Questions tagged [volcanology]

The properties and behaviour of volcanoes, from the genesis of magmas to their ascent and emission at the surface of the Earth (or other planetary environments).

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3
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1answer
131 views

Do discordants dykes ever travel concordantly (are transgressive dykes a thing)?

Transgressive sills "jump" between bedding planes, following joints: ...
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1answer
695 views

Does flow banding only occur in silicic rocks?

I made a video about what I learnt in my A Level Geology course so far, about igneous rocks. One thing I mentioned was that flow banding is mostly only found in silicic rocks (and so mostly rhyolite) ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between mobile & molten rock?

In the book Fundamentals of Geomorphology (Routledge Fundamentals of Physical Geography) by Richard John Huggett there is a sentence " Intruded rocks, which must be mobile but not necessarily molten,...
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How vertically deep do lava conduits go?

I'll preface this with the truth and hope it doesn't disqualify the question but rather give context: after reading Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne, I am amazed at the prospect of ...
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1answer
124 views

How long would it take for Mars to cool after asteroid impact? [closed]

As someone interested in terraforming, the main obstacle to colonizing Mars is the lack of a magnetosphere and Atmosphere. To create a magnetosphere of sufficient magnitude the Martian core must be ...
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1answer
506 views

Would a Yellowstone eruption destroy global agriculture?

Someone recently claimed in my hearing that if the Yellowstone caldera were to erupt, the resulting ash cloud would end all agriculture for a year or two. (The speaker is not a scientist, and neither ...
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1answer
63 views

Frost in trees in the middle of summer (of 536)

It was so cold that frost formed inside trees in the middle of summer. Traces of this have been found in Russia, among other places. It is very rare for trees to freeze internally during the summer. ...
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Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world?

Do sound waves from volcanic eruptions travel around the world? I recently read about the Krakatoa eruption and how sound waves from that eruption traveled around the globe 4 times and were detected ...
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Is there a large undersea caldera in the Azores?

There looks like a large undersea circular feature (Google maps) about 120km across with its north edge on Sao Miguel Island and its south edge on Santa Maria Island. Has any work been done to say ...
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258 views

The formation of West Mata

I was wondering if anyone knows how the formation of the West Mata volcano came to be? I was reading that a lot of underwater volcanoes were formed by convergent boundary. Is this how West Mata was ...
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How do quartz veins form?

Is there an association with thrust fault or dormant volcanos and quartz veins? Where are quartz veins likely to occur in nature and how are the formed? Is it possible to identify these veins from ...
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1answer
154 views

Volcano in ocean?

Is it a volcano in this image ? The magnified version. I was browsing through earth images here when I spotted this orange thing. Is it some oceanic volcano? It may be an absurd question but is it ...
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1answer
166 views

Why exactly is the feature on Io called a volcano, and the feature on Enceladus called a geyser?

News of the long-lived and not unusual cloud on Mars associated with 21 km tall Olympus Mons has people commenting. This tweet by planetary scientist Dr. Tanya Harrison says I don't understand the ...
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1answer
81 views

How far a andesitic lava can flow and what is the speed?

For an effusive volcanic activity how far a andesitic lava can flow? What is the speed? Eruption amout 0.2 cubic km amount with 25 degree slope.
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Volcanic activity in Taiwan, ever in recorded history, much chance in the near future?

News of Hawaii has got me thinking... I've lived in Taiwan for many years and hiked many kinds geologically interesting mountain and seashore rock formations, seen steaming, sulfury fumaroles, even ...
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1answer
143 views

Can Volcanic Eruptions Help Combat Global Warming in the Long Run?

I've been reading about volcanic eruptions on wikipedia, and I've found that very big eruptions cause the earth's temperature to drop by a small fraction of a degrees Celsius due to the ash it ...
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Large Igneous Provinces are like Lunar Mare?

Would Large Igneous Provinces like the Deccan Traps have looked like ancient lunar Mare from space? Glowing lava oceans shinning in the night? Are these two things similar in nature? Would smoke from ...
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1answer
57 views

Why are pyroclastic flows ground-bound?

This bugged me for a while: Pyroclastic flows are fast (up to 700 km/h (430 mph) according to Wikipedia) and typically roll down the slopes of a volcano. E.g. here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
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Are the other causes of an earthquake (e.g. volcanic eruptions) the cause of the “sudden slip” which is the main cause of an earthquake?

I am to deliver an informative speech about earthquakes in class. However, I was not the first to talk about earthquakes and his discussion of the cause of earthquakes is different from mine. He ...
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1answer
201 views

Volcano magma chamber [duplicate]

If I use a really big drill and drill all the way down to a magma chamber what exactly would happen? From what I understand we cant drill to a Magma Chamber because it is really hot, but I have a ...
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1answer
134 views

Could Rumblings From Plutons be as Ominous as Rumblings From Volcanoes?

Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo is a 10 million year old pluton. A pluton is a magma plume from the mantle which was not able to reach the surface and erupt as a volcano, but solidified underground and ...
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1answer
40 views

What's a reasonable flow rate/mass flux for a fumarole?

Obviously, there is going to be a large amount of variability, but what are some realistic values?
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185 views

How Big Were the Siberian Traps ORIGINALLY?

252 million years ago, Siberia was subject to a mass series of flood basalt eruptions, creating a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps. Today, it measures three million square miles in ...
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65 views

How is tiltmeter data processed?

