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Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to the liquid phase of water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in meteorology and Earth Science.

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5 votes
2 answers
6k views

How do mountain springs get their water?

I am curious how do mountain springs get their water. The water flowing from them eventually forms rivers. Is it only from rain and snow? Or does water also come from underground-below the mountain (...
0 votes
0 answers
43 views

Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit

Large working model of water flow and cloud formation on the table, powered by infrasonic transducers - presented at UNFCCC Climate Summit 2019 My Dear Friends, as I recall correctly I watched large ...
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

How to convert Latent heat flux in W/m2 to mol m-2 s-1 unit?

Now I have daily latent heat flux data in "W/m2" unit, how can I convert "W/m2" to "mol H2O m-2 s-1"? Regards.
2 votes
1 answer
88 views

How much water does the Earth contain?

I am curious about how various estimates can divert. The first picture is taken from a recent publication of VisualCapitalist https://www.visualcapitalist.com/sp/hf01-visualizing-all-of-the-worlds-...
2 votes
2 answers
462 views

Would covering part of Lake Mead with large sheets of bubble wrap reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation?

I have been recently thinking about how the water level of Lake Mead keeps dropping due to its high water evaporation rate brought on by recent years of historical drought conditions. The continuous ...
2 votes
0 answers
44 views

Assuming no nearby animal/plant life or other 'artifical' influences, would a trapped pocket of air under 50-60 meters of seawater be breathable?

My guess as to the answer to my own question: Over a long period of time, no matter what the original composition of the air pocket was, it will exchange gases with the seawater just below it, which ...
29 votes
7 answers
46k views

Is a complete global flood physically possible on Earth?

Genesis 7:11-20 presents an account of an event which, in 40 days, submerges the entire surface of the earth: [On] the seventeenth day of the second month — on that day all the springs of the great ...
11 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why are these U-shaped bodies of water frequent near Kura river?

I was looking at the Kura river in Google Maps satellite mode and I saw these U-shaped bodies of water: There are other U-shaped bodies of water too: 40.615881° N, 47.205031° E 40.101139° N, 47....
1 vote
1 answer
301 views

How fast can water erode stone?

Is there a way to know, how fast can water erode stone? I mean, if I just put a single stone and drip water on it 24/7, how soon will erosion become noticable? I've seen a video about "15,25 and ...
1 vote
0 answers
134 views

What is the highest evaporation rate in the world? I know evaporation rates for Australia

I have been searching for the above answer for more than 25 years. I am providing a map of Australia for comparison http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/maps/averages/evaporation/ Is evaporation rate 4000 ...
3 votes
2 answers
236 views

How do you estimate the depth of a lake?

Say you are on the shore of an arbitrary lake in the world, and you want to predict its likely depth. What do you consider? the height of the nearby mountains the size of the lake the average ...
2 votes
2 answers
208 views

Ways of detecting underground bodies of water

I saw one way to achieve this using the magnetotelluric way, but I need some solid fundamental way to understand it. Any book recommendations would be appreciated.
3 votes
0 answers
70 views

Source for 71% of the earth being water

It is commonly known that 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by water. What sources can I look at that explain this calculation in more detail?
2 votes
1 answer
72 views

Is there a way to know what the concentrations of various minerals and ions in the water of a human usable hot spring are?

I have heard that there are hot springs in Greece which contain high amounts of ions and minerals (namely Lithium) that some people believe has beneficial impact on mental health. I can't verify/know ...
1 vote
1 answer
154 views

What kind of chromium is in common limestone?

I was thinking of crushing up some common limestone for microminerals because the water where I live has nearly zero calcium content. So I read about the trace elements of limestone and It says ...
4 votes
1 answer
100 views

“Coastal regions experience moderate climate”. What size are these regions?

