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# Questions tagged [thermodynamics]

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### Why is the pond in my backyard not frozen when it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside?

I am in O'Fallon, Missouri and today it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside. I was taught water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F). I could understand if it was exactly 0 °C (32 °F) that the water might not be turning to ...
3k views

### How does anthropogenic heating affect global warming?

Anthropogenic-sourced greenhouse gases are commonly cited as the main source for human-caused climate change. However, something that I never see discussed is the actual heat produced by human ...
5k views

### Do fossil fuels insulate the crust from the Earth's interior?

I was doing a project for my English class, and I came upon the article Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change. I can't view the full text of the article, but the abstract piqued ...
1k views

### Is global warming being moderated by latent heat of melting polar ice?

I've only had a secondary education in physics, so bear with me, but with the greenhouse effect and all, wouldn't we be much hotter already if the ice melt-rate wasn't increasing, since more (heat) ...
5k views

### How does Antarctica stay frozen?

Antarctica receives heat from the Sun every day, so how does it stay frozen? I have some thoughts about the answer but I'm unsure of whether it is correct; I hope people here can clarify. My idea: ...
599 views

### How do we measure (or empirically calculate) the amount of entropy in the atmosphere and oceans?

Here's a paper on the entropy budget1, where moist entropy is defined in equation (8) as $$s = (1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln T - R_d \ln p_d) + q_t C_l \ln T + \frac{q_v L_v}{T} - q_v R_v \ln \mathcal{H}$$ ...
22k views

### Why does it rain more at night than during the day?

I'm living near a sea, and it rains mostly and heavily at night from 11 PM to 3 AM. The weather is mostly clear during daytime. Air is generally cooler at night, and cool air holds less moisture ...
763 views

### Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

I've been trying to make sense of the argument surrounding sea level rise and not getting very far. Those who claim that Sea Level Rise is insignificant generally assert that we have been unable to ...
752 views

### First to Sail the Jet Stream Around the World

My questions are related to a scenario discussed on Earth Science: A huge (heavier-than-air) kite sailing in and out of the jet streams. The kite: The scenario: The assumptions: Such an airship ...
373 views

I'm trying to gain a firmer conceptual understanding of how redox buffers work in petrology, specifically how oxygen fugacity influences mineral crystallization. While I understand the mathematical ...
184 views

### Does Earth risk losing its oceans to space due to global warming?

I read that we are facing the very real possibility of Earth's average temperature rising by more that 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. As I understand our planet is constantly loosing ...
156 views

### The Role of the Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex & Ocean Current in Keeping Antarctica Frozen

An offshoot from the question how does Antarctica stay frozen? Do the Anatarctic circumpolar vortex and circumpolar ocean current play a role in keeping Antarctica frozen?
448 views

### Is the ocean guaranteed to warm in a warming climate, regardless of whether it absorbs LW radiation?

More specifically, I've seen some discussion of this article: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/09/why-greenhouse-gases-heat-the-ocean/ which claims that the observed ocean warming ...
301 views

### Pressure of condensation of an air parcel

If a parcel of air ascends adiabatically, would condensation be reached at the lifting condensation level (LCL) or the level of free condensation (LFC)?
509 views

### Why doesn't subducted earth crust melt?

If you take a look at a typical picture tectonic plate subducting under another plate, the subducting plate is always drawn as deep (seemingly tens of km) into molten rock, but the subducted part of ...
196 views

### Sensible and Latent Heat. how to separate them

I need help with latent and sensible heat. P.S: I have been through all Wikipedia and other pages that say phase change and temperature change. My Question is: if there is convection, it will take ...
202 views

### A balloon falling from space?

How long would it take for a store bought rubber balloon filled in space with air to fall from space just outside the atmosphere and touch ground? Would it Pop? Added after comments: Ideally you ...
129 views

### Why do buoyantly rising mantle minerals melt, yet buoyantly rising atmospheric waters condense?

In the mantle, minerals contained in buoyant plumes of rock undergo phase changes from solid to liquid (decompression melting). In the atmosphere, waters contained in buoyant plumes of air undergo ...
157 views

### Elevation of Atmosphere differ?

Does the atmosphere depth (or how high the air molecules from the ground) of Earth or Mars differ gradually or can there be plumes of atmosphere that reaches into space? If I were able to travel a ...
164 views

### Is there a table available for the maximum potential intensity of hurricanes?

The maximum potential intensity (MPI) is a computed quantity that often sets a maximum bound for maximum hurricane wind speed, though rarely, the wind speeds observed can exceed it. MPI is based off ...
326 views

### what is the best way to actually make the Earth lose heat?

I know that refrigerated air just moves heat around, and creates more by using fossil fuel energy in the process. If we wanted to actually reduce the amount of net heat energy in an area on the ...
46 views

### How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 12 C?

The deep-sea temperature was $12º$C higher $50$ My ago. I would like to know how much the atmospheric pressure at sea level had decreased and how much the water-vapour changed. One can consider no ...
112 views

### How to plot orography for vertical profile of a certain variable along pressure levels in GRADS

I am using GRADS (1, 2, 3) to plot ERA reanalysis relative humidity profile for latitudinal average of 15N to 37N, and along the longitude from 40E to 130E. The orography is quite obvious and thus ...
43 views

### Internal energy, enthalpy, and work in the atmosphere

I'm writing a toy radiative-convective atmospheric model and need to relate the heat flux convergences (either surface sensible heat flux or the radiative flux) to changes in atmospheric layer ...
37 views

### Phase conversion of snow and ice due to irradiation versus melting

A few years ago another question touched on the relative rates of sublimation versus melting in terms of snow and snow pack disappearance. What was unusual about the answer is the huge range of ...
107 views

### Doesn't the sublimation rate on glaciers depend on the (specific) latent heat of sublimation of water ice?

On p. 6 of this article: Bliss, A.K., Cuffey, K.M., Kavanaugh, J.L., 2011. Sublimation and surface energy budget of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology 57, 684–696. There is an ...