Questions tagged [volcanology]

The properties and behaviour of volcanoes, from the genesis of magmas to their ascent and emission at the surface of the Earth (or other planetary environments).

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1answer
93 views

Could Rumblings From Plutons be as Ominous as Rumblings From Volcanoes?

Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo is a 10 million year old pluton. A pluton is a magma plume from the mantle which was not able to reach the surface and erupt as a volcano, but solidified underground and ...
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1answer
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Large Igneous Provinces are like Lunar Mare?

Would Large Igneous Provinces like the Deccan Traps have looked like ancient lunar Mare from space? Glowing lava oceans shinning in the night? Are these two things similar in nature? Would smoke from ...
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451 views

Why do some earthquakes and volcanoes occur within plates?

I know that volcanoes and earthquakes occur on plate margins. But, do some of them also occur within plates?
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Why do (some) silicic bodies behave effusively instead behaving explosively as in common?

We encounter dacitic/rhyolitic melts generally in explosive volcanic events. But some of them behave as effusive dome flow. Why do some silicic bodies behave effusively?
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What would the precursors to a repeated Lake Toba super eruption?

Lake Toba, Indonesia is a supervolcano which was the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. It ...
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503 views

Are the cores of every mountain range igneous?

Every volcano is a mountain, but not every mountain is a volcano. Still, it strikes me that--at least for the mountain ranges I can think of in this moment--they all seem to have igneous cores. Is ...
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1answer
33 views

What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
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How is climate change today different than the climate change that ended the ice age(s)?

Someone I know posted a question about climate change that I do not know how to answer. While I do believe (for lack of better word) in climate change, I do not know how to answer this persons ...
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39 views

Q: Is the crust getting thinner or is the mantle getting smaller

Volcanoes spit out magma onto the surface of the crust or crevices on the surface, but the magma comes (in effect) from the mantle right? If that's the case, isn't the mantle turning into the crust by ...
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Do overlying strata subside before/during volcanic exogenous dome emplacement?

Is subsidence (graben faulting) expected before/during a volcanic exogenous dome emplacement on the surrounding strata?
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2answers
845 views

How do quartz veins form?

Is there an association with thrust fault or dormant volcanos and quartz veins? Where are quartz veins likely to occur in nature and how are the formed? Is it possible to identify these veins from ...
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50 views

Interpreting an outcrop of a thick pure silica bed in a volcanic setting

How can a nearly pure silica bed with 250 m x 50 m x 1.5 m dimensions be interpreted in a volcanic/pyroclastic setting? Here is a photo of it.
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81 views

Where are these volcanos as seen in this space tweet?

In his recent tweet from the International Space Station as it's current Mission 56 Commander, NASA astronaut Andrew J. Feustel says: This is #Indonesia as viewed from the @Space_Station. With the ...
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1answer
149 views

What kind of lava tube feature is Cleopatra's Grave?

Cleopatra's Grave is a natural feature inside (warning: PDF) Catacombs Cave in Lava Beds National Monument near Modoc, California. Source: LookBeforeYouLive My apologies, as this image is somehow in ...
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1answer
323 views

Is this a former volcano in the Hamad Plateau, in the Syrian desert?

On my random explorations of google maps, I came across this interesting terrain: (link to map here) Apparently, this is part of the so-called Hamad Plateau, in the Syrian desert. If so, the rock ...
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1answer
159 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $\ce{CO_2}$ and a short term, but more intense cooling effect ...
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1answer
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Did the Geothermal Power Plant contribute to Pahoa's Lava Fissures?

There was lava in the area near the wells that the Puna Geothermal Venture facility created. The plant has nine wells that run as deep as 8,000 feet, according to Wil Okabe, managing director for ...
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1answer
417 views

Is the Yellowstone National Park unique for its geysers?

The Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming is unique for its large number of "thermal occurrences, of which there are some 30 geysers. This, in turn, appears to be the result of the presence of large ...
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Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
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Can we reduce the scale of volcanic eruptions by drilling some canals or bombing some holes in the crater?

As we know, when large scale volcanic eruptions occurs, large amounts of ashes and lava rushed out at short time, is it possible to drill some canels or bomb some holes in the crater so that the gas ...
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1answer
49 views

How far a andesitic lava can flow and what is the speed?

For an effusive volcanic activity how far a andesitic lava can flow? What is the speed? Eruption amout 0.2 cubic km amount with 25 degree slope.
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1answer
222 views

Which percentage of $\text{CO}_2$ emissions are human made emissions?

I was watching a science/myth Youtube channel (science mixed with a lot of speculative/fantasy content) with 2M+ followers and the Youtuber said volcano made emissions were higher than human made ...
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How did CO₂ originate on Earth before there was life?

To start life there has to be $\ce{CO2}$. $\ce{Solar energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 (sugars) + 6O2}$ $C_6H_{12}O_{6} + O_2 \longrightarrow H_2O + {CO}_2 + \text{Energy}$ So to start this cycle, ...
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Can pyroclastic flows cross water?

While reading the Wikipedia article on pyroclastic flows, I noticed that there's a section called 'Interaction with water'. This piqued my interest, as I was under the impression that lava generally ...
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How Big Were the Siberian Traps ORIGINALLY?

