# Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to the liquid phase of water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in meteorology and Earth Science.

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### Calculating the inflow of water

If a bucket with a uniform diameter of 50cm is left in the open and after 20mins it drizzles for 15mins, and the bucket received 6967.41mm of water. What's the new level of water in the bucket if the ...
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### What is the proper terminology for a waterfall or stream that loops back round in a cyclic manner? [closed]

For example if water falls down a waterfall then it eventually reaches the very top again to fall back down again.
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### Kinetic or equilibrium fractionation from 2H and 18O in evaporation and condensation?

Is the isotope fractionation that occurs during evaporation of surface water equilibrium fractionation or kinetic fractionation? I mean, evaporation can be described by Rayleigh fractionation, but I ...
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### Ways of detecting underground bodies of water

I saw one way to achieve this using the magnetotelluric way, but I need some solid fundamental way to understand it. Any book recommendations would be appreciated.
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### Would covering part of Lake Mead with large sheets of bubble wrap reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation?

I have been recently thinking about how the water level of Lake Mead keeps dropping due to its high water evaporation rate brought on by recent years of historical drought conditions. The continuous ...
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### Formation of steam underground

In the process of drilling holes in the ground, if water was introduced, could it reach equilibrium vapor pressure, flash to steam and expel drill bit, drilling rod, and other debris up and out of the ...
1 vote
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### How to maintain average elevation of water on uneven terrain? [closed]

We have uneven terrain (street) and want to distribute water fairly equally to all locations (homes). The issue is that the locations at the end get sufficient water and other locations need to wait. ...
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### How important is water condensation in maintaining the swirling winds of tornadoes?

If we somehow removed all the water from Earth, it seems that there would no longer be tornado-like 100+ mph winds (or, at least, this would be a much rarer occurrence). Discussing storm creation, ...
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### What are some reasons for Aridification

I an working on a Si-Fi world, and am looking for ways that an area would, over a long timescale, lose the majority of its water. I understand how the lose of vegetative cover due to climate changes ...
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### How do we compensate the water that is being taken out of water cycle for curing of concrete in infra construction?

Concrete is the key ingredient to building housing, roads, and all kinds of infrastructure. Curing of concrete makes sure that the infra is rock solid and reliably durable and safe. But, it also ...
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### How does ocean productivity vary with depth?

How does the biological productivity of the ocean vary with depth? (By 'productivity', what I'm actually interested in is production of edible fish, but I suppose other measures like photosynthesis, ...
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### soil water retention and soil water content

Can someone clarify me about this doubt? Is the available soil water content (field capacity minus wilting point) the same as the soil water moisture or soil water content? Thank you.
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### Why is the Gulf of Alaska not a Bay? What is the difference between a Gulf and a Bay? [closed]

Since the mouth of this water body is actually very wide, why do we call it a Gulf? What exactly is the difference between a Gulf and a Bay?
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### How deep is the water beneath a waterfall?

I always wondered about this, how deep is the water beneath a water fall? I would suspect erosion to erode even rock over time. Are there some visual clues to estimate the water depth? Or is the only ...
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### Solutions to the global water shortages by damming the Baltic Ocean and the White Sea

Geopolitics and costs aside, would damming the Baltic Ocean and the White Sea be enough to provide a renewable supply of water to water stressed Central Asia? Central Asia because its closest and has ...
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### Salinity balance in the oceans, is it increasing over time? [duplicate]

My 13 yr old kid is studying the water cycle and has raised me some question I don't have answers to regarding how the salinity levels of the oceans are kept constant (over very long period of time) ...
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### What on Earth are we doing and can be done to prevent the projected (massive) water shortages?

I have heard it from many, many places that the big cities are drawing too much water from their aquifers, and then climate change will exacerbate that problem amongst a very many others. My city, ...
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### Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
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### How is weather formation prevented in the stratosphere?

Water diffuses from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. By that principle, I would expect water from the troposphere to diffuse into the stratosphere, where water content ...
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### Water flows under the headwater and soil liquefaction has formed

A retaining wall 40 cm thick with variable height (thin-walled corner) is being built in the mountainous area. At the time of the geotechnical survey and design, there was no reservoir next to the ...
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### Why are waterspouts less powerful than tornadoes?

It's often said that waterspouts are weaker than tornadoes, but after some quick searches on the internet, I haven't been able to figure out why that is. Two relevant sources that I've found: This ...
1 vote
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### How to Distribute Soil moisture output of Thornthwaite and Mather (1954) Soil Water Balance Model into different layers?

in Thornthwaite & Mather (1954) Soil Water Balance Approach The soil moisture output is generated for the whole soil profile, i.e whatever depth we take for the ...
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### Does water affect radiometric dating?

