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Questions tagged [volcanic-eruption]

A volcanic eruption happens when magma reaches the surface, either effusively (as lava) or explosively (as tephra).

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How come the pressure/shock waves of an explosive volcanic eruption almost always fail to cause any damage?

(Please read the text thoroughly before giving an answer) A big explosive eruption goes off with the energy of hundreds or thousands of nuclear weapons combined. It would be expected that the massive ...
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1 answer
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How do you determine if basalt originates from a mid-oceanic ridge or from a continental flow?

How do we distinguish basalt which formed in an oceanic-floor flow from basalt formed in a terrestrial flow using large-scale observations?
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In which conditions ignimbrites devitrifies?

Devitrification is the crystallization of volcanic glass to crystals. Obsidian groundmass -black in color- turns to white with devitrification. I want to learn why devitrification takes place. ...
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Can a cryovolcanic eruption be as powerful as a normal volcanic eruption?

The most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history was the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, an explosion equivalent to 33 billion tons of TNT. Is there any way a cryovolcanic eruption could be as ...
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How long does a stratovolcano live?

Will it live for several million years? Is 3-4 millions years normal?
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Causal relationship between the simultaneous eruptions of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea? Does one cause the other or perhaps a third phenomenon cause both?

The CBS News' headline Two volcanoes erupt simultaneously in Hawaii for first time in decades: "A very sacred event that we are watching" suggests that simultaneous eruptions from these two ...
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How have Icelandic geologists determined the position and length of the magma under Grindavík?

The Iceland Met Office website has a status page at https://en.vedur.is/about-imo/news/a-seismic-swarm-started-north-of-grindavik-last-night It has mentioned using models to determine the location and ...
5 votes
2 answers
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Eruptive fissures in Hawaii associated with Kilauea; what are they? What is really happening?

I hear news of "eruptive lava fissures" opening up in Hawaii, nine of them at last count. But I don't understand what these are really. Are these existing, older lava tubes that are suddenly opening ...
2 votes
1 answer
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How to model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosion?

I am trying to understand how can I model the travel time of tsunami waves generated by volcanic explosions? I want to analyze the 2022 Tonga tsunami. I have been using the UNESCO CoMIT software with ...
5 votes
2 answers
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How is felsic magma produced at island arcs?

I previously believed that continental crust owes its lower density to the partial melting of oceanic crust; the mantle would partially melt at mid-ocean ridges to produce basaltic crust, and when ...
3 votes
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How far can an andesitic lava flow, and what is the velocity?

For an effusive volcanic activity, how far an andesitic lava can flow? What is the velocity? Eruption volume 0.2 km3 with 25 degree slope.
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Why aren't there ultra acid igneous rocks?

In my study, I found that in volcanoes when the magma is going up it formed different types of rocks. There are basic, acidic and ultrabasic. My question is why isn't there ultra acid igneous rocks ...
4 votes
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Can people on the side of a volcano survive the eruption?

Imagine a couple of people are at the side of a huge volcano, halfway to the summit, when it erupts. There's an opening to the Chambers right beside them. Fire belched from its riven summit. The ...
7 votes
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Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
4 votes
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Why is felsic (granitic) lava so much more viscous when flowing (or trying to) than mafic (basaltic) lava?

A lower average temperature is, apparently, only part of the answer.... Several sites said composition, not temperature, explains most of the difference... And the difference in viscosity can be up to ...
11 votes
3 answers
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What would be the precursors to a repeated Lake Toba super eruption?

Lake Toba, Indonesia is a supervolcano which was the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. It ...
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How was the Mozambique Belt formed

I'm looking for some of the most comprehensive or significant articles on the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. If anyone can recommend some specific papers regarding the Geological history of the belt ...
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How common are volcanic-induced rain events?

Last year I did an online summer course on remote sensing of volcanoes held by the University of Hawaii at Hilo. During the course, we had a presentation about the monitoring campaign during the 2018 ...
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Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
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Bouvet Island volcano [closed]

In this remote island (the most remote!) there is a volcano that wikipedia report as inactive, but from google maps there seems to be some ash in the sky. Are there some ongoing eruption?
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Why would volcano eruption cause cardiac arrest?

Following recent eruption of Mt Ontake and the sad news of over 30 people found in 'cardiac arrest', why would the eruption cause it? My initial thought would be that the cause of death would ...
11 votes
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Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic "spring"?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense ...
1 vote
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How much did the worst volcanic eruption in human history affect global temperature?

According to this, 2018’s Biggest Volcanic Eruption of Sulfur Dioxide In extreme cases, like the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, these tiny aerosol particles can scatter so ...
2 votes
3 answers
128 views

Fissure eruption

Can fissure eruptions dislocate/deform ( fault, rotate, bend, folding) the surrounding strata which fissure ascending into. Or, can a laccolith reach to the surface (and flow) after folding the ...
1 vote
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Should I perform EOF analysis on an unevenly-spaced time series?

I have a dataset of sample concentrations of several ions/elements (Ca 2+, SO4 2-, K +, S, Ca, V, etc.) from an ice core which I am using to detect volcanic eruptions. The raw version of the dataset ...
7 votes
1 answer
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Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
4 votes
1 answer
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What is the largest earthquake attributable solely to volcanic activity

I was recently and for the first time caught in an earthquake. This being my first time, I freaked out and had no idea whether the building was going to collapse or not. I was later told that this ...
4 votes
2 answers
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Subrelluric forces in a volcanic eruption

I am listening to a song about volcanoes. It is called "Pyroclastic Annihilation" performed by a brutal deth/thrash metal band called "Demolition Hammer". It is from their album "Epidemic of Violence" ...
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What is meant by intraplate volcanism?

I am having massive confusion on whether intraplate volcanism refers to volcanism occurring at plate boundaries or away from plate boundaries (such as formation of ocean island basalts), or perhaps ...
3 votes
1 answer
978 views

Would a Yellowstone eruption destroy global agriculture?

Someone recently claimed in my hearing that if the Yellowstone caldera were to erupt, the resulting ash cloud would end all agriculture for a year or two. (The speaker is not a scientist, and neither ...
24 votes
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Why did the Laki eruption of 1783 produce so much fluorine?

The Laki fissure eruption of 1783/4 in Iceland was not particularly large or explosive, but it is infamous for the large quantities of fluorine (or hydrofluoric acid) and SO2 that it produced, and the ...
4 votes
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What causes lava eruptions (and shutoffs)?

I understand the process of volcanism and the reason for magma deposition on the surface of the earth. What is not clear to me, or what seems to be less well explained is why eruptions occur and then ...
12 votes
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Can climate change cause earthquakes, tsunamis, or volcanic eruptions?

Different scientists have brought forth a theory that climate change can cause earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. For example: Professor Bill McGuire of University College London in his ...
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How does 10mm/yr of plate subduction provide enough material to create eruptions?

If the convergent boundary is only consuming 10mm of oceanic crust per year, it "seems" like that would provide insufficient material to cause the level of eruption generally observed. I am making the ...
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What precursor geological activity occurred prior to the Parícutin Volcano eruption in 1943?

Parícutin Volcano, sometimes referred to as the 'A Volcano Born in a Mexican Cornfield' (which is also the title of a book published in 1993, more information here), was one of the most well ...