Questions tagged [wind]

The tag has no usage guidance.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
26
votes
4answers
4k views

Could the extraction of energy by wind turbines be harmful to the environment?

Wind turbines work by converting some of the energy from wind to electrical energy. Is it possible to have too many turbines, leading to them removing too much energy from the wind? I'm not an ...
23
votes
0answers
414 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
21
votes
1answer
660 views

Significant difference between averaged wind speeds and averaged wind power density, for wind generation modelling?

Climate models outputs, particularly the reanalysis datasets, output wind speeds as zonal and meridional averages for the modelled time period (typically 1, 3 or 6 hours). So we get a 2-dimensional ...
19
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is there no middle ground between tornadoes and hurricanes?

A tornado has an effective area of destruction about the size of a city block. A hurricane spans several hundred kilometers. However, there doesn't seem to be a continuum between the two. Why are ...
19
votes
1answer
5k views

Where does wind come from?

Wind is (according to Wikipedia) the flow of gases on a large scale.On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. What forces would cause such a mass movement of air?
18
votes
2answers
700 views

Is this ice cover real - and what circumstances are required to make it?

The title says it all... I assume it requires very slow freezing sheltered from the wind. Undercooled water, maybe? A Reddit thread talks about Delaunay triangulation, but that does not explain how ...
17
votes
3answers
24k views

Why does the Inter tropical Convergence Zone shift?

I am currently learning at school about the climatic conditions (mainly winds, difference in pressure, Coriolis effect, etc.) that cause and affect the monsoons received by India. One of the factors ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is aerodynamic resistance defined inversely?

When I think of wind resistance, I always think of the friction co-efficient, in $\mathrm{ms^{-1}}$, because that's always the way that it was presented in highschool and undergraduate physics. But ...
16
votes
1answer
306 views

Potential explanations of Red Sea crossing

I am looking for a believable explanation of the Red Sea Crossing in the Bible. This would involve either strong winds(which is mentioned in the Bible) or plate tectonics which could cause land to ...
16
votes
1answer
5k views

What do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean?

I know that geostrophic flow means straight wind flow that is balanced by the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. But what do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean specifically?
15
votes
4answers
4k views

Why are there waves in seas towards shore - even in night?

Waves are mostly caused by Friction of wind on surface of water. Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. So it is intuitive why there ...
14
votes
2answers
980 views

How can odor travel be tracked

Odd question, but what data would be needed to to calculate how far winds will carry a strong odor (such as the smells of a restaurant, pizza parlor or burning wood/building? There is wind direction ...
14
votes
1answer
5k views

What is the difference between roughness length and zero plane displacement?

Both roughness length $z_0$ and zero plane displacement $d$ seemed to be defined as the height above the ground at which wind speed theoretically becomes zero. But wind speed is also supposed to go to ...
13
votes
3answers
3k views

Intuitive definition of the Monin-Obukhov length?

The Monin-Obukhov length (L) is defined as: $$L = - \frac{\rho C_p T_v u^3_*}{kgH}$$ where $\rho$=moist air density; $C_p$=air specific heat capacity; $T_v$=virtual temperature; $u^3_*$=wind ...
13
votes
1answer
671 views

How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze? Is there a chart on sea breezes wind speed that include lakes? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze to create a wind vortex in the ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

What exactly is wind velocity

How exactly do we define wind velocity? Obviously, I suppose this is something like "speed of displacement of a quantity of air", but this seems to be too imprecise. For example, a cup anemometer ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

Do hurricanes cool the earth?

I noticed that temperature drops in the surrounding area of a hurricane. Is the heat converted into kinetic energy? Could the shape of the hurricanes reflect sunlight? Do they create more lightning ...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Plotting the wind direction in 3D?

How can I plot the wind direction in 3D, using the 3 wind vectors u, v and w? Normally, I ...
12
votes
1answer
5k views

Plotting wind barbs in python

I'm trying to plot wind barbs in basemap and I have two separate netCDF files. Here is what I am trying to produce, or something like it: How do I read a uwnd variable in a netCDF file in python? <...
11
votes
3answers
339 views

Wind profile below the aerodynamic roughness length

The vertical profile of horizontal windspeed is often given by the so-called "log-law": $$u(z)=(u^*/k)\ln(z/z_0),\ \mathrm{for}\ z>z_0,$$ which can be found here. As can be seen from the ...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

Winds in a northern hemisphere hurricane

In the Northern Hemisphere, do surface winds around the center of a hurricane move counterclockwise and inward or counterclockwise and outward? I'm guessing they move inward.
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...
11
votes
1answer
275 views

Sea breeze - magnitude of horizontal pressure gradient?

What is the range of horizontal pressure gradients typically caused by the differential heating of land and water under sea breeze conditions?
10
votes
1answer
93 views

Does within-canopy wind direction correlate with wind above the planetary bounday layer?

Wind above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) tends to be fairly smooth and constant over short periods of time. Below the planetary boundary layer, the smoothness is broken by eddies caused by ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Why do certain areas on Earth have a higher or lower air pressure at sea level?

