Questions tagged [terminology]

Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words that in specific contexts are given specific meanings, meanings that may deviate from the meaning the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language.

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What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper?

What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper? If you climbing an easy slope and encounter a new steeper slope (such as formed by a rocky hill and accompanying soil ...
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Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

Question When discussing "PM2.5", is there any standardized understanding of which particles are or are not included? Is it everything that's 2.5 microns and smaller? Or Everything between 2.5 and 0....
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Is “Chasm One” the really the name of this feature on the Brunt Ice Shelf?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
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Is there the right term for time points in hourly weather forecast?

Each hourly weather forecast has two columns with date and time. The first column: forecast creation date and time (the column (1) in a table below). The second column: forecast hour (the column (2) ...
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What is an isolated land area of one type of rock surrounded by land of a differing rock type called?

For example, if there were a large land area with exposed basalt, in the middle of which is a smaller isolated patch of Granite, what is that isolated patch called? I came across the single-word ...
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Are nutrient cycles described in terms of a level of health or of degradation?

Nutrient cycles such as the carbon cycle, water cycle, or nitrogen cycle underlie much of our day-to-day, year-to-year activities and well-being. Is there a term or system of assessing how "healthy" ...
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Subrelluric forces in a volcanic eruption

I am listening to a song about volcanoes. It is called "Pyroclastic Annihilation" performed by a brutal deth/thrash metal band called "Demolition Hammer". It is from their album "Epidemic of Violence" ...
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1answer
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How does palingenetic fusion occur in rock?

As far as charnockites are concerned, granitic charnockites are formed due to palingenetic fusion and metasomatism, while granulitic charnockites are formed due to high grade metamorphism. When I ...
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Is there a formally-defined converse of a Prominence Walk?

My question was inspired by this one - in particular, the subtopic of pumping water from the ocean to the below-sea-level basins to deal with rising sea levels (spoiler: it's horribly infeasible and ...
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Longest land path on Afro-Eurasia

Regarding Afro-Eurasia as single continent, I tried to draw longest geodesic line within it and got which is 16628 km (10 332 miles) length. Looks like this line is rather stable and lasts from ...
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Are there other divisions of Earth following beyond hemispheres? [closed]

I know it's a silly question, but it really bothers me since the word hemisphere derives from Greek ημί- (i.e. hemi-) which cannot be further expanded, while the English equivalent semi- can be ...
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Is the atmosphere a part of Earth?

My question is quite simple, but I can't seem to find any answer to it: how do we define the limit of the object "Earth"? More specifically, can we consider the atmosphere a part of it? Or even the ...
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Confused about whether physical impact is 'erosion'

When I dropped a stone or a crystal onto the floor, can it be considered as erosion? What is the difference between rocks breaking due to natural disturbances vs human action? Here is the stone/...
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Correct phrase for a 'forgetful' natural system?

This is a rather general question: assume I have a system that has a certain 'forgetful' property, which means that while I can offset its current state for a moment, it will eventually return to its ...
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What are the differences between alluvial, eluvial and colluvial deposits? [duplicate]

There's always confusion and disagreement when these terms are mentioned. Need to be sure of their exact meanings.
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What separates the Karakoram Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range?

In Google Maps, I don't see any boundary between the Karakoram (a.k.a. Karakorum) Range, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Range. What separates these ranges?
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What is Oligo-Miocene radiation?

Some studies about Earth's fosilized plants/animals mention a "Oligo-Miocene radiation". Examples: Our study therefore strengthens previous suggestions that the absence of very large penguins ...
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Growth of polar vortices vs projective geometry; what does this figure mean?

I was reading the Wikipedia article about a mathematical subject called projective geometry, and I noticed that the second image in the body of the article referred to the "growth of polar vortices". ...
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What is it called when water forms to look like a root structure? [closed]

I've tried looking it up on google but I can't find anything. I'm talking about when a small amount of water forms to look like a root hair structure, thin and branching out.
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1answer
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Should Imilac (meteorite) be singular or plural?

I first saw the term "Imilac meteorite" in this BBC News article. It shows a photograph of a meteorite on display along with the caption: The Imilac meteorite was found in the Atacama Desert in ...
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How did the terms “acidic” and “basic” come to be associated with $SiO_2$ in igneous rocks?

Students of geology are introduced to in their petrology course, (or used to be), to the terms "acidic", "basic", and the associated term "intermediate" in relation to %$SiО­­­_{2}$ in igneous rocks, ...
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“Impression and pseudomorphism” in fossils

In a book on invertebrate paleontology I have (Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeontology, A) there is a diagram showing possible fates of a shell after the death of the organism. One of the possible ...
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MS in Geosciences With Concentration in Environmental Geosciences Degree Outlook

I am considering a MS in Geoscience but am curious with the naming conventions associated within the fields of geology. Is Geoscience similar, or interchangeable with geology? Yes, I would be new to ...
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Is there a name for these “pouring” clouds?

I snapped this photo with my phone flat against the window of a bus, facing south while traveling west across a bridge in New Taipei City. I'd say it was at about 24.995N, 121.438E. It was about 14:00 ...
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If rocks are stones, what type of rock are gallstones? [closed]

From Wikipedia: Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, ...
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Are “rainy season” and “less rainy season” good ways to describe Amazon seasons in English scientific language?

