Questions tagged [upper-atmosphere]

The upper-atmosphere is the part of earth's atmosphere that is above the homosphere (where all gases are well mixed) and starts at approximatly 100km. When asking questions specifically about the upper-atmosphere, use this tag and also include the [atmosphere] tag and [meteorology] tag if appropriate.

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4
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2answers
60 views

Can ionospheric plasma disturbances effect the weather?

I've read about how ionospheric discharges like jets can be initiated/triggered by lightning, and how lightning can propagate upwards from clouds. What I was wondering is if this can happen in ...
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0answers
20 views

Does airglow intensity systematically change during the night?

Airglow is caused, among other factors, by recombination of atoms ionized during the day. This makes me think that during the night concentration of these ions should reduce, lowering intensity of ...
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0answers
26 views

The differences on the atmospheric transportation for various trace metal in atmosphere

I have known that the atmospheric lifetimes of chemical species were highly dependent on their physicochemical properties. For example, $SO_2$ might exist for 5-8 days, while $NO_2$ could only exist ...
7
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1answer
252 views

Why is the Earth's shadow blue?

After every sunset, once the sun is gone, I always enjoy seen the belt of venus rising in the other side, followed by the Earth's shadow. This is a picture I took (you will find better ones online). ...
4
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0answers
196 views

Photo of sprites in a clear dark sky, how is this possible?

above x2: Photos by David Finlay, from here. The BBC news article Rare 'sprites' photographed beside Southern Lights shows photographs by the Australian photographer David Finlay. They are remarkably ...
8
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3answers
4k views

ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
7
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1answer
160 views

Persistence time of ozone

Ozone is formed in the upper atmosphere by ultraviolet light, and broken down by ultraviolet, spontaneous reactions and artificial pollutants among other things. Suppose there were no artificial ...
3
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1answer
69 views

How would this experiment's different particle types produce atmospheric reflectivity?

The MIT Technology Review news item Harvard Scientists Moving Ahead on Plans for Atmospheric Geoengineering Experiments discusses a proposed experiment to study in a carefully controlled way the ...
5
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1answer
81 views

What is the characteristical time of the loss of the Earth atmosphere, how can it be calculated?

Somewhere I've read it is in the order of some tens of billions of years, but unfortunately I can't find any reference with it in Google. I suspect, the losses are coming mainly from analyzing the ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the composition and pressure of the exosphere?

I've read that the pressure and temperature are different - how different are they, and does that affect the atmosphere's composition?
3
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0answers
2k views

How to convert eta level to pressure level in WRF model

I am working WRF outputl file and require to extract wind and temp values at 850 hPa, 700 hPa and 500 hPa pressure levels. As the WRF vertical coordinates are based on eta level, I am having trouble ...
7
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2answers
823 views

Why is at high altitude more light from oxygen in the auroras while it is heavier than nitrogen?

In an other recent question is said that because of diffusion and thermal causes oxygen and nitrogen are mixed. Nevertheless oxygen is a little bit heavier than oxygen so it should be lower in the ...
7
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1answer
121 views

What causes the semi-annual mesospheric meteoric potassium variability?

In a recent study presented in the article First global observations of the mesospheric potassium layer (Dawkins et al. 2014), space-borne resonance fluorescence observations confirmed previous LIDAR ...
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1answer
170 views

Noctilucent clouds and anthropogenic climate change

In reading about observing noctilucent clouds, several articles about this phenomena, such as Science Daily's Spectacular 'Night-shining' Clouds Could Be A Harbinger Of Climate Change, suggest that ...
12
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1answer
271 views

Project Mogul: Does upper atmosphere indeed have a sound waveguide channel?

While the project was deemed a failure (see below), does the upper atmospheric acoustic waveguide exist? What are the propagation losses for low-frequency sounds? Where can one find further ...
6
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1answer
137 views

How much total heat is contained in the upper layers of the atmosphere?

In particular, I'm interested in the heat contained in the stratosphere, mesophere, and thermosphere.
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1answer
450 views

What factors determine the height of the turbopause?

The turbopause separates (by definition) the homosphere from the heterosphere. What factors cause the turbopause to be where it is? Is it affected by mesopheric composition, solar irradiance, global ...