252 million years ago, Siberia was subject to a mass series of flood basalt eruptions, creating a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps. Today, it measures 2.7 million square miles in area ...
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The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
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1answer
152 views

Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
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1answer
54 views

Haean, South Korea: is it of volcanic or meteor impact origin?

This is a layman's question. While looking for something I read in the news today, I stumbled upon the Haean region in South Korea (38°17'15.96"N, 128° 7'57.18"E) in Google Earth. To me it looks ...
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1answer
59 views

Can volcanic gases be emitted in any other way besides volcanic eruptions

What other sources of volcanic gas emissions can there be on earth?
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1answer
623 views

Are there lava flows inside a volcano?

(source: netdna-ssl.com) In these popular diagrams for the three types of volcanoes, it seems as though the lava flows are inside the mountain. I suspect that they're trying to show rivers flowing ...
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1answer
45 views

Why are pyroclastic flows ground-bound?

This bugged me for a while: Pyroclastic flows are fast (up to 700 km/h (430 mph) according to Wikipedia) and typically roll down the slopes of a volcano. E.g. here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
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357 views

Volcanic eruption force

From my research, some volcanic eruptions can produce enough force to turn a 10-tonne rock into a projectile. Could a supervolcano produce enough force to turn a 35,000 tonne rock into a projectile? ...
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Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world?

Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world? I recently read about the Krakatoa eruption and how sound waves from that eruption traveled around the globe 4 times and were detected ...
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1answer
47 views

Coal fires affecting seismic activity, and also volcanoes

Can coal fires cause earthquakes to happen, or possibly prevent or postpone earthquakes? Also can coal fires trigger(or prevent) volcanic eruptions by affecting flow of magma underground or by some ...
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1answer
91 views

What is lava called if it has 56% to 64% silica?

We've learnt in science at school that "Mafic" lava forms rocks with 45% to 55% silica, meanwhile "Felsic" lava forms rocks with >=65% silica. So what is lava called in between? Or is it impossible ...
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3k views

Will a volcano erupt in Australia soon?

A Science Daily article Volcanic eruptions long overdue in SE Australia (University of Melbourne, 2011), suggests that a volcanic eruption is potentially "long overdue" in south-east Australia (south-...
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Can human activity affect volcanoes?

As part of a course on Natural Disasters, I have a group presentation in which we focus on a specific natural disaster. One of the questions we have to address is how human activity may have affected ...
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1answer
134 views

Why exactly is the feature on Io called a volcano, and the feature on Enceladus called a geyser?

News of the long-lived and not unusual cloud on Mars associated with 21 km tall Olympus Mons has people commenting. This tweet by planetary scientist Dr. Tanya Harrison says I don't understand the ...
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1answer
715 views

What is this big Black Mass in Syria, as seen on google maps? [duplicate]

What is this big black dot on the satellite view of google maps, located in Syria at about 4:00 from Damascus?
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Does outgassing change the isotopic D/H ratio?

It is known that the D/H-ratio of Earth's water inventory is very similar to that of asteroids. This is usually interpreted in a way that Earth's water must have come from similar, asteroid-like ...
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Is the term “fertile ash” a misnomer?

I understand that volcanic ash contains minerals and can make soil more fertile. But I've also heard the term "fertile ash" in some documentary (I have forgotten in what context). Is that a ...
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2answers
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Subrelluric forces in a volcanic eruption

I am listening to a song about volcanoes. It is called "Pyroclastic Annihilation" performed by a brutal deth/thrash metal band called "Demolition Hammer". It is from their album "Epidemic of Violence" ...
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Agricultural self sufficiency after yellowstone eruption?

Given a 440 acre farm running roughly 200 acres of Crops and 40-50 head of cattle,in the secondary ash zone within the lake of the ozarks reigon of Missouri, how viable would survival be relying on ...
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1answer
470 views

Can cooled/hardened lava rock return to a molten state?

Can lava that has cooled to a hardened state be returned to a molten state by, say, a new river of molten lava flowing over it - like re-smelting iron? If you threw a lava rock into the mouth of a ...
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1answer
700 views

Why are the latest additions to the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain the highest?

The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain stretches from Russia to the Hawaiian islands. When I look at them on a map, it seems that the oldest seamounts by Russia are shorter and smaller than the newer ...
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1answer
74 views

What theories exist connecting volcano temperatures to eruption probabilities?

Wikipedia names thermal monitoring as one of the methods for predicting volcanic eruptions. I was able to find some papers (First, Second) on such thermometry and while they are challenging (I retired ...
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2answers
2k views

Zeolites, odor control, and the witchcraft of sunlight

Various companies offer "volcanic crystals" or "volcanic rock" available in small mesh bags for odor control. The best description I have found is that these are made up largely of Zeolites. All of ...
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1answer
38 views

What's a reasonable flow rate/mass flux for a fumarole?

Obviously, there is going to be a large amount of variability, but what are some realistic values?
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Is there a large undersea caldera in the Azores?

There looks like a large undersea circular feature (Google maps) about 120km across with its north edge on Sao Miguel Island and its south edge on Santa Maria Island. Has any work been done to say ...