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Questions tagged [volcanology]

The properties and behaviour of volcanoes, from the genesis of magmas to their ascent and emission at the surface of the Earth (or other planetary environments).

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Are there any specific examples of overlapping impact and volcanic craters on Earth?

This answer to Can a crater form inside another crater in Astronomy SE points out that in addition to impact-on-impact double craters, there can be volcanic double craters, and even a one on the other ...
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3 votes
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How did Mt. Etna get so good at blowing smoke rings? Is this new?

Screenshots below are from Bloomberg News' April 10, 2024 Italy's Mt. Etna Puffs Out Smoke Rings (also available at AP News' April 7, 2024: Mount Etna blows spectacular smoke rings into the sky). Some ...
uhoh's user avatar
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What is the pitch and roll in a tiltmeter sensor?

I wonder if you could help me to understand what the pitch and roll mean for an tiltmeter sensor? I have tiltmeter data and I don´t understand at all how it works. If you can recommend literature on ...
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Is there a structural deformation pattern on explosion caldera wall?

We know that with any type of faulting, riedel shears and veins occur on the blocks. What about explosion caldera walls. Is there any kind of deformation pattern to seek on the remaining wall (block)
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
1 vote
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How long would it take for a large impact crater to stop being volcanic?

(For context, this is for a science fiction novel in which a chunk of an earth-like planet is expelled. I suppose the nearest real-world situation would be a large meteorite strike.) Suppose an impact,...
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In which conditions ignimbrites devitrifies?

Devitrification is the crystallization of volcanic glass to crystals. Obsidian groundmass -black in color- turns to white with devitrification. I want to learn why devitrification takes place. ...
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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How can you infer the burning degree (Celcius etc) of a wood from a heat effected specimen?

In metamorphic petrogenesis; you can infer the occurrence pressure and temperature of the rock from the minerals and other features inside, with various instrumental techniques. Is there any ...
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
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Do Pumice and obsidian pyroclasts from a single explosion have the same chemical composition?

Do Pumice and obsidian pyroclasts from a single explosion have the same chemical composition? For same vent, same eruption. Obsidian is a glass and pumice is a glass too. They must have the same ...
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
3 votes
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Does each volcano have a fingerprint?

Thinking about arc volcanism in a region, and there are two neighboring composite volcanoes 50 km apart from each other. Do you expect any differences about their products (lavas, pyroclastic deposits)...
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
258 views

How long will red hot lava from the Sundhnúkur eruption in Iceland be visible?

I'll be in Iceland in a few weeks and would love to see glowing red hot lava, however, the recent Sundhnúkur eruption just ended, after erupting for three days. So no new lava is being pumped out, I ...
neubert's user avatar
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Why do lava flows solidify faster in the center rather than the margins?

https://youtu.be/F0tmu-zaXig?t=81https://youtu.be/m3okcIdkLjk?t=452 These lava flows have cooler, solidified lava in the center, and hotter, molten lava on their flanks, pretty consistently across ...
S.M.'s user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How long does a stratovolcano live?

Will it live for several million years? Is 3-4 millions years normal?
Muharrem Yavuz's user avatar
5 votes
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51 views

How have Icelandic geologists determined the position and length of the magma under Grindavík?

The Iceland Met Office website has a status page at https://en.vedur.is/about-imo/news/a-seismic-swarm-started-north-of-grindavik-last-night It has mentioned using models to determine the location and ...
John McCarthy's user avatar
1 vote
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Is the Pacific Plate composed of smaller plates?

The question, Why are all lower mantle plumes under oceans? has the following diagram which was taken from Wikipedia Commons. About half of the large red dots occur on or near the boundaries of ...
Fred's user avatar
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Why are all lower mantle plumes under oceans?

Having a look at the attached image (original at Wikipedia Hot Spot page) I noticed that all mantle plumes originating from lower mantle (in red) are under oceans. Why?
Leos Ondra's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
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Why is basalt denser than granite?

