# Questions tagged [wind]

The flow of air with respect to the ground. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air.

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### Weather measurements of how long ago affects the amount of rainfall? (Which lags of temperature, precipitation, windspeed, radiation. humidity. )

I am trying to predict the amount of rainfall using weather measurements (temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, surface radiation). For long term, midterm, and short term predictions, ...
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### What are the latest developments about global stilling?

I recently learn about "global stilling", i.e. the fact that surface wind speed tends to decrease since the 80s. It was in this article, but it's from 2010. The Wikipedia page also seems a ...
1k views

### Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...
238 views

### What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
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### At the same speed, is a tornado as dangerous as straight wind?

If we have a place with wind at a given speed, and a tornado at the same speed, are they equally dangerous, or the tornado is more powerful?
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### Is it meaningful to assume static pressure to be constant along a streamline?

I am looking at Bernoulli's equation formulated in two dimensions, which reads $$\frac{v^2}{2}+c_p\theta_0\pi+gz \equiv \mathrm{const.}$$ along a given streamline $\gamma$, where $v=|\mathrm{v}|$ for ...
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### Derivative of Exner function

In chapter 13.1 in 'Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes' (Markowski and Richardson,2011) they use a Bernoulli equation and the hydrostatic equation and a lot of assumptions to derive an equation ...
134 views

### Wind rose WRF-PYTHON

I'm trying to plot a windrose but I don't know how to get the variables ws and wd. Is there any variable in the wrf output that can be used to make a windrose? I tried with 'wspd' et 'wdir' but I ...
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### Asian South West Monsoon - Rainfall in South East Coast of India

So Indian peninsula has v shaped mountain ranges. Western ghats and Eastern ghats as shown in the picture. During Summer Monsoon, the wind flows from Indian ocean to land mass, and due to Coriolis ...
6k views

### How to identify low or high pressure area

If rain is due to the flow of humid air from a high pressure area to a low pressure area, without the use of devices, technology or mass media is it possible to detect regions of high or low ...
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### Why are there waves in seas towards shore - even in night?

Waves are mostly caused by Friction of wind on surface of water. Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. So it is intuitive why there ...
155 views

### SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
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### Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that ...
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### Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
256 views

### Temperature Advection using finite differences with gridded data

Advection of a scalar quantity, such as temperature (T), by the horizontal wind, is defined as follows: $-\textbf{U}\cdot\nabla T$ where $\textbf{U}$ is the horizontal wind vector, $\textbf{U}=(u,v)$...
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### Short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts

I should make a short-term forecast of Europe by using synoptic charts. I'm finding it really hard so I'd be glad if you help me. 'Š' means high atmospheric pressure I'm trying to figure out the ...
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### Why do wind speeds often jump from 20 knots to 40 knots

Looking at the BBC weather forecasts I've often noticed that strong winds will often be over 40 knots (for the UK at least). Most of the time (nearly always) the wind will jump from 18-22 knots to ...
3k views

### Intuitive definition of the Monin-Obukhov length?

The Monin-Obukhov length (L) is defined as: $$L = - \frac{\rho C_p T_v u^3_*}{kgH}$$ where $\rho$=moist air density; $C_p$=air specific heat capacity; $T_v$=virtual temperature; $u^3_*$=wind ...
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### Do hurricanes cool the earth?

I noticed that temperature drops in the surrounding area of a hurricane. Is the heat converted into kinetic energy? Could the shape of the hurricanes reflect sunlight? Do they create more lightning ...
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### Sustained WS discrepancy for Hugo 1989 in Charleston

I am reviewing Sustained Wind Speed data for several locations associated with Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. HURDAT2 data shows the Max Sustained Wind Speed at Landfall to be 120 knots at Isle of ...
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### Converting Wind Movement to Wind Speed

I'm looking through historical weather station information from NOAA, and I notice some stations do not have wind speed information but do track Wind Movement(WDMV) over a 24 hour period in kilometers....
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### Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
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### Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is this link: http://www.zamg.ac.at/docu/Manual/SatManu/main.htm?/docu/Manual/SatManu/CMs/Def/...
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### What determines the direction of wind [duplicate]

What determines the direction that a wind blows? I understand that the nature of my question is immensely broad but I see no other way to phrase the question. The question surfaced in my mind when I ...
3k views

### What exactly is wind velocity

How exactly do we define wind velocity? Obviously, I suppose this is something like "speed of displacement of a quantity of air", but this seems to be too imprecise. For example, a cup anemometer ...
4k views

### Could the extraction of energy by wind turbines be harmful to the environment?

Wind turbines work by converting some of the energy from wind to electrical energy. Is it possible to have too many turbines, leading to them removing too much energy from the wind? I'm not an ...
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### What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

I have been reading some documents about meteorological data and many of them mention the second moment of wind velocity. I guess it has to do with the way the wind is changing but in such case I ...
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### What do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean?

I know that geostrophic flow means straight wind flow that is balanced by the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. But what do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean specifically?
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### Why is there no middle ground between tornadoes and hurricanes?

A tornado has an effective area of destruction about the size of a city block. A hurricane spans several hundred kilometers. However, there doesn't seem to be a continuum between the two. Why are ...
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### Where can I find wave height/period, current velocity and wind speed/direction data at the Qiangzhou strait in China?

I'm looking for time series of wave height/ period, velocity currents and wind speed/direction specifically for the Qiangzhou strait in China. Global data sets could also work.
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### Why does wind blow offshore in the morning?

I live in San Diego, CA, and surfers capitalize on dawn hours because the offshore (seaward) winds help "hold up" the waves, i.e. prevent them from crashing before the surfer gets to ride it a while. ...
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### How big does a lake have to be to have its own Sea Breeze?

How big does a body of water need to have a sea breeze? Is there a chart on sea breezes wind speed that include lakes