Questions tagged [wind]

The flow of air with respect to the ground. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air.

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Is wind commonly formally defined as some combination of breezes, weather fronts, and climate?

In a book I read, I believe the author defined wind as the sum of breezes, weather, and climate. breezes: hyper-local disturbances, due to topology or uneven heating of surfaces weather: the movement ...
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How important is water condensation in maintaining the swirling winds of tornadoes?

If we somehow removed all the water from Earth, it seems that there would no longer be tornado-like 100+ mph winds (or, at least, this would be a much rarer occurrence). Discussing storm creation, ...
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How to find the altitude above mean sea level of the wind in forecast data such as GFS

I'm looking to retrieve from weather forecasts (such as GFS or HRRR) the U and V component of the wind with respect to some altitude (meters) above mean sea level. To do so, I've implement a ...
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What makes sand dunes shaped asymmetrically?

I have been working on a simulation to approximate the formation process of dunes. I understand that their formation is a result of saltation and aeolian processes, but I don't understand the exact ...
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Do warm-season Foehn winds occur in the Pacific Northwest?

Over the last 30 years, Foehn winds have led to wildfires affecting densely populated areas of the California coast. They're called Diablo winds in the north, and Santa Ana winds in the south. ...
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Why does warmer maritime air create low pressure systems while continental land masses create high pressure systems?

From Hurth's book, The Lost Art of Finding Our Way , there is a section on Air Mass and Fronts (page 267) On average, since cold air is denser than warm air, the northern stretches of continental ...
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Does sea breeze stop?

Is there ever a state of thermal equilibrium between land and sea? What is the condition of the Land/Sea breeze at that time?
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Weather station data

I am currently setting up a wind-wave model for which I need to input the wind forcing for the whole domain. I have obtained the wind speed and direction from two sources: CFSv2 and ERA5. ...
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What causes these periodic high-pressure blobs along the west coast of South America?

I was looking through the Weatherbug atmospheric pressure map around 8:30 am ET on Oct 26 2021, and noticed this chain of small high pressure blobs along the west coast of South America. It was also ...
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How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper hyperlink here. The approach is summarized in figure 2 of the paper. Short Summary, ...
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Does global warming inhibit transport of moisture?

This northern summer, 2021, there were wildfires in Southern Europe and floods in Germany nearly at same time, also, floods and wildfires in different parts of Turkey, and floods in Far East of Russia ...
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Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
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Why is equatorial Africa wetter in the west than the east? [duplicate]

Looking at equatorial Africa in Google Maps, the western part – Guinea, the Congo – is the dark green of tropical rain forest that I would expect of a wet equatorial region, by analogy with the Amazon ...
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Wind monitoring system for a specified region: How should this be done, and with what?

I am unsure if this is the correct place to ask such a question I will give it a go. So, the lab I work in is building a "drone park" to conduct robotics and controls experiments in. This ...
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Why is there no American dry winter monsoon?

Some regions have monsoon conditions, a seasonal reversal of wind due to the heating and cooling of major land masses. This is true of east Asia in particular; according to https://science.jrank.org/...
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Is there a global map of wind design loads or wind gust climatology?

I'm looking for a world map of wind gust climatology data, with the specific purpose of being used for coarse comparison of building design loads, with a consistent metric regardless of location. ...
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Could irrigation stop the Santa Ana winds?

The Santa Ana winds flow down mountain slopes, growing ever hotter as they descend. To my amazement, popular explanations of these winds even attribute them to specific mountain passes. Suppose for ...
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Would the atmosphere move rigidly with ground if you ignored wind?

I know this sounds basic but I've wondered about this for a long time and I'm still confused. In aviation, air speed is ground speed minus wind speed. If wind speed is zero, air speed equals ground ...
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Is it possible to detect Coriolis effect using a Wind Rose?

I once learned in high school that the area where I used to live experiences the Coriolis effects of the air movement above the city. I never paid attention to this before, but I recently heard about ...
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How to find the top level of the planetary boundary layer in WRF?

I am working on WRF_Chem, I would like to calculate the concentration of CO2 just in the Planetary boundary layer(I mean, I want to calculate CO2 from surface to top of PBL).in WRF How can I calculate ...
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How to find inertial advective component of ageostrophic wind in natural coordinates

How do you derive the components of the inertial advective wind in natural coordinates? The vector form of the inertial advective wind is: I have been able to find the components in cartesian ...
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What is the westerly index?

This was asked in aviation stack exchange and the best answer (credit:ymb1) was: The westerly index is the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure ...
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Can air be slowed down by Fricton? [closed]

Can wind/air that is moving at average speeds be slowed down by the cause of Friction? Also, Can Air bubbles in water be slowed down because of Friction? Please cite your sources.
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Why do trees break at the same wind speed?