If lava is nothing but magma breaking through the earth's surface, then why is basalt more dense than granite? I understand that something happens during the cooling process, but cannot find any ...
Koushik Sarkar's user avatar
-4 votes
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Is the 30,000 HYDRON COLLIDERS around this planet being used to manipulate Earth's magnetic fields to create eruptions, earthquakes,ECT [closed]

Is cern/DARPA using all 30,000 HYDRON COLLIDERS scattered around earth being used to manipulate weather, natural disasters, like activating the 48 volcanoes that are erupting that started at the end ...
Lucifer Shane's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
93 views

Formation of Mount Elbrus

Mount Elbrus, in the Caucasus region of Russia, 65 km southwest from Kislovodsk, is a major, isolated volcano in the heart of a continent-continent collision zone. It is not normal for volcanoes to ...
harry.kuril's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Does granite and basalt behave differently in different atmospheric pressures?

We all know that the oxygen levels increase and decrease as well as the temperature, so I believe it's safe to assume atmospheric pressure changes as well... And since granite and basalt are formed ...
American woman's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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How does a volcanic eruption cool the planet's surface?

For example, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 according to this paper, The introduction of large amounts of sulphuric acid aerosol into the stratosphere increases the planetary albedo (...
pretzlstyle's user avatar
2 votes
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What makes special a volcanic pipe to be stable until the mantle?

Comming from this question: Can we really travel through earth's core? I wonder what makes special a volcanic pipe to be stable since the mantle through the surface, in comparison to our try or ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Volcanology book to make an app for first courses students

I want to make an app for first courses geology students that include the types of volcanoes and eruptions. Can you recommend me a book (in English, French or Spanish) that could help me make the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
163 views

Causal relationship between the simultaneous eruptions of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea? Does one cause the other or perhaps a third phenomenon cause both?

The CBS News' headline Two volcanoes erupt simultaneously in Hawaii for first time in decades: "A very sacred event that we are watching" suggests that simultaneous eruptions from these two ...
uhoh's user avatar
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4 votes
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Can people on the side of a volcano survive the eruption?

Imagine a couple of people are at the side of a huge volcano, halfway to the summit, when it erupts. There's an opening to the Chambers right beside them. Fire belched from its riven summit. The ...
Eugene's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Can a planet have both magma volcanoes and cryovolcanos?

I know that the Jovian ice moons have been speculated to have cryovolcanos. I was thinking of the ice planet of Hoth from Star Wars and in one of the video games; it has regular volcanic activity. ...
Max's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the difference between a depleted mantle, and a fertile or enriched mantle?

In a paper about the interior of the Moon, it references depleted mantle sources and enriched mantle sources. Sometimes the latter is referred to as 'fertile'. What is difference between the first two?...
Andy's user avatar
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Why on Earth are there observatories on the active Mauna Loa?

Near the summit of Mauna Loa there are two observatories. Mauna Loa is an active volcano that is being watched, so why did they build observatories up there instead of building them on the dormant and ...
Why On Earth's user avatar
12 votes
4 answers
4k views

How plausible is it that "a portion of the ocean's floor" could suddenly be "thrown up to the surface" as described in this Lovecraft story?

This question came to me after reading H.P. Lovecraft's "Dagon"- the protagonist has fallen asleep drifting on the ocean in a small boat. He wakes up one morning to discover he's been ...
Mantha's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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For how long can mid-oceanic islands be volcanically active?

The island of St Helena in the South Atlantic was volcanically active for 5 million years, or maybe longer. Is this period of time unusual - which other mid-oceanic islands were active for as long as ...
user8654's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
287 views

How does one get a steep-sided stratovolcano with extremely fluid, low-viscosity lava?

The shape of a volcano generally depends strongly on the viscosity of the molten rock used to make it: If the magma/lava ("magva"?) is relatively fluid, it flows out gently, and you get a ...
Vikki's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Volcanic Cones - Fissure Type [closed]

Can volcanic cones, similar to the one shown below form from fissure type of volcanoes?
Jithin Murali's user avatar
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why are there no volcanoes where continents collide with each other?

I understand that volcanoes occur where oceanic crust is subducted under continental crust such as the Andes. However, they don't occur at places like the Himalayas and Alps where continental crust is ...
John McCarthy's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
172 views

What determines when the end of a volcanic eruption will happen?

The Cumbre Vieja volcano of La Palma Island, Spain, started to erupt 3 months ago. This week, the volcano stopped emitting lava and there remains only degassing processes. According to this news story,...
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4 votes
2 answers
888 views

Why is felsic (granitic) lava so much more viscous when flowing (or trying to) than mafic (basaltic) lava?