I'm a Brazilian native. Here, the English translation to the most didactic way to express the Amazon seasons are: "rainy season", and "less rainy season", because it always rains a lot, but there is a ...
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Esker vs. Kame vs. Drumlin - what's the difference?

In researching glacial features, I came across the terms esker, drumlin, and kame. I know that they are all depositional features that are shaped like a mound. My impression is that an esker is longer ...
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What is meant by controlling and reacting factor?

I'm interested in issues related to Global warming and therefore started to read about it from this website --> Link As I was reading I got stuck in the third paragraph of ...
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What is meant by controlling and reacting factor? [duplicate]

I'm interested in issues related to Global warming and therefore started to read about it from this website -->> link As I was reading I got stuck in the third paragraph of ...
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2answers
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What is a breadboard (retrieval) algorithm in the context of geophysical satellite retrievals/remote sensing?

In a recent met-jobs job posting (different version here) for a researcher with a background in climatology/meteorology/hydrology or environmental sciences, I saw the phrase breadboard retrieval ...
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What is the difference between nappe and thrust sheet?

The titles of many geology articles contain words like "nappes and thrust sheets". Basically these are rather similar and in certain languages can be denoted with one term. The dictionaries tend to ...
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What is a “show” in petroleum geology?

Is a show when naturally ocurring oil seeps out of a fracture on the surface? Or is it when engineers fracture rocks in order to extract oil?
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The Size Hierarchy of a Landmass

If we judge a hierarchy of a landmass by size, here is what, in my knowledge, it would have looked like, from largest to smallest: Continent Subcontinent ??? Island Islet In regards to size, is ...
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Difference between “Geology” and “Physical(Natural) Geography”?

I know "Geology" is a branch of "Natural sciences" and is for studying natural and physical phenomena related to earth. But "Physical Geography/Natural Geography" seems to study exactly the same thing....
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Why are geologists and geographers not specialists in one of the branches of Earth science?

I though that geologists and geographers are specialists in one of the branches of Earth science, but they aren't. Geology is a branch of Earth science, but geologists and geographers are in this ...
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1answer
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If lava flows back into the ground, would it be called magma?

If lava flows back into the ground, would it be called magma again? Is there a difference if it flowed into a new hole vs the flow it came from?
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Topography in general sense

What does topography mean in topographical barrier? I can't fully understand the word topography. I have read the pages appearing on googling topography. Topography is the arrangement of the natural ...
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Is the term “fertile ash” a misnomer?

I understand that volcanic ash contains minerals and can make soil more fertile. But I've also heard the term "fertile ash" in some documentary (I have forgotten in what context). Is that a ...
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1answer
147 views

What is Stock or Overflow Pit? Is it a terminology in geography? What is the correct word for it? [closed]

I have an excel file that I have to make the join with another table that has a column listed of different kind of feature types. This was done by someone else who did GPS'ed and spell that word and ...
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What do you call boulders of non sedimentary rock that were lithified into sandstone?

I'm convinced there is a word for this. I was in the Hoodoos at Writing on Stone this weekend and kept noticing what looked like reddish quartzite boulders laying around in the sand, or sometimes ...
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1answer
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Definition of “hundreds of ice accretion”

I saw this line today in a NWS weather alert: ACCUMULATIONS...A FEW HUNDREDS OF ICE ACCRETION. Is this standard terminology? Does "hundreds (of)" somehow refer to a unit of measure, or is there a (...
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What is the difference between climate change and global warming?

1. Question: In the article, Global Warming vs. Climate Change is an example of the confusion regarding these terms. What are the "official" definitions of "Climate Change" and "Global Warming"? ...
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What is the name for the forested areas in mountains below the treeline?

Taiga is the Russian word for big areas of forest wilderness in high latitude regions. What about forests in the mountains? What is the name for the forested areas in mountains which are below the ...
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Does this optical phenomenon have a name?

Last summer, I snuck out with a row boat around 4am. Eventually with the sun risen but still quite low in the horizon, I was rowing in the middle of the absolutely still lake when I witnessed an ...
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In hydrology, what's the difference between specific and total catchment area?

I am getting stuck on the concepts of Total Catchment Area (TCA) and Specific Catchment Area (SCA) as I try to learn more about TOPMODEL and hydrology modeling. What do these metrics mean in hydrology?...
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What is the technical term for spatially aggregated measures?

Is there an adjective to describe data that has areal weight, like area, biomass, population, etc. — data that has to be aggregated by sum for example — vs. data that doesn't, such as landcover ...
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Water levels: What does “mBf” mean?

I have seen the term MBf used in a couple of places (a ramp specification and a Hydrological Study) to describe height or depth of water. What is this unit? Can it be converted to meters? For bonus ...
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What is Geoalchemy?

I am reading this paper, and the authors have an interesting affiliation: Center for Geoalchemy, MIT? A quick Google Scholar search shows that it was a thing in the late 1970s to 1980s. Seems like ...
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What does the term “Snow Interval” mean?

When looking Weather Station readings from the National Weather Service website, what does the term "Snow Interval (inches)" actually mean? 6 hr and 24 hr readings are obvious, but I can't seem to ...
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What is the difference between eluvium and alluvium?

I was reading about kimberlite on Wikipedia and it mentioned eluvium. I've heard of alluvium, alluvial fans, alluvial deposits, etc. However, when I looked up eluvium, it sounded exactly like alluvium....