Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to the liquid phase of water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in meteorology and Earth Science.

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Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
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What was the size of the Aral sea in year 1000 CE?

I understand that since the rise of the Soviet Union the Aral sea has dried up more and more due to irrigation from rivers diverting its water to other areas for the sake of agriculture. But is it ...
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Discharge waste water - content allowed, most strict, universal rule set

Where can I find non-country specific, general or most strict set of rules that would pass in most countries, about allowed content of waste water that is allowed to be released into the environment, ...
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Can air be slowed down by Fricton? [closed]

Can wind/air that is moving at average speeds be slowed down by the cause of Friction? Also, Can Air bubbles in water be slowed down because of Friction? Please cite your sources.
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Why are January and February the coldest months although 21 December is the shortest day? [duplicate]

My question deals with the northern hemisphere only, obviously. It seems to me that January and February are the coldest months of the year. Water temperature is even more 'retarded': the seas are ...
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Would ultrasound be a valid method of mapping ocean floors given the perceived “gel” is ocean water?

I am a scuba diver, with a big idea that would require me to map various dive sites as I went to them and dove in them. The typical size and other implications of sonar technology would essentially ...
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As small streams freeze solid, how can big rivers continue to carry water?

In areas of very cold temperatures (-20°C and below), it is not uncommon for small streams to freeze completely (as in, from top to bottom) and larger rivers to develop thick ice covers. However, ...
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Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
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Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
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Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
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Could saltwater be useful for greening deserts and sequestering CO2?

Desert greening is the conversion of deserts into moister environments with more vegetation. This could be used to combat desertification and (by sequestering CO2) climate change, and also to increase ...
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Does science suggest Venus would resume plate tectonics if surface water were somehow reintroduced and rotation sped up? [closed]

Assume that we're talking about a terraformed Venus with an Earth-like atmosphere so no risk of the water simply boiling away before being allowed to permeate the lithosphere. Does this meet the ...
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Is there a conventional list of pollutants to consider for calculations? Or an updating one even?

In researching economic damage from various pollutants, I often find that it's very random sources that inform me of various pollutants I need to be mindful of in calculations. Is there any kind of ...
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Self-sustaining aquarium in a jar?

I've seen some videos of people scooping up some water from a natural body of it, adding some sand and a few plants, and soon enough, they have a (near) self-sustaining aquarium. I've always wanted to ...
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Why would a rincon provide more reliable water? [closed]

I am reading a book that argues that the Ancestral Puebloans settled along the rincons, or nooks, along the canyon walls, because that was where water was reliable. I can't understand the argument, as ...
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How do mountain springs get their water?

I am curious how do mountain springs get their water. The water flowing from them eventually forms rivers. Is it only from rain and snow? Or does water also come from underground-below the mountain (...
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Antarctic and arctic meltwater is “bad” because it's dark, but why is transparent liquid on white stuff so dark?

The Washington Post's Antarctic heat wave melted 20 percent of an island’s snow cover in days, caused melt ponds to proliferate includes the figure below of meltwater ponds on top of snow/ice. The ...
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If the top layer of a large river freezes, is the remainder's rate of flow affected?

This question is a hypothetical, and has to do with the notion of cheap, modular turbines that can be sunk and anchored to a specific depth in a body of water. Each would not generate much power, but ...
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653 views

Could pumping ocean water into desert areas help reduce sea level rise?

I have been reading the discussion about pumping sea water into the desert for purposes of irrigation and changing the dry climate of that area, but what about to just purely offset the rising sea ...
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Increase Evaporation from oceans

I would like to ask you about evaporation from sea water. Can you increase evaporation by spraying seawater to the air? Is there any difference compared to freshwater spraying (aerosol particles)?
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Tidal flow in an estuary

I am working on a project. Where this bacteria has been deposited at a port in the Humber Estuary. Where it has been deposited has been marked in red. I am trying to work out the limits of where this ...
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Natural Raw Water [closed]

I have been drinking natural unfiltered raw water straight from rivers, streams, springs and ponds and I haven’t ever gotten sick from it. I strongly believe and know it in my heart that water from ...
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Why is reverse osmosis desalination the dominant method used and not heat-based methods? Also why is brine being dumped back into the ocean? [closed]

So I was recently watching this video regarding desalination efforts around the world and the viability of desalination as a means to provide humans with freshwater. I had a few questions: 1 - They ...
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Ground water is almost every where, then how do mines and other holes are digged so that ground water doesn't drain into it

Water finds it way to the lowest point because of gravity. So if we dig a mine or something same, then how we take ground water in account, so that it doesn't fill in.
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Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom?

This is something that just occurred to me. If heavier elements sink, then how can the entire ocean be salty? Shouldn't the 'salt', because of its density, all sink to the bottom of the ocean? In ...
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If gypsum turns into plaster around 210 F, is there any natural plaster deposits or formations out there?

