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Questions tagged [wind]

The flow of air with respect to the ground. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air.

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Oxygen concentrations in the air and absorption rates at sea, even under windy conditions

If I measure the amount of oxygen in the air at sea, is it the same as if I measure it on land? What if there is wind? Does oxygen concentration, change, in the middle of wind? What about the ability ...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
2 votes
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Providing wind direction with wrf-python package

I understand that wrf.getvar will give both the speed (dim 0) and the direction (dim 1) V1 = wrf.getvar(ncdin, "uvmet10_wspd_wdir", units="m s-1",timeidx=wrf.ALL_TIMES,meta=False)[...
Dimitris Tsiaousidis's user avatar
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Wind direction statistics

I evaluate the performance of the model through the computation of statistical parameter such as bias, R, IOA and other. (i compare it with in situ measurements) However, wind direction (range 0 to ...
Dimitris Tsiaousidis's user avatar
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Can frictional force be un-aligned with wind direction?

There is a well known solution to Navier-Stokes equations for atmospheric boundary layer according to Ekman (see for instance PalArya's book "Introduction to Micrometeorology" or Holton's &...
MichaelW's user avatar
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Why aren't dust devils extremely unstable?

Based on my intuition, I would expect a dust devil to rapidly entrain slow-moving air and stop spinning. My logic goes something like this: The dust devil is made of air that is warmer than the ...
Harrychink's user avatar
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How do bull’s eye squalls occur?

The only things I could find on the internet were that they had vortices and are marked by an isolated cloud, for example, in the American Met. Soc. glossary: https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bull%...
Harrychink's user avatar
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What are the current theories on the formation of satellite tornados

I have already searched the web for information on the formation of satellite tornadoes but all the sites say the mechanism is unknown. What are the current leading theories for their formation?
Harrychink's user avatar
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How does the caprock of aeolian landforms such as mesas, buttes and hoodoos protect the underlying soft rock?

Why do we see a bipartite cliff,i.e., a vertical top portion and a slanted bottom portion at the edge of a mesa or butte? I came to know from the internet that the top portion is the hard caprock And ...
Krishanu Karmakar's user avatar
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Is this the correct way to extract U and V wind components from NEXRAD weather radar?

I am working with NEXRAD radar data, and I am trying to plot the U and V wind velocity for each point on a grid. There is a channel in the data called "Velocity" described as "A measure ...
scp's user avatar
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Wind patterns on a tidally locked planet (one side always faces the sun)

I'm moving this question from Worldbuilding StackExchange (Link). I know it's not strictly about Earth, but I'm hoping it will still be accepted here since it's related to meteorology. Here we go: My ...
Alon's user avatar
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How to change the whitecapping coefficient Cds in Delft-Wave

I have worked about the wave calibration in these days, and I met a problem that the significant wave height from Delft-WAVE is much lower than the observation data. I have searched for ways from the ...
TUOTUO's user avatar
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Three cell model of prevailing winds

I understand the Coriolis Effect, but how does that make the rising air cool 1/3 of the way to the poles, as opposed to non rotating Earth?
Guy's user avatar
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3 votes
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Interpolating Wind Speed

If I have wind speeds at 80m and 120m above the surface and I am interested in approximating the speed at 100m, is it valid to just average the 80 and 120 speeds? In other words, should I expect wind ...
fsumathdoc's user avatar
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How to use CMIP6 to predict windspeed in the future?

I'm very new to climate modelling and forecasting, I have chosen a project to forecast wind energy output in the future using wind speed prediction, I wish to use CMIP6 to predict. But I have very ...
Phil's user avatar
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Visualization of formation of cirrus vertebratus?

I am trying to understand how Cirrus Vertebratus are formed. My book and many web pages simply say "waves orthogonally to the initial cloud formation direction, in fitting conditions, forming ...
323242323242's user avatar
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Wind wall of depression

It's a wind map from the ICON (13km grid) model of the Atlantique ocean of this 7 July 2023. I get that there's two depression near each other interacting but how there's only a very thin line as the ...
O'Schell's user avatar
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Is there a relationship between wind direction and the bearing of travel?