A lower average temperature is, apparently, only part of the answer.... Several sites said composition, not temperature, explains most of the difference... And the difference in viscosity can be up to ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

If people aim to reach the mantle, why don't they just use volcano craters?

Once in a while aspiring people aim to drill through the Earth's crust to reach the mantle, but why do they want that when the mantle is actually on or very close to the surface in volcano craters? ...
Giovanni's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
2k views

What gases are in the vesicles of pumice?

Many references state that pumice is formed by gases in lava, but I have yet to find a reference of which gases they are. If a piece of pumice floats, then conceivably it still contains the original ...
Fuhrmanator's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
14k views

If the Bennu asteroid were to hit within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it trigger a super volcano at Yellowstone?

I am curious to know if it would be highly probable that if the Bennu asteroid were to hit the Earth in 2182, and the point of impact is within a 500 mile radius of Yellowstone National Park, will it ...
user57467's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
203 views

Volcanic Explosivity Index of Cumbre Vieja eruption

I have been following the last events of Cumbre Vieja eruption since it started last month. Trying to grasp some basic knowledge of volcanology I have seen the eruption is classified as VEI-3 in the ...
M_1's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
263 views

When did the proto-Himalayas become non-volcanic?

In the normal course of events, when continents move toward each other, at least one coast will be associated with a subduction zone and corresponding volcanic activity. When the Indian subcontinent ...
rwallace's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
91 views

How common are volcanic-induced rain events?

Last year I did an online summer course on remote sensing of volcanoes held by the University of Hawaii at Hilo. During the course, we had a presentation about the monitoring campaign during the 2018 ...
saQuist's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
756 views

Similarities and differences between lava flows and fluvial geomorphology (rivers)

How are active lava flows similar to fluvial geomorphology? You can search youtube for these dramatic videos of lava flows, and they all seem to look very similar to streams or rivers. I know that the ...
thehungrygraduate's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
75 views

Bouvet Island volcano [closed]

In this remote island (the most remote!) there is a volcano that wikipedia report as inactive, but from google maps there seems to be some ash in the sky. Are there some ongoing eruption?
yngabl's user avatar
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0 answers
42 views

What is the electrical conductivity of a liquid Komatiite?

I am searching for previous work that has determined the electrical conductivity range for komatiites at the surface. Does anyone have some values or references?
thehungrygraduate's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

What is the most current thinking on the amount of heat transferred into the oceans from underwater thermal vents and volcanoes?

My understanding is that with the relatively recent discovery of many more volcanoes on the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge (and perhaps other ocean ridges) and more deep trenches with thermal vents, that ...
Richard R. Forberg's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Ranking volcanic rocks influence to geothermal suitability?

I am not a geologist/geology student but I want to quickly know the influence of volcanic rock type to geothermal suitability. I have read read some journals and online articles but it seems there are ...
Nikko's user avatar
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3 votes
5 answers
502 views

It is possible to send a probe deep within the Earth?

The deepest borehole ever drilled is just 12km. Consider this as a possibility. A small self-propelled probe is created, its approximately the size of a football, and is very strong, made of materials ...
Graham's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
73 views

Is it possible for an active volcano to become less violent over time?

Suppose a violent, dangerous composite volcano whose eruptions destroy the nearby countryside exists. Would it be possible for this volcano to change such that future eruptions are less violent, and ...
Globin347's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
316 views

What happens when a mid-ocean ridge sub-ducts underneath continental crust?

I'm aware that oceanic crust always sub-ducts to continental crust, but surely the geologic forces pushing the ridge apart in the first place isn't just going to turn off, right? Any answers would be ...
N Francis's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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What if Pinatubo's eruption in 1991 had been followed by a La Niña rather than an El Niño?

If there had been a La Niña rather than an El Niño in 1991-92, would the sulfur aerosol veil caused by the release of 17-20 megatons of sulfur dioxide during the Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 have ...
Yossi the Montrealer's user avatar
27 votes
3 answers
6k views

Why is Olympus Mons the largest volcano in the whole solar system?

Why is it that the volcanoes found in the Tharsis Montes region near the Martian equator, (one of which is Olympus Mons) so much larger than those found on Earth. In comparison, Hawaii's Mauna Loa, ...
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