When radiometric dating, would water affect the measured age of old rocks ? Specifically would water affect Uranium-238 to Lead-206 dating of Zircon crystals? Would it affect the lead since it’s ...
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### DSWI brief description

What is the brief description of Disease Stress Water Index (DSWI)? According to the link, it has been defined as to detect water-stressed crops at a canopy level. I am looking for a bit more ...
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### While desalinating ocean water, would it be bad if we didn't pump the brine back into the ocean?

Desalinating ocean water takes seawater, separates the fresh water from the brine, and usually pumps the brine back into the ocean. But what if we didn't pump the brine back into the ocean? (For ...
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### Hypothetical: Can we rehabilitate arid/desert landscapes through the artificial precipitation from exhausts of hydrogen powered airplanes?

Note: I know this question sounds fit for aviation stack exchange, but other aspects of this question like cloud formation, atmospheric behavior, precipitation and overall water cycle can be better ...
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### What is the environmental effect of personal protective equipment on the ocean?

What is the environmental impact of masks and other personal protective equipment polluting the oceans? The world is using billions of masks and gloves due to the COVID pandemic and they are being ...
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### What is the maximum size that a drop of rainwater can reach?

This USGS article: "Raindrops are Different Sizes" assures: We can call the growing droplet a raindrop as soon as it reaches the size of 0.5mm in diameter or bigger. If it gets any larger ...
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### Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
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### What was the size of the Aral sea in year 1000 CE?

I understand that since the rise of the Soviet Union the Aral sea has dried up more and more due to irrigation from rivers diverting its water to other areas for the sake of agriculture. But is it ...
1 vote
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### Discharge waste water - content allowed, most strict, universal rule set

Where can I find non-country specific, general or most strict set of rules that would pass in most countries, about allowed content of waste water that is allowed to be released into the environment, ...
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### Can air be slowed down by Fricton? [closed]

Can wind/air that is moving at average speeds be slowed down by the cause of Friction? Also, Can Air bubbles in water be slowed down because of Friction? Please cite your sources.
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### Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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### Would ultrasound be a valid method of mapping ocean floors given the perceived "gel" is ocean water?

I am a scuba diver, with a big idea that would require me to map various dive sites as I went to them and dove in them. The typical size and other implications of sonar technology would essentially ...
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### As small streams freeze solid, how can big rivers continue to carry water?

In areas of very cold temperatures (-20°C and below), it is not uncommon for small streams to freeze completely (as in, from top to bottom) and larger rivers to develop thick ice covers. However, ...
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### Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
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### Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
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### Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
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### Could saltwater be useful for greening deserts and sequestering CO2?

Desert greening is the conversion of deserts into moister environments with more vegetation. This could be used to combat desertification and (by sequestering CO2) climate change, and also to increase ...
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### Does science suggest Venus would resume plate tectonics if surface water were somehow reintroduced and rotation sped up? [closed]

Assume that we're talking about a terraformed Venus with an Earth-like atmosphere so no risk of the water simply boiling away before being allowed to permeate the lithosphere. Does this meet the ...
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### Is there a conventional list of pollutants to consider for calculations? Or an updating one even?

In researching economic damage from various pollutants, I often find that it's very random sources that inform me of various pollutants I need to be mindful of in calculations. Is there any kind of ...
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### Self-sustaining aquarium in a jar?

I've seen some videos of people scooping up some water from a natural body of it, adding some sand and a few plants, and soon enough, they have a (near) self-sustaining aquarium. I've always wanted to ...
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### Why would a rincon provide more reliable water? [closed]

I am reading a book that argues that the Ancestral Puebloans settled along the rincons, or nooks, along the canyon walls, because that was where water was reliable. I can't understand the argument, as ...
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### How do mountain springs get their water?

I am curious how do mountain springs get their water. The water flowing from them eventually forms rivers. Is it only from rain and snow? Or does water also come from underground-below the mountain (...
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### Antarctic and arctic meltwater is "bad" because it's dark, but why is transparent liquid on white stuff so dark?

The Washington Post's Antarctic heat wave melted 20 percent of an island’s snow cover in days, caused melt ponds to proliferate includes the figure below of meltwater ponds on top of snow/ice. The ...
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### If the top layer of a large river freezes, is the remainder's rate of flow affected?

This question is a hypothetical, and has to do with the notion of cheap, modular turbines that can be sunk and anchored to a specific depth in a body of water. Each would not generate much power, but ...
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### Could pumping ocean water into desert areas help reduce sea level rise?

I have been reading the discussion about pumping sea water into the desert for purposes of irrigation and changing the dry climate of that area, but what about to just purely offset the rising sea ...
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### Increase Evaporation from oceans

I would like to ask you about evaporation from sea water. Can you increase evaporation by spraying seawater to the air? Is there any difference compared to freshwater spraying (aerosol particles)?