For instance, looking at this map of world air pressure in January and this map of July, why do some land surfaces have a higher pressure during the winter? I know that the tropics and Coriolis ...
9
votes
1answer
140 views

Why does air seem to affect local surface temperatures so much?

Last winter, several areas in the US and Canada were hit by a "polar vortex." I happen to live in one of those areas and was amazed how much the temperature seemed to change so suddenly just because a ...
9
votes
1answer
65 views

Is there a reliable way to identify regions with negatively-correlated winds?

When examining the potential for large-scale electricity grids, and when identifying the lowest-cost ways to generate clean electricity, a recurring theme is of spreading wind generation across a wide-...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Why do rivers sometimes travel down the opposite side of the mountains from where the rain happens?

My teacher explained that when wind coming from the ocean gets blocked by a mountain it makes rain on one side of the mountain, like in the image below. This rain leads to the creation of rivers. (...
8
votes
1answer
191 views

Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
8
votes
1answer
9k views

Why does the wind periodically change direction?

Image Subtitle: Wind going across the page - and changing direction To clarify, imagine you were sat in a boat in the middle of a lake recording the wind direction every minute. You notice that the ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Where can I get archived hourly wind speed data for Germany?

Can some one suggest me a web site for archived hourly wind data for Germany. I have seen here but it was not useful for me.
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Why does wind blow offshore in the morning?

I live in San Diego, CA, and surfers capitalize on dawn hours because the offshore (seaward) winds help "hold up" the waves, i.e. prevent them from crashing before the surfer gets to ride it a while. ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Help interpreting a wind rose diagram

Can someone comment on technical explanation of the wind rose attached? I can understand the wind is blowing between WNW & SSW with speed of 7-11 km/h. For frequency of 11-16 km/h its blowing ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How do I represent wind direction on a UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) map projection?

What does it mean when I say "the wind direction is 50o" on a UTM map? Which direction is the 0o reference? For example, if I draw a wind vector V as seen in the ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

How to calculate w-wind?

My model (AGCM) does not compute w-wind (the vertical component of the wind velocity). However, I do have the following available variables from AGCM output: ...
7
votes
2answers
795 views

Long-term Wind Speed Forecasting: reality or wishful thinking?

I have been studying/working with Wind Energy for a while and, one of my main responsabilities right now is to search for adequate long-term wind speed forecasting models. However, 2 things strike me ...
7
votes
1answer
191 views

What wind forecast datasets are available for forcing a wave forecast model?

I am trying to set up a spectral wave model for waves forecasting in the Mediterranean. I need the meteorological forecast for this region. I am aware of the ECMWF datasets. But unfortunately, only ...
7
votes
2answers
7k views

What is the definition of wind gust?

I'm currently building a weather station from scratch. It measures temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction. The end result shall be a weather station that sends out METAR weather ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Does “wind” include the air molecules involved, or merely the kinetic energy?

This question is about a riddle in which the statement "I am weightless" was made, and the answer was "wind". I want to know, by definition, does the wind include the air being moved, and thus have a ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

What is (negative) wind stress curl?

I'm currently doing research for a paper in school where we need to research on a university-like level. When I read the paper Causes and impacts of the 2014 warm anomaly in the NE Pacific, I found ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Would there still be wind if Earth had no water?

If there was no water on the earth would there still be wind? If the planet was basically a desert from pole to pole, east to west, would the wind still blow? I understand that wind is a result of a ...
6
votes
1answer
190 views

Why is there no desert in Southeast China?

Arabia, Sahara and Southeast China and India all are on the tropic of Cancer yet Southeast China and India are not deserts. I know that India is not a desert because of monsoon wind which causes heavy ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

Spatial variability in ocean surface winds

For the near-surface winds over the ocean, many model products and satellite footprints have spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. I'm interested in knowing how much the winds (both ...
5
votes
2answers
422 views

About an alternative type of wind energy facility

Many people seem to complain about large wind farms. Instead of all that, there are many cities with all their tall buildings that actually 'magnify' the wind or augment it. Even corridors through a ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
5
votes
1answer
71 views

How do these cloud forms grow?

What conditions would cause these windswept clouds at sunset in Michigan? Do these cloud forms have a name?
5
votes
1answer
592 views

How to determine that sustained wind speed exceeded the threshold value?

Certain maritime ports and airports have ranges of operation relation to the wind, usually according to a given threshold value of sustained wind speed. If I have the instantaneous values from ...
5
votes
1answer
153 views

Judging wind speed based on flags and inland-water observations

About a year ago, I took this video along the Hudson river in NY, and I'm trying to figure out the Beaufort number based on the water and the flags. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqjvTALRWW8 The ...
5
votes
1answer
209 views

Why does wind blowing against a strong current create way bigger waves?

It's a well known fact that wind will cause very big waves if blowing against a strong current, for example in the gulf stream off the US coast, or in the bay of San Francisco with a very strong (5 ...
5
votes
1answer
483 views

Depth of the wind-induced currents and the shoreline

In the open sea the speed of the current in the developed sea can be estimated as 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters. Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity? Is there a similar ...