Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [volcanology]

The properties and behaviour of volcanoes.

1
vote
0answers
13 views

What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
9
votes
4answers
4k views

Can we reduce the scale of volcanic eruptions by drilling some canals or bombing some holes in the crater?

As we know, when large scale volcanic eruptions occurs, large amounts of ashes and lava rushed out at short time, is it possible to drill some canels or bomb some holes in the crater so that the gas ...
-1
votes
0answers
17 views

What is the Geological Explaination behind Volcanic Activity in Eastern California?

Specifically, I'm talking about the Long Valley Caldera, near Mammoth Lakes, California. The Cascades are widely understood to be the result of the remnants of the Farallon Plate (Juan de Fuca ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

How far a andesitic lava can flow and what is the speed?

For an effusive volcanic activity how far a andesitic lava can flow? What is the speed? Eruption amout 0.2 cubic km amount with 25 degree slope.
10
votes
1answer
204 views

Which percentage of $\text{CO}_2$ emissions are human made emissions?

I was watching a science/myth Youtube channel (science mixed with a lot of speculative/fantasy content) with 2M+ followers and the Youtuber said volcano made emissions were higher than human made ...
11
votes
2answers
157 views

How did CO₂ originate on Earth before there was life?

To start life there has to be $\ce{CO2}$. $\ce{Solar energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 (sugars) + 6O2}$ $C_6H_{12}O_{6} + O_2 \longrightarrow H_2O + {CO}_2 + \text{Energy}$ So to start this cycle, ...
10
votes
0answers
105 views

Would a volcanic winter trigger an oceanic “spring”?

There is large amounts of observations supporting the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate: A long term subtle warming effect due to $CO_2$ and a short term, but more intense cooling effect due ...
27
votes
4answers
819 views

Can pyroclastic flows cross water?

While reading the Wikipedia article on pyroclastic flows, I noticed that there's a section called 'Interaction with water'. This piqued my interest, as I was under the impression that lava generally ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

How Big Were the Siberian Traps ORIGINALLY?

252 million years ago, Siberia was subject to a mass series of flood basalt eruptions, creating a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps. Today, it measures 2.7 million square miles in area ...
9
votes
1answer
93 views

The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Interpreting an outcrop of a thick pure silica bed in a volcanic setting

How can a nearly pure silica bed with 250 m x 50 m x 1.5 m dimensions be interpreted in a volcanic/pyroclastic setting? Here is a photo of it.
7
votes
1answer
93 views

Is there a 'standard size' for volcanic eruptions in terms of gas output?

We saw recently the Iceland volcano Eyjafjallajökull produced significant gaseous output that impacted the flight paths of several planes. When we look at volcanic gas components, we see they ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Haean, South Korea: is it of volcanic or meteor impact origin?

This is a layman's question. While looking for something I read in the news today, I stumbled upon the Haean region in South Korea (38°17'15.96"N, 128° 7'57.18"E) in Google Earth. To me it looks ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Can volcanic gases be emitted in any other way besides volcanic eruptions

What other sources of volcanic gas emissions can there be on earth?
11
votes
0answers
285 views

Did the Geothermal Power Plant contribute to Pahoa's Lava Fissures?

There was lava in the area near the wells that the Puna Geothermal Venture facility created. The plant has nine wells that run as deep as 8,000 feet, according to Wil Okabe, managing director for ...
1
vote
1answer
542 views

Are there lava flows inside a volcano?

(source: netdna-ssl.com) In these popular diagrams for the three types of volcanoes, it seems as though the lava flows are inside the mountain. I suspect that they're trying to show rivers flowing ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Why are pyroclastic flows ground-bound?

This bugged me for a while: Pyroclastic flows are fast (up to 700 km/h (430 mph) according to Wikipedia) and typically roll down the slopes of a volcano. E.g. here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

What kind of lava tube feature is Cleopatra's Grave?

Cleopatra's Grave is a natural feature inside (warning: PDF) Catacombs Cave in Lava Beds National Monument near Modoc, California. Source: LookBeforeYouLive My apologies, as this image is somehow in ...
1
vote
3answers
241 views

Volcanic eruption force

From my research, some volcanic eruptions can produce enough force to turn a 10-tonne rock into a projectile. Could a supervolcano produce enough force to turn a 35,000 tonne rock into a projectile? ...
3
votes
0answers
64 views

Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world?

Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world? I recently read about the Krakatoa eruption and how sound waves from that eruption traveled around the globe 4 times and were detected ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Coal fires affecting seismic activity, and also volcanoes

Can coal fires cause earthquakes to happen, or possibly prevent or postpone earthquakes? Also can coal fires trigger(or prevent) volcanic eruptions by affecting flow of magma underground or by some ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

What is lava called if it has 56% to 64% silica?

We've learnt in science at school that "Mafic" lava forms rocks with 45% to 55% silica, meanwhile "Felsic" lava forms rocks with >=65% silica. So what is lava called in between? Or is it impossible ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Will a volcano erupt in Australia soon?

A Science Daily article Volcanic eruptions long overdue in SE Australia (University of Melbourne, 2011), suggests that a volcanic eruption is potentially "long overdue" in south-east Australia (south-...
9
votes
3answers
15k views

Can human activity affect volcanoes?

As part of a course on Natural Disasters, I have a group presentation in which we focus on a specific natural disaster. One of the questions we have to address is how human activity may have affected ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

Why exactly is the feature on Io called a volcano, and the feature on Enceladus called a geyser?