For a while I have been working with gypsum I mined from a site in Utah, and I realized how low the temperature is to turn it into plaster, so I was wandering; has there ever been any cases of large ...
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How does one scientifically define drinkable water? [closed]

Honestly I think nobody's invented a good water desalination device because nobody knows the scientific definition of clean drinking water. So scientifically, what is the definition of clean fresh ...
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A pipeline from the ocean to the desert causing a climate change for a drout in california a good idea? [duplicate]

If I already had a crew that built a pipe line in california from the ocean to the sahara how long would it take to wet the dry lands with rain water and what kind of weather or cliamate change would ...
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How much energy would be required to actively reduce the temperature of the oceans of Earth by 1℃?

Is there a way to calculate the energy required to reduce the heat of oceans? Am I wrong in thinking it is not as simple as reversing the calculation for specific heat of sea water?
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How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
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81 views

At what point are water droplets too small to make a rainbow?

This question asks How to tell if fog is made out of water droplets or ice crystals? I know that ice fog makes a rainbow where fog does not. Ice crystals aside: How does the water droplet size ...
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476 views

How much water gets consumed by residential use versus all other uses?

I have read different statistics on residential water use. One EPA chart I saw had residential use of water taking up half of all water, which seems unbelievable to me. Another writer claimed that ...
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Is water actually blue or is it transparent?

This is my first post on StackExchange and I would like to ask a question: Is water actually blue or is that just the reflection of the sky?
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Is there an approximate rate for water temperature by depth that could be modeled simply?

I know that there are a couple of questions covering latitude and longitude for water temperature, but overall I'm more interested in the rate of temperature change by depth. Thought Process: ...
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Would oceans regenerate if removed?

On Earth, there is enough Hydrogen and Oxygen to make 13,88 million km$^3$ of water (calculation below). However, oceans contain only a tenth of that. Clearly, most of the hydrogen must be stored in ...
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How is phosphorus getting into lakes and rivers?

Apparently there is so much phosphorus in waste water streams that states are passing laws to exempt water treatment facilities from having to spend billions removing the phosphorus. I don't get this....
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Glowing Orange lakes seen from airplane at night

I recently observed a phenomenon during a nighttime flight over upper Midwest of USA-specifically over Marquette, MI. In what is a lightly populated area, I observed several very large rectangular ...
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How is it possible to use up the water in a region?

The Dead Sea, rivers in California and the Aral Sea are said to be shrinking due to water usage, e.g. for agriculture. Yet the water must go somewhere. After the fields are irrigated, the water ...
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Are there places with water hardness between 30 dGH and 50 dGH?

In the manual of my new dishwasher there is a table of values of water hardness. It goes until 50 dGH (degrees of general hardness) which corresponds to 9,0 mmol/l in the same table. From wikipedia: ...
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Aren't fresh water deposits renewed by the water cycle?

I have recently watched the documentary "How Many People Can Live on Planet Earth?" with David Attenborough. In it, the main factors that will limit total human population Earth can support ...
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379 views

What is the cause of temporary smell and black color of underground water?

We have a well (about 1200KM away from sea and 60 meter deep), the water when taken out has slightly dark color and has smell. But strangely in about 12 hours the smell and black color vanishes and ...
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857 views

Are the water year/hydrological year different around the world?

Following the commonly-known USGS definition of Water Year (or Hydrological Year) we know that it starts on the 1st October and ends on the next 30th September. Is this definition valid only for ...
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Environmenal flow in the context of global gridded hydrological analyses

Environmental flow (EF) is a widely used concept in river basin management and river ecology. There are more than 200 methods to estimate the flow that should be left to the rivers to ensure a ...
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Judging wind speed based on flags and inland-water observations

About a year ago, I took this video along the Hudson river in NY, and I'm trying to figure out the Beaufort number based on the water and the flags. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqjvTALRWW8 The ...
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Is salt accumulating over time?

The rainfall leaches salts (Mg,Na,Ca,K,.., Cl) from weathering rocks, where those ions were freed from chemical bonds by sunlight, acidic water etc. The runoff eventually goes into the oceans, where ...
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Will the oceans swallow all of the land?

I am wondering why, since the oceans could feasibly hold all of the dry land, they in fact do not. For example, the Mariana Trench drops to -10.9km, while Mount Everest only reaches to +8.8km. ...
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Does outgassing change the isotopic D/H ratio?

It is known that the D/H-ratio of Earth's water inventory is very similar to that of asteroids. This is usually interpreted in a way that Earth's water must have come from similar, asteroid-like ...
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How is the vertical distribution of water vapor changing?

In this publication about data assimilation and observations (paywall alert) in the chapter General Concepts in Meteorology and Dynamics (by Andrew Charlton-Perez, William Lahoz, Richard Swinbank, ...
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Does Earth risk losing its oceans to space due to global warming?

I read that we are facing the very real possibility of Earth's average temperature rising by more that 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. As I understand our planet is constantly loosing ...
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Transferring water using underground channel

I heard in tv show, there are water channels in underground like rivers or small channels! So I just wondered why don't we use such underground water channels to recharge the underground water of one ...