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Questions tagged [waves]

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22
votes
3answers
8k views

How to distinguish P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves in a seismogram?

What features should I look for to determine each of these kinds of waves in a seismogram? What signal processing methods (filters, transforms, etc...) should I use to determine them?
22
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1answer
132 views

Placement of crustal thickness estimation from 1D inversion of surface wave dispersion curves

Seismic surface waves present a characteristic dispersion behavior in which different frequencies travel at different speeds. This characteristic dispersion curve depends on the shear and ...
18
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2answers
8k views

What does it mean for waves to “feel” the bottom?

While typically waves are said to "feel" the bottom when the depth of the water is less than half the wavelength, what does it mean for the waves to "feel"? Furthermore, why does this happen at the ...
16
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1answer
303 views

Potential explanations of Red Sea crossing

I am looking for a believable explanation of the Red Sea Crossing in the Bible. This would involve either strong winds(which is mentioned in the Bible) or plate tectonics which could cause land to ...
15
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1answer
2k views

Why do Tsunamis travel slower than sound?

Tsunamis, in the deep ocean, travel at around 800 kilometers per hour. The speed of sound under water is about 5300 kilometers per hour. Both of these waves are pressure waves, operating in the ...
15
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2answers
1k views

At the ocean surface, why do large amplitude waves travel faster than small amplitude waves?

I understand the mathematics behind it but I am looking for an intuitive description.
14
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1answer
6k views

If a very huge Earthquake occured anywhere on Earth could waves emerge to come together again on the opposite side?

Suppose that a super-powerful earthquake occurred anywhere on Earth, say one with the value 10 on Richter's scale. The quake can have any value but as can be read in a comment below the highest value ...
14
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2answers
2k views

What causes waves to form the characteristic “breaking” shape as they approach the shoreline?

We all know that as waves approach the shallow shores, the waves begin to form a characteristic shape. The upper portion of these breaking waves appears to curl forward and downwards over the bottom ...
14
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2answers
548 views

Why is a seismogram interpreted as a convolution?

I remember reading in a geology book that a seismogram is a convolution between a source signal and propagation effects. In layman's terms, what does this really mean?
14
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2answers
2k views

Software for sediment transport modeling

I am doing a paper about coastal processes and I was told that I should include a sediment transport modeling to further examine my geophysical findings. I was reading in the net and found that ...
14
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1answer
911 views

What is a typical value of the Péclet number for internal waves?

Defining the Péclet number as: $Pe = \frac{U \lambda}{\kappa}$ Where $U$ is the characteristic fluid velocity, $\lambda$ is the wavelength of the internal wave and $\kappa$ is the turbulent eddy ...
13
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1answer
6k views

P wave to S wave conversion

While passing through layers inside the earth some P waves get converted to S waves and then back to P waves while returning towards the surface. Is this statement true? If yes, then why? (...
13
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2answers
904 views

Forecasting oceanic rogue waves

A rogue wave is, according to NOAA, "a large, unexpected and dangerous" oceanic wave. These are also known as 'killer' or 'freak' waves and have been a part of folklore of the past and observation of ...
13
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1answer
581 views

Where can I obtain ocean wave data of the Southeast Asian region?

I am interested in obtaining ocean wave data (preferably from actual measurements), such as wave height, period, and direction, in the Southeast Asian region. Where can I obtain them?
13
votes
1answer
193 views

How do Kelvin waves determine surface temperature variations?

Kelvin waves are basically waves that balance out the Coriolis force against topographic boundaries like coastlines and mountains. It seems very important in the oceans, for example. My question is ...
12
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1answer
2k views

Should one extract wavelet from seismic or well log for the generation of synthetic traces?

Synthetics are generated by convolving reflectivity series with the known wavelet. I have seen most of the wavelet are extracted from seismic data itself. Is there any hard and fast rule, or can one ...
11
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2answers
195 views

Waves on sandy beach separating differently-sized rocks?

I recently went to a beach, and I noticed that the sand seemed to have a few distinct regions. I'm wondering what would cause this, and how it works. One region is the part of the beach which is ...
10
votes
1answer
222 views

Stability correction factor in the Wavewatch III wave model

I'm studying the Wavewatch III wave model (http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/index2.shtml). I'm confused by the stability correction factor, named ASF in the code. What is its purpose? Is it related to ...
10
votes
1answer
7k views

What visual wave behaviour help to tell if a tide is going in or out?

I have always wondered how someone could tell, by a brief observation (a few minutes at most), whether a tide is receding or advancing on a rainy day. Assuming there is no access to tide times and ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

How does one determine the optimum offset in a seismic survey?

I was going through a report on MASW (Multi Station Analysis of Surface Wave) and found this "To avoid the aliasing in the space domain, geophone spacing (Δx) needs to be less than half of the ...
9
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1answer
197 views

Why can't wave models model storm surge?

I found this nice module here on MetEd that gives an overview of the WAVEWATCH wave model. In it, in the Introduction section, it is mentioned that WAVEWATCH cannot model storm surge or tsunamis. Is ...
9
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2answers
453 views

How does a tsunami affect biology and other matter in its path while in deep water

Is everything in the water column going to be affected?
8
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3answers
888 views

Why do deviated wells show poor correlation to seismic data?

Well correlation and calibration is an important step in any type of seismic inversion. In order to obtain a good broadband frequency model, the synthetics should be correlated with original seismic ...
8
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1answer
609 views

What is a vertical wavenumber?