News of the long-lived and not unusual cloud on Mars associated with 21 km tall Olympus Mons has people commenting. This tweet by planetary scientist Dr. Tanya Harrison says I don't understand the ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Where are these volcanos as seen in this space tweet?

In his recent tweet from the International Space Station as it's current Mission 56 Commander, NASA astronaut Andrew J. Feustel says: This is #Indonesia as viewed from the @Space_Station. With the ...
10
votes
1answer
238 views

Is this a former volcano in the Hamad Plateau, in the Syrian desert?

On my random explorations of google maps, I came across this interesting terrain: (link to map here) Apparently, this is part of the so-called Hamad Plateau, in the Syrian desert. If so, the rock ...
1
vote
1answer
641 views

What is this big Black Mass in Syria, as seen on google maps? [duplicate]

What is this big black dot on the satellite view of google maps, located in Syria at about 4:00 from Damascus?
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Does outgassing change the isotopic D/H ratio?

It is known that the D/H-ratio of Earth's water inventory is very similar to that of asteroids. This is usually interpreted in a way that Earth's water must have come from similar, asteroid-like ...
4
votes
3answers
432 views

Is the term “fertile ash” a misnomer?

I understand that volcanic ash contains minerals and can make soil more fertile. But I've also heard the term "fertile ash" in some documentary (I have forgotten in what context). Is that a ...
4
votes
2answers
57 views

Subrelluric forces in a volcanic eruption

I am listening to a song about volcanoes. It is called "Pyroclastic Annihilation" performed by a brutal deth/thrash metal band called "Demolition Hammer". It is from their album "Epidemic of Violence" ...
4
votes
1answer
376 views

Why do some earthquakes and volcanoes occur within plates?

I know that volcanoes and earthquakes occur on plate margins. But, do some of them also occur within plates?
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Agricultural self sufficiency after yellowstone eruption?

Given a 440 acre farm running roughly 200 acres of Crops and 40-50 head of cattle,in the secondary ash zone within the lake of the ozarks reigon of Missouri, how viable would survival be relying on ...
5
votes
1answer
248 views

Can cooled/hardened lava rock return to a molten state?

Can lava that has cooled to a hardened state be returned to a molten state by, say, a new river of molten lava flowing over it - like re-smelting iron? If you threw a lava rock into the mouth of a ...
9
votes
1answer
690 views

Why are the latest additions to the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain the highest?

The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain stretches from Russia to the Hawaiian islands. When I look at them on a map, it seems that the oldest seamounts by Russia are shorter and smaller than the newer ...
6
votes
1answer
72 views

What theories exist connecting volcano temperatures to eruption probabilities?

Wikipedia names thermal monitoring as one of the methods for predicting volcanic eruptions. I was able to find some papers (First, Second) on such thermometry and while they are challenging (I retired ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Zeolites, odor control, and the witchcraft of sunlight

Various companies offer "volcanic crystals" or "volcanic rock" available in small mesh bags for odor control. The best description I have found is that these are made up largely of Zeolites. All of ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

What's a reasonable flow rate/mass flux for a fumarole?

Obviously, there is going to be a large amount of variability, but what are some realistic values?
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Is there a large undersea caldera in the Azores?

There looks like a large undersea circular feature (Google maps) about 120km across with its north edge on Sao Miguel Island and its south edge on Santa Maria Island. Has any work been done to say ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Employment of Volcanologists and Petrologists

What industries or government departments hire volcanologists and igneous petrologists/geochemists in the United States?
4
votes
1answer
487 views

Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya

I have two questions based on the history of atmospheric oxygen levels depicted below. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2.png. The notes below the chart explain ...
4
votes
0answers
59 views

Can a cryovolcanic eruption be as powerful as a normal volcanic eruption?

The most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history was the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, an explosion equivalent to 33 billion tons of TNT. Is there any way a cryovolcanic eruption could be as ...
15
votes
6answers
691 views

Does volcanic activity fluctuate?

According to this person's surmises, volcanic activity appers to be increasing. However, according to this report, volcanic activity is probably not increasing. My question is: Does Volcanic activity ...
3
votes
1answer
243 views

Volcanic activity in Taiwan, ever in recorded history, much chance in the near future?

News of Hawaii has got me thinking... I've lived in Taiwan for many years and hiked many kinds geologically interesting mountain and seashore rock formations, seen steaming, sulfury fumaroles, even ...
3
votes
1answer
539 views

How vertically deep do lava conduits go?

I'll preface this with the truth and hope it doesn't disqualify the question but rather give context: after reading Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne, I am amazed at the prospect of ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How many extreme shifts in climate has Earth gone through in its existence?

As the Earth formed, it went through cycles of essentially hotter and colder periods. Extremely volcanic times and ice ages, in feedback loops contributing to one another. CO2 swinging from high to ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

What is this dull whitish rock with ornate black patterns found in the Arkansas Crater of Diamonds?

I found this rock while wet sifting dirt brought back from the Arkansas Crater of Diamonds. It looks as if it is hand painted. It is smaller than my pinky nail. It’s dull, and makes a chalk-like mark ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Pyroclastic flow protection

Related to the question Why don't scientists use fire entry suits to study volcanoes?, where the issue of volcanologist protection against lava splatter and bombs is discussed. Another major and ...