# Questions tagged [waves]

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### How to distinguish P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves in a seismogram?

What features should I look for to determine each of these kinds of waves in a seismogram? What signal processing methods (filters, transforms, etc...) should I use to determine them?
142 views

### Placement of crustal thickness estimation from 1D inversion of surface wave dispersion curves

Seismic surface waves present a characteristic dispersion behavior in which different frequencies travel at different speeds. This characteristic dispersion curve depends on the shear and ...
9k views

### What does it mean for waves to "feel" the bottom?

While typically waves are said to "feel" the bottom when the depth of the water is less than half the wavelength, what does it mean for the waves to "feel"? Furthermore, why does this happen at the ...
2k views

### Why do Tsunamis travel slower than sound?

Tsunamis, in the deep ocean, travel at around 800 kilometers per hour. The speed of sound under water is about 5300 kilometers per hour. Both of these waves are pressure waves, operating in the ...
318 views

### Potential explanations of Red Sea crossing

I am looking for a believable explanation of the Red Sea Crossing in the Bible. This would involve either strong winds(which is mentioned in the Bible) or plate tectonics which could cause land to ...
1k views

### What is a typical value of the Péclet number for internal waves?

Defining the Péclet number as: $Pe = \frac{U \lambda}{\kappa}$ Where $U$ is the characteristic fluid velocity, $\lambda$ is the wavelength of the internal wave and $\kappa$ is the turbulent eddy ...
2k views

### At the ocean surface, why do large amplitude waves travel faster than small amplitude waves?

I understand the mathematics behind it but I am looking for an intuitive description.
5k views

### Why are there waves in seas towards shore - even in night?

Waves are mostly caused by Friction of wind on surface of water. Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. So it is intuitive why there ...
6k views

### If a very huge Earthquake occured anywhere on Earth could waves emerge to come together again on the opposite side?

Suppose that a super-powerful earthquake occurred anywhere on Earth, say one with the value 10 on Richter's scale. The quake can have any value but as can be read in a comment below the highest value ...
2k views

### What causes waves to form the characteristic "breaking" shape as they approach the shoreline?

We all know that as waves approach the shallow shores, the waves begin to form a characteristic shape. The upper portion of these breaking waves appears to curl forward and downwards over the bottom ...
651 views

### Why is a seismogram interpreted as a convolution?

I remember reading in a geology book that a seismogram is a convolution between a source signal and propagation effects. In layman's terms, what does this really mean?
2k views

### Software for sediment transport modeling

I am doing a paper about coastal processes and I was told that I should include a sediment transport modeling to further examine my geophysical findings. I was reading in the net and found that ...
6k views

### P wave to S wave conversion

While passing through layers inside the earth some P waves get converted to S waves and then back to P waves while returning towards the surface. Is this statement true? If yes, then why? (...
1k views

### Forecasting oceanic rogue waves

A rogue wave is, according to NOAA, "a large, unexpected and dangerous" oceanic wave. These are also known as 'killer' or 'freak' waves and have been a part of folklore of the past and observation of ...
681 views

### Where can I obtain ocean wave data of the Southeast Asian region?

I am interested in obtaining ocean wave data (preferably from actual measurements), such as wave height, period, and direction, in the Southeast Asian region. Where can I obtain them?
208 views

### How do Kelvin waves determine surface temperature variations?

Kelvin waves are basically waves that balance out the Coriolis force against topographic boundaries like coastlines and mountains. It seems very important in the oceans, for example. My question is ...
2k views

### Should one extract wavelet from seismic or well log for the generation of synthetic traces?

Synthetics are generated by convolving reflectivity series with the known wavelet. I have seen most of the wavelet are extracted from seismic data itself. Is there any hard and fast rule, or can one ...
206 views

### Waves on sandy beach separating differently-sized rocks?

I recently went to a beach, and I noticed that the sand seemed to have a few distinct regions. I'm wondering what would cause this, and how it works. One region is the part of the beach which is ...
256 views

### Stability correction factor in the Wavewatch III wave model

I'm studying the Wavewatch III wave model (http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/index2.shtml). I'm confused by the stability correction factor, named ASF in the code. What is its purpose? Is it related to ...
11k views

### What visual wave behaviour help to tell if a tide is going in or out?

I have always wondered how someone could tell, by a brief observation (a few minutes at most), whether a tide is receding or advancing on a rainy day. Assuming there is no access to tide times and ...
2k views

### How does one determine the optimum offset in a seismic survey?

I was going through a report on MASW (Multi Station Analysis of Surface Wave) and found this "To avoid the aliasing in the space domain, geophone spacing (Δx) needs to be less than half of the ...
1k views

### How do Rossby Waves in the ocean form?

So on land, I believe that one factor in their formation is due to inhomogeneities in surface heating between land and ocean (and also inhomogeneities in surface heating due to terrain effects like ...
204 views

### Why can't wave models model storm surge?

I found this nice module here on MetEd that gives an overview of the WAVEWATCH wave model. In it, in the Introduction section, it is mentioned that WAVEWATCH cannot model storm surge or tsunamis. Is ...
465 views