Several people have independently mentioned to me that all trees break at the same wind speed. This phenomenon is independent of type and size of the tree. Supposedly, Galileo already had described ...
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SWAN doesn't run [duplicate]

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I'm not an expert in SWAN. I have some problem with it. Previously my result like rotated so I take another option to make grids using GridBuilder but SWAN doesn'...
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SWAN WAVE model: Strange result

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I have some problems with my research. When I plot the result it is rotated. The color blue one is land. This my script, what should I do to fix the problem? <...
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Why does wind direction change in a front? [duplicate]

Plenty of answers answer the question that it happens but I can't find a good answer as to why the wind shifts during the passing of a front. For an extreme example see: (in Dutch, x is hours and y ...
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What are the latest developments about global stilling?

I recently learn about "global stilling", i.e. the fact that surface wind speed tends to decrease since the 80s. It was in this article, but it's from 2010. The Wikipedia page also seems a ...
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What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
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Is it meaningful to assume static pressure to be constant along a streamline?

I am looking at Bernoulli's equation formulated in two dimensions, which reads $$\frac{v^2}{2}+c_p\theta_0\pi+gz \equiv \mathrm{const.}$$ along a given streamline $\gamma$, where $v=|\mathrm{v}|$ for ...
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Derivative of Exner function

In chapter 13.1 in 'Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes' (Markowski and Richardson,2011) they use a Bernoulli equation and the hydrostatic equation and a lot of assumptions to derive an equation ...
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Wind rose WRF-PYTHON

I'm trying to plot a windrose but I don't know how to get the variables ws and wd. Is there any variable in the wrf output that can be used to make a windrose? I tried with 'wspd' et 'wdir' but I ...
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Asian South West Monsoon - Rainfall in South East Coast of India

So Indian peninsula has v shaped mountain ranges. Western ghats and Eastern ghats as shown in the picture. During Summer Monsoon, the wind flows from Indian ocean to land mass, and due to Coriolis ...
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Why are there waves in seas towards shore - even in night?

Waves are mostly caused by Friction of wind on surface of water. Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. So it is intuitive why there ...
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Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that it ...
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SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
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7 votes
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Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
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Short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts

I should make a short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts. I'm finding it really hard so I'd be glad if you help me. 'В' means high atmospheric pressure I'm trying to figure out the ...
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Why do wind speeds often jump from 20 knots to 40 knots

Looking at the BBC weather forecasts I've often noticed that strong winds will often be over 40 knots (for the UK at least). Most of the time (nearly always) the wind will jump from 18-22 knots to ...
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Converting Wind Movement to Wind Speed

I'm looking through historical weather station information from NOAA, and I notice some stations do not have wind speed information but do track Wind Movement(WDMV) over a 24 hour period in kilometers....
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What determines the direction of wind [duplicate]

What determines the direction that a wind blows? I understand that the nature of my question is immensely broad but I see no other way to phrase the question. The question surfaced in my mind when I ...
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Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is here. Shearing = $\frac{dV}{dx} + \frac{dU}{dy}$ ${U}$ and ${V}$ are the zonal and ...
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What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

I have been reading some documents about meteorological data and many of them mention the second moment of wind velocity. I guess it has to do with the way the wind is changing but in such case I ...
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Where can I find wave height/period, current velocity and wind speed/direction data at the Qiangzhou strait in China?

I'm looking for time series of wave height/ period, velocity currents and wind speed/direction specifically for the Qiangzhou strait in China. Global data sets could also work.
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Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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How to strong winds cause baroclinic intensification in the upper ocean?

Below is an excerpt from The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Bernt Zeitzschel, Sebastian A. Gerlach The more vigorous atmospheric and oceanic circulation during the SW monsoon causes not only the ...
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What is the accepted measure for Wind Coherency (Strength and Direction)

I have wind data from a Met station (Speed and Direction), and I'm looking for a way to characterize a strong coherent wind. AKA - Wind that averages 12 m/s out of the East for 2 days would have a ...
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Judging wind speed based on flags and inland-water observations

About a year ago, I took this video along the Hudson river in NY, and I'm trying to figure out the Beaufort number based on the water and the flags. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqjvTALRWW8 The ...
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Find True Wind from ship course and observed wind

Assume that I am sailing in a ship where I know the course of the ship & speed of the ship and observed wind direction & speed using Automatic Weather Station fitted on mast. I would like to ...
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1 vote
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If storms form above low pressure regions, why doesn't the eye of a hurricane, a low pressure region, have any storms?

If this is due to the Coriolis Effect, my other question would be how does the wind go upwards to form the storm clouds?
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