With what programs can inclinometer data be processed? And how is instrumental correction done?
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2answers
81 views

Volcanoes and Lightning [duplicate]

Just wondering about this question has been popped into my head many times and as what I have seen in some volcanic activities that when a volcano erupts there's a lightning, & i don't know if ...
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2answers
386 views

Water and explosive volcanoes in the Pacific ring of fire

Most volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire have an explosive nature. This is due to high concentrations of water in their magma. Obviously, this magma comes from several kilometres below the earth's ...
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1answer
226 views

If lava flows back into the ground, would it be called magma?

If lava flows back into the ground, would it be called magma again? Is there a difference if it flowed into a new hole vs the flow it came from?
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1answer
118 views

How does fertile soil reach newborn volcanic islands?

When a volcanic island first surfaces, I assume no vegetation can grow, as it probably only consists of volcanic rock. How would a volcanic island like Iceland that is far from any continent grow to ...
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2answers
101 views

Why aren't there ultra acid igneous rocks?

In my study, I found that in volcanoes when the magma is going up it formed different types of rocks. There are basic, acidic and ultrabasic. My question is why isn't there ultra acid igneous rocks ...
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1answer
57 views

Coal fires affecting seismic activity, and also volcanoes

Can coal fires cause earthquakes to happen, or possibly prevent or postpone earthquakes? Also can coal fires trigger(or prevent) volcanic eruptions by affecting flow of magma underground or by some ...
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1answer
843 views

What is this big Black Mass in Syria, as seen on google maps? [duplicate]

What is this big black dot on the satellite view of google maps, located in Syria at about 4:00 from Damascus?
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1answer
655 views

Are there lava flows inside a volcano?

(source: netdna-ssl.com) In these popular diagrams for the three types of volcanoes, it seems as though the lava flows are inside the mountain. I suspect that they're trying to show rivers flowing on ...
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3answers
1k views

Lava and Magma, Meteor and Meteorite--What's the Difference?

Some features of Earth (and beyond) have been bugging me for quite some time. When molten rock is beneath the surface, it's called "magma". Above the surface, it is called "lava". When a bolide is ...
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1answer
78 views

Earthquake severity during supereruption at Yellowstone caldera?

Theoretically, I ponder what type and strength a supereruption would generate, say for example at the Yellowstone caldera? The last supereruption was roughly 70,000 years ago when Toba erupted. It's ...
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1answer
105 views

Haean, South Korea: is it of volcanic or meteor impact origin?

This is a layman's question. While looking for something I read in the news today, I stumbled upon the Haean region in South Korea (38°17'15.96"N, 128° 7'57.18"E) in Google Earth. To me it looks ...
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1answer
149 views

How likely is Earth to naturally reverse climate change in the next 2 decades?

A new decade question: given that the “mini ice ages” were triggered by volcanic activity, how likely is it that we will experience similar levels of volcanic activity over the next 20 years? In ...
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3answers
514 views

Volcanic eruption force

From my research, some volcanic eruptions can produce enough force to turn a 10-tonne rock into a projectile. Could a supervolcano produce enough force to turn a 35,000 tonne rock into a projectile? ...
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1answer
90 views

How many extreme shifts in climate has Earth gone through in its existence?

As the Earth formed, it went through cycles of essentially hotter and colder periods. Extremely volcanic times and ice ages, in feedback loops contributing to one another. CO2 swinging from high to ...
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58 views

Did people trigger the White Island 2019 eruption? [duplicate]

I am writing an essay about White Island’s 2019 eruption, and I need to know if the eruption was directly triggered by people. Is it possible that it was? Whether it being quarrying, too much tourism ...
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Do overlying strata subside before/during volcanic exogenous dome emplacement?

Is subsidence (graben faulting) expected before/during a volcanic exogenous dome emplacement on the surrounding strata?
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52 views

Interpreting an outcrop of a thick pure silica bed in a volcanic setting

How can a nearly pure silica bed with 250 m x 50 m x 1.5 m dimensions be interpreted in a volcanic/pyroclastic setting? Here is a photo of it.
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Does outgassing change the isotopic D/H ratio?

It is known that the D/H-ratio of Earth's water inventory is very similar to that of asteroids. This is usually interpreted in a way that Earth's water must have come from similar, asteroid-like ...
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29 views

Agricultural self sufficiency after yellowstone eruption?

Given a 440 acre farm running roughly 200 acres of Crops and 40-50 head of cattle,in the secondary ash zone within the lake of the ozarks reigon of Missouri, how viable would survival be relying on ...
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122 views

Possibility of Domino Effect

Is there any likelihood that an earthquake could trigger a volcanic event? I'm thinking that because the Pacific tectonic plate nearly coincides with the "ring-of-fire," particularly along the west ...
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0answers
254 views

What is solidus and liquidus temperature of granite?

My understanding is that because a rock is composed of variety of minerals, so it does not have fix melting point, rather there is a range below which whole rock is solid and above which whole rock is ...
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1answer
136 views

How Can Adjacent Parts of an Oceanic Plate be Subducted in Different Directions?

It is claimed by some that the reason for gaps in chains of volcanoes generated by plate subduction is that some parts of the plate dive deep into the mantle and generate magma plumes, while other ...
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1answer
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Q: Is the crust getting thinner or is the mantle getting smaller

Volcanoes spit out magma onto the surface of the crust or crevices on the surface, but the magma comes (in effect) from the mantle right? If that's the case, isn't the mantle turning into the crust by ...
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89 views

What initiates the plumes which create oceanic hot spots? [duplicate]

What causes the large and very long lasting magma plumes which rise up from the mantle and create a hot spot such as the ones which built the island chains of Hawaii and Galapagos? The volcanic ...

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