We want to move from point A to point B using a balloon. If one knows the wind directions, How can one determine the altitude that will steer the Balloon to the desired location?
Tee's user avatar
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2 answers
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Historic weather station data with hourly temporal resolution

I'm working with ERA5 weather data and am trying to understand some wind & temperature patterns that I'm seeing in my statistics. In order to do that I'd like to compare with some point ...
squarespiral's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
119 views

Confusion with thermal wind mechanism

In meteorology, we know that cold air mass sinks while warm air mass rises due to density difference, resulting in higher pressure in cold air mass. This leads to a horizontal pressure gradient from ...
electroniclearner's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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From where can I download NCEP Vertical wind?

I want to download Vertical Velocity (Pa/sec) data either in era interim or NCAR data from a website. Please I need the link.
user28799's user avatar
3 votes
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How is Wind oriented in a Jet Streak?

Recently I found this tutorial video about Jet streaks (want to mention I'm only in second term so my knowledge is not advanced yet). Originally I was looking for the topic because of a particular ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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Why does air moving from Equator to Poles deflect to right in Northern Hemisphere due to Coriolis Force?

apologies if this is the wrong place to post this question in, but I am having a really hard time grasping Coriolis Effect. My current understanding is that - Let's say there's a point midway from ...
YatharthRai's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Is there an open high frequency (1-0.2 Hz) wind measurement dataset from a marine station?

I want to conduct a statistical analysis of high-frequency wind measurements. This analysis aims to define relevant parameters for competitive coastal sailboat racing so the sampling frequency should ...
yair suari's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
420 views

Geostrophic wind vs surface wind

According to Buys Ballot's law: When you stand with your back to the wind in the Northern Hemisphere, low pressure is always to your left. (In the Southern Hemisphere, low-pressure systems will be on ...
pacman's user avatar
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7 votes
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Beaufort wind force measure

Beaufort scale relates wind speed and wave height of the ocean surface. Does the wave height in the scale refer to significant wave height or mean wave height?
M.Shanmuga sundari's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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How can speed of geostrophic wind change when forces are always perpendicular to speed?

Equation for acceleration of an air parcel is $$D \vec U/Dt = -2 \vec \omega \times \vec U -\frac{1}{\rho} \vec \nabla p + \vec g$$ Now, for geostrophic wind, U is parallel to the contour lines of ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
121 views

Wind animation from satellite

I have been fascinated with the wind animation that I have seen on sites like Zoom earth. What is the "thickness" of the air stream that the animation represents. How far from the surface is ...
Stevan V. Saban's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
44 views

Mathematically speaking, why can we use Fourier Transform when studying wind? [closed]

As far as I understand, wind is stochastic on small scale. Then wouldn't that mean, since the function is not Riemann integrable, Fourier Transform cannot be used? What is the reason that climate ...
Unuu U's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
77 views

Why south of Japan has a zone with winds facing each other?

This is an image of the wind in est Asia, south of Japan. How do you explain this zone I circled in pink, where winds from north and south face each other? Thanks
maalls's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
647 views

ERA5 Data - How is a wind gust defined?

I'm working with wind data, that I buy from a company, which delivers basically reformatted ERA5 weather data from ECMWF (https://www.ecmwf.int/). Their historic wind data includes "Wind gusts (...
squarespiral's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
209 views

In geostrophic wind, what is the mechanism behind the tendency of the coriolis effect/force and the pressure gradient force to balance each other out?

I understand that it is possible for the coriolis effect and the pressure gradient force (PGF) to cancel each other out, but it appears to be a tendency (rather than just a possibility). What is the ...
shamiv's user avatar
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1 vote
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Altitudinal gradient in air density at poles

In the descriptions of polar cells, it is usually described as cold and dense air sinks at poles. But I don't understand why air at high altitude is denser than low altitude at poles. The polar cells ...
quibble's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
162 views

Are there any types of winds or waves that are produced just by Earth's rotation?

Are there any types of wind or waves caused and produced only and exclusively by Earth's rotation? Not influenced by Earth rotation, but produced solely by it? In the case of waves, are Rossby waves 1 ...
vengaq's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is a wind chill formula that will work from -10 C to +50 C and uses wind speed in km/h?

