where each layer is 300 mbar thick, and the potential equivalent temperature of each is given (from bottom to top - 350K, 325K, 375K). Am I able to determine ...
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How to classify the ENSO phase of a year?

I am using the ONI index to classify the years of high rainfall seasons (December–February) as El Niño, Neutral or La Niña. El Niño year is classified as one if the ONI index value is +0.5 °C for 5 ...
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Are pumps used in geothermal systems?

The water held underground in a geothermal system is under high temperature and pressure. Are pumps used to raise the very hot underground water to the surface or does the water rise under its own ...
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Predicting the weather in two months [closed]

EDIT 6/13/2020: Actual Jan average from same website was 50.3 °F, which is even above my one-sigma bound, so I failed badly. What did I miss now that we have hindsight? On Nov 1, I looked at the ...
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What 3-day smoke forecasts are height-resolved?

In order to accurately perform weather forecasts during large wildfire events, weather models must include the smoke. Smoke reflects sunlight back to space, decreasing the light absorbed by the ...
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What are the advantages of analyzing temperature in Kelvin?

I have air temperature data from reanalysis that I want to analyze. The reanalysis data is in Kelvin, so I'm wondering why they use Kelvin. Is there any advantage or difference in analyzing ...