I can understand that the wavenumber is number of waves or cycles in a given distance. But what would a vertical wavenumber mean? Is it just another term for the wavenumber of a wave that is ...
8
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2answers
802 views

The significance of peak period in surface wave models

The peak period or peak frequency is considered to be an important quantity in characterizing ocean surface waves, including wave models [e.g., 1]. But practically, why are we interested in modelling ...
8
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2answers
854 views

What is the best way to accurately measure wavelength between crests on a pier?

What is the best way to accurately measure wavelength between crests from a pier?
7
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2answers
269 views

Are these clouds exhibiting gravity waves?

This is a GOES visible channel image from 2017-01-27, about 9 a.m. local time. It's the Atlantic coast of the US. The coast is visible towards the bottom of the image. The scale is large. This ...
7
votes
1answer
309 views

Is wave spectrum always positive and why?

Is the 2-D elevation wave spectrum (as a function of wavenumber and direction, with units of $m^4$) always positive? If so, why would that be the case?
7
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1answer
592 views

Units of wave spectrum

In ocean spectra such as the Pierson Moskowitz or the JONSWAP models, the units of $S(\omega)$ are $m^2/(rad/s)$ (or whatever unit of measurement you are working in). Where does the $m^2$ come from ...
7
votes
1answer
107 views

How will climate change affect planetary waves?

You can see planetary/rossby waves in the meanders of the jet stream. In short: If an air parcel moves from warm subtropics towards the pole, it will deviate toward the east due to conservation of ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the meaning of seismic spectral blueing?

What is the meaning of seismic spectral blueing? Please cite any good introductory materials if possible.
7
votes
1answer
129 views

How much water does a wave transport into a sea cave?

How much water is transported (volume) as a wave travels into a sea cave? The wave has a height of 1 m and a period of 12 seconds. The average water depth at the cave mouth it 5 m and the width is 15 ...
7
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1answer
603 views

Analytical solution for seismic wavefield in MATLAB

I have been trying to evaluate the analytical solution for a wave travelling in a homogeneous, infinite media. For a given source $S(t)$, the wave-field can be calculated at a distance $r$, for a ...
7
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0answers
79 views

Availability of mean squared slope or wave spectra data for the sea surface

The mean squared slope is a property of the sea surface that is often sensed by microwave radars [1] [2]. While spatial data for sea surface salinity, sea surface height, and significant wave height ...
6
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2answers
98 views

ERA Interim problem with Waves

Has anyone had a problem with significant wave height (swh) and mean wave period (mwp) from ERA-Interim not matching very well with either a time series of measurements or a different model? Or does ...
6
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0answers
126 views

Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves?

Are extratropical cyclones the same as baroclinic waves? I'm aware of the fact that extratropical cyclones form in 'baroclinic zones' and that they start of as waves. But are these what are referred ...
6
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0answers
71 views

Effects of currents on peak wave frequency

I have been analyzing the surface wave measurements taken from the location where the waves interact with both opposing and following currents. I don't understand why the peak frequency decreases ...
6
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0answers
109 views

What makes the SWAN wave model suitable for coastal regions?

It appears that the SWAN wave model is adept in shallow water and coastal regions. See for example here and here. What makes SWAN more suitable in these regions than other wave models like WAVEWATCH? ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Whitecapping in ocean surface waves

Even though the physics of wave breaking for ocean surface waves may not be well understood, what wave breaking is and what it looks like is no mystery to the average beach-goer. However, I am ...
5
votes
1answer
259 views

What might cause these “wave clouds” near the horizon? Could it be gravity waves?

I found this image on a website - returned as a HTTP error 404 'not found'. But the clouds look strangely repetitive. At first I thought the image had been "photoshopped", but as @gerrit pointed out ...
5
votes
1answer
206 views

Why does wind blowing against a strong current create way bigger waves?

It's a well known fact that wind will cause very big waves if blowing against a strong current, for example in the gulf stream off the US coast, or in the bay of San Francisco with a very strong (5 ...
5
votes
1answer
636 views

The mean direction of waves in a directional distribution

When modelling ocean waves, a directional distribution $D_f(\theta)$ is used together with a frequency spectrum $S(f)$ to describe the energy of waves at a particular frequency $f$ and angle $\theta$. ...
5
votes
1answer
456 views

Depth of the wind-induced currents and the shoreline

In the open sea the speed of the current in the developed sea can be estimated as 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters. Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity? Is there a similar ...
5
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0answers
295 views

How are chenier ridges and strand plains formed at wave dominated coastlines?

In the attached image, we can see chenier ridges and strand plains. How are they formed and what is the involvement of rip and longshore currents in their formation?
4
votes
1answer
69 views

How does wind cause large waves?

I was just wondering about the large waves associated with storms. It seems a little counter-intuitive that large masses of water can be put into motion by moving air (which is much lighter than water)...
4
votes
1answer
573 views

What is the amplitude of the largest internal wave ever observed?

I have read from Vlasenko et al. (2014) that the largest amplitude of an internal wave recorded in the Celtic Sea is 105 m. Is this the largest ever or have any larger ones been recorded elsewhere (eg....
4
votes
1answer
325 views

Best book/s of oceanic data treatment and analysis?

I would like to purchase a/some books which are really good and practical references to get into the oceanic data (wave heights,currents and sea level) treatment and statistical analysis, coming from ...
4
votes
1answer
196 views

How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Why do P waves have a higher velocity in the lower mantle than in the core even though the core has a much higher density?

I've just started teaching 9th grade Earth science and my students and I have noticed something about P and S wave depth vs velocity graphs. In the typical graph, eg: https://www.researchgate.net/...
3
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1answer
998 views

Detecting seismic waves using Software Defined Radio

I understand about physic and waves, but I am a totally rookie in this topic. I was wondering which are the typical frequency ranges of the S-waves, P-waves and surface waves. My idea would be to ...