I'm looking for a wind chill formula that will work from -10 °C to +50 °C and uses wind speed in km/h so that I can use this formula to add this element to a weather station I am programming. I don't ...
cowboydaniel's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
439 views

What is the wind power potential of the Falkland islands?

The Falkland Islands have an extensive territory, they are sparsely populated and they are on the path of the southern winds, which blow almost constantly.The wind power potential should be enormous. ...
FluidCode's user avatar
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1 vote
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Is wind commonly formally defined as some combination of breezes, weather fronts, and climate?

In a book I read, I believe the author defined wind as the sum of breezes, weather, and climate. breezes: hyper-local disturbances, due to topology or uneven heating of surfaces weather: the movement ...
Kenn Sebesta's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
51 views

How important is water condensation in maintaining the swirling winds of tornadoes?

If we somehow removed all the water from Earth, it seems that there would no longer be tornado-like 100+ mph winds (or, at least, this would be a much rarer occurrence). Discussing storm creation, ...
bobuhito's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
301 views

How to find the altitude above mean sea level of the wind in forecast data such as GFS

I'm looking to retrieve from weather forecasts (such as GFS or HRRR) the U and V component of the wind with respect to some altitude (meters) above mean sea level. To do so, I've implement a ...
AlexandreBorowczyk's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
178 views

What makes sand dunes shaped asymmetrically?

I have been working on a simulation to approximate the formation process of dunes. I understand that their formation is a result of saltation and aeolian processes, but I don't understand the exact ...
Ale Kid's user avatar
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0 answers
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Do warm-season Foehn winds occur in the Pacific Northwest?

Over the last 30 years, Foehn winds have led to wildfires affecting densely populated areas of the California coast. They're called Diablo winds in the north, and Santa Ana winds in the south. ...
spillthrill's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
74 views

Why does warmer maritime air create low pressure systems while continental land masses create high pressure systems?

From Hurth's book, The Lost Art of Finding Our Way , there is a section on Air Mass and Fronts (page 267) On average, since cold air is denser than warm air, the northern stretches of continental ...
Andrew Andrade's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
87 views

Does sea breeze stop?

Is there ever a state of thermal equilibrium between land and sea? What is the condition of the Land/Sea breeze at that time?
millionleafclover's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
52 views

Weather station data

I am currently setting up a wind-wave model for which I need to input the wind forcing for the whole domain. I have obtained the wind speed and direction from two sources: CFSv2 and ERA5. ...
Rik's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
128 views

What causes these periodic high-pressure blobs along the west coast of South America?

I was looking through the Weatherbug atmospheric pressure map around 8:30 am ET on Oct 26 2021, and noticed this chain of small high pressure blobs along the west coast of South America. It was also ...
Natavi's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
251 views

How to statistically downscale wind speeds?

Background I am trying to estimate wind speeds at a proposed wind farm site using the method described in this paper: Modeling of Ethiopian Wind Power Production Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data. The ...
Bobby Heyer's user avatar
6 votes
5 answers
168 views

Does global warming inhibit transport of moisture?

This northern summer, 2021, there were wildfires in Southern Europe and floods in Germany nearly at same time, also, floods and wildfires in different parts of Turkey, and floods in Far East of Russia ...
qdinar's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
718 views

Why isn't wind speed considered when calculating a heat index?

I work outside in Florida, and the heat is sometimes unbearable. But if a breeze hits me, it makes it much more tolerable. There are some days where there is high heat and humidity, and a steady wind. ...
Tom V's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
82 views

Why is equatorial Africa wetter in the west than the east? [duplicate]

Looking at equatorial Africa in Google Maps, the western part – Guinea, the Congo – is the dark green of tropical rain forest that I would expect of a wet equatorial region, by analogy with the Amazon ...
rwallace's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Wind monitoring system for a specified region: How should this be done, and with what?

I am unsure if this is the correct place to ask such a question I will give it a go. So, the lab I work in is building a "drone park" to conduct robotics and controls experiments in. This ...
Sage Edwards's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
66 views

Why is there no American dry winter monsoon?

Some regions have monsoon conditions, a seasonal reversal of wind due to the heating and cooling of major land masses. This is true of east Asia in particular; according to https://science.jrank.org/...
rwallace's user avatar
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