It’s common knowledge (and I’m expecting correct) that coastal regions experience moderate climate. But how far is the coastal region affected? Does this affect people sitting on the beach? The ...
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Water comparison of different aqueous bodies in regions not affected by wildfire but adjacent to affected ones

Some big wildfires are hitting some places in Chile. I have read that aqueous bodies can be affected during/after major wildfires. Is it possible to determine if it is safe to drink spring water (...
7 votes
2 answers
801 views

Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
8 votes
0 answers
54 views

How do you determine the % of precipitation falling as snow in the case below?

I have just started a course in hydrology (a totally different field from mine which is computer science) and I can't find the link between the fact that a river flows into a lake and the % of ...
4 votes
2 answers
210 views

How much fresh water could be produced by pumping warm humid air through a pipeline up to the top of a mountain?

I have been doing a lot of research on the Internet lately about various desalination processes which are being used today and this led me to begin studying about mountain weather and the orographic ...
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

How would one get a submarine to rise? [closed]

How do you get a submarine to rise from the bottom of the ocean to the surface again? Do you press a button? Flip a switch? Use a lever? How do you initiate the surfacing process?
3 votes
1 answer
562 views

What are the U.S. government's plans for dealing with the event of Lake Mead drying up in the near future?

I watched a documentary this morning about how the water level on Lake Mead keeps dropping due to a historical 20+ year long drought. The lake's water level has been dropping due to a decrease in ...
3 votes
0 answers
46 views

Are rocks extracted from deep drilling, brittle due to pore pressure?

When a saturated rock sample is rapidly extracted from a place with high water pressure, as happens in oil drilling or deep mining, the water is trapped inside the rock at high pressure, trying to ...
33 votes
11 answers
20k views

Why does the salt in the oceans not sink to the bottom?

This is something that just occurred to me. If heavier elements sink, then how can the entire ocean be salty? Shouldn't the 'salt', because of its density, all sink to the bottom of the ocean? In ...
16 votes
3 answers
17k views

How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
8 votes
2 answers
523 views

Is it possible for tsunamis to occur on deep water planets?

Assume a water planet with an ocean depth of about 200-500 km. Would a very strong ground-quake happening at the very bottom of the planet's ocean floor be able to cause a large tsunami to rise up to ...
5 votes
1 answer
77 views

How much water is the atmosphere receiving

I was reading this Question earlier about how if water is getting lost into space and one of the answers said that (paraphrase) the Earth lost about enough water for the oceans to reduce by 12 cm, if ...
6 votes
4 answers
7k views

Could pumping ocean water into desert areas help reduce sea level rise?

I have been reading the discussion about pumping sea water into the desert for purposes of irrigation and changing the dry climate of that area, but what about to just purely offset the rising sea ...
3 votes
0 answers
29 views

How does the partial pressure of oxygen relate to its concentration in water?

I've read that the partial pressure of oxygen in water will be the same as the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere, but that the saturation of oxygen in water is dependent on factors like ...
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Desalination of Pacific Ocean water for California

Could it be feasible to have a tunnel using gravity to move water underground into central California, where a nuclear power plant can use the water to create electricity and desalinate it at the same ...
1 vote
1 answer
108 views

How do melting glaciers dry rivers?

How do melting glaciers dry rivers? Unless there's less precipitation during winter, I don't see how it affects the volume of water of the rivers that glaciers feed into. If it's cold, water ...
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Hydrologic Mass Balance

Old MacDonald had a farm. And on that farm, he had a pond. Old MacDonald (OMD) liked spending a lot of time fishing in his pond. One day a friend told him that the fish will grow twice as big if the ...
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Updating plant/crop database

I have been trying to update the QSWAT+ crop database to include new crops. However it seems the model refuses to read a look-up table with new crops leaving me unable to represent all the various ...
2 votes
0 answers
83 views

Change in vapour pressure due to climate change

I was just wondering how much the vapour pressure has changed due to climate change. Because with changing temperatures, the vapour pressure also changes; this is described by the Clausius-Clapeyron ...
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

Was the filling of the Three Gorges Dam's impact on the Earth's rotation rate detectable?