### How does a tsunami affect biology and other matter in its path while in deep water

Is everything in the water column going to be affected?
1k views

### Why do deviated wells show poor correlation to seismic data?

Well correlation and calibration is an important step in any type of seismic inversion. In order to obtain a good broadband frequency model, the synthetics should be correlated with original seismic ...
323 views

### Are these clouds exhibiting gravity waves?

This is a GOES visible channel image from 2017-01-27, about 9 a.m. local time. It's the Atlantic coast of the US. The coast is visible towards the bottom of the image. The scale is large. This ...
855 views

### What is a vertical wavenumber?

I can understand that the wavenumber is number of waves or cycles in a given distance. But what would a vertical wavenumber mean? Is it just another term for the wavenumber of a wave that is ...
902 views

### The significance of peak period in surface wave models

The peak period or peak frequency is considered to be an important quantity in characterizing ocean surface waves, including wave models [e.g., 1]. But practically, why are we interested in modelling ...
1k views

### What is the best way to accurately measure wavelength between crests on a pier?

What is the best way to accurately measure wavelength between crests from a pier?
153 views

### How much water does a wave transport into a sea cave?

How much water is transported (volume) as a wave travels into a sea cave? The wave has a height of 1 m and a period of 12 seconds. The average water depth at the cave mouth it 5 m and the width is 15 ...
431 views

### Is wave spectrum always positive and why?

Is the 2-D elevation wave spectrum (as a function of wavenumber and direction, with units of $m^4$) always positive? If so, why would that be the case?
1k views

### Units of wave spectrum

In ocean spectra such as the Pierson Moskowitz or the JONSWAP models, the units of $S(\omega)$ are $m^2/(rad/s)$ (or whatever unit of measurement you are working in). Where does the $m^2$ come from ...
118 views

### How will climate change affect planetary waves?

You can see planetary/rossby waves in the meanders of the jet stream. In short: If an air parcel moves from warm subtropics towards the pole, it will deviate toward the east due to conservation of ...
2k views

### What is the meaning of seismic spectral blueing?

What is the meaning of seismic spectral blueing? Please cite any good introductory materials if possible.
611 views

### How are chenier ridges and strand plains formed at wave dominated coastlines?

In the attached image, we can see chenier ridges and strand plains. How are they formed and what is the involvement of rip and longshore currents in their formation?
817 views

### Analytical solution for seismic wavefield in MATLAB

I have been trying to evaluate the analytical solution for a wave travelling in a homogeneous, infinite media. For a given source $S(t)$, the wave-field can be calculated at a distance $r$, for a ...
86 views

### Availability of mean squared slope or wave spectra data for the sea surface

The mean squared slope is a property of the sea surface that is often sensed by microwave radars [1] [2]. While spatial data for sea surface salinity, sea surface height, and significant wave height ...
264 views

### Wave height data for Indian east coast

For my project, I am looking for wave height information. My study area is the Odisha coast of the Bay of Bengal. What I have gathered from various research papers is that significant wave height is ...
105 views

### ERA Interim problem with Waves

Has anyone had a problem with significant wave height (swh) and mean wave period (mwp) from ERA-Interim not matching very well with either a time series of measurements or a different model? Or does ...
554 views

### How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
134 views

### Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves?

Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves? I'm aware of the fact that extratropical cyclones form in 'baroclinic zones' and that they start of as waves. But are these what are referred ...
73 views

### Effects of currents on peak wave frequency

I have been analyzing the surface wave measurements taken from the location where the waves interact with both opposing and following currents. I don't understand why the peak frequency decreases ...
119 views

### What makes the SWAN wave model suitable for coastal regions?

It appears that the SWAN wave model is adept in shallow water and coastal regions. See for example here and here. What makes SWAN more suitable in these regions than other wave models like WAVEWATCH? ...
3k views

### Whitecapping in ocean surface waves

Even though the physics of wave breaking for ocean surface waves may not be well understood, what wave breaking is and what it looks like is no mystery to the average beach-goer. However, I am ...
326 views

### What might cause these "wave clouds" near the horizon? Could it be gravity waves?

I found this image on a website - returned as a HTTP error 404 'not found'. But the clouds look strangely repetitive. At first I thought the image had been "photoshopped", but as @gerrit pointed out ...
318 views

### Why does wind blowing against a strong current create way bigger waves?

It's a well known fact that wind will cause very big waves if blowing against a strong current, for example in the gulf stream off the US coast, or in the bay of San Francisco with a very strong (5 ...
837 views

### The mean direction of waves in a directional distribution

When modelling ocean waves, a directional distribution $D_f(\theta)$ is used together with a frequency spectrum $S(f)$ to describe the energy of waves at a particular frequency $f$ and angle $\theta$. ...
567 views

### Depth of the wind-induced currents and the shoreline

In the open sea the speed of the current in the developed sea can be estimated as 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters. Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity? Is there a similar ...