I'm a big fan of Vsauce and the video How Earth Moves is just one example of science related to the Earth available there (there's plenty more). But the statement in this video starting at ...
4 votes
4 answers
2k views

How do we compensate the water that is being taken out of water cycle for curing of concrete in infra construction?

Concrete is the key ingredient to building housing, roads, and all kinds of infrastructure. Curing of concrete makes sure that the infra is rock solid and reliably durable and safe. But, it also ...
4 votes
0 answers
80 views

Kinetic or equilibrium fractionation from 2H and 18O in evaporation and condensation?

Is the isotope fractionation that occurs during evaporation of surface water equilibrium fractionation or kinetic fractionation? I mean, evaporation can be described by Rayleigh fractionation, but I ...
1 vote
1 answer
50 views

What is the proper terminology for a waterfall or stream that loops back round in a cyclic manner? [closed]

For example if water falls down a waterfall then it eventually reaches the very top again to fall back down again.
1 vote
2 answers
121 views

Formation of steam underground

In the process of drilling holes in the ground, if water was introduced, could it reach equilibrium vapor pressure, flash to steam and expel drill bit, drilling rod, and other debris up and out of the ...
20 votes
4 answers
24k views

Lanes of flat ocean surface in coastal waters

When the ocean is still, i.e. there aren't waves that disturb the surface, you often see "lanes" of water that seem flat as opposed to areas where the wind causes ripples. What causes this?
6 votes
2 answers
379 views

Could saltwater be useful for greening deserts and sequestering CO2?

Desert greening is the conversion of deserts into moister environments with more vegetation. This could be used to combat desertification and (by sequestering CO2) climate change, and also to increase ...
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

How to maintain average elevation of water on uneven terrain? [closed]

We have uneven terrain (street) and want to distribute water fairly equally to all locations (homes). The issue is that the locations at the end get sufficient water and other locations need to wait. ...
3 votes
0 answers
52 views

How important is water condensation in maintaining the swirling winds of tornadoes?

If we somehow removed all the water from Earth, it seems that there would no longer be tornado-like 100+ mph winds (or, at least, this would be a much rarer occurrence). Discussing storm creation, ...
1 vote
2 answers
78 views

What are some reasons for Aridification

I an working on a Si-Fi world, and am looking for ways that an area would, over a long timescale, lose the majority of its water. I understand how the lose of vegetative cover due to climate changes ...
3 votes
0 answers
53 views

How does ocean productivity vary with depth?

How does the biological productivity of the ocean vary with depth? (By 'productivity', what I'm actually interested in is production of edible fish, but I suppose other measures like photosynthesis, ...
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

soil water retention and soil water content

Can someone clarify me about this doubt? Is the available soil water content (field capacity minus wilting point) the same as the soil water moisture or soil water content? Thank you.
4 votes
0 answers
230 views

Why is the Gulf of Alaska not a Bay? What is the difference between a Gulf and a Bay? [closed]

Since the mouth of this water body is actually very wide, why do we call it a Gulf? What exactly is the difference between a Gulf and a Bay?
8 votes
2 answers
140 views

Where to find reliable water temperature?

I need data regarding water temperature of Mediterranean Sea according to changes in depth. I couldn't find these data in the Copernicus Marine website, so I'd like to know if you know of any database ...
3 votes
1 answer
516 views

How deep is the water beneath a waterfall?

I always wondered about this, how deep is the water beneath a water fall? I would suspect erosion to erode even rock over time. Are there some visual clues to estimate the water depth? Or is the only ...
50 votes
14 answers
48k views

Why is the pond in my backyard not frozen when it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside?

I am in O'Fallon, Missouri and today it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside. I was taught water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F). I could understand if it was exactly 0 °C (32 °F) that the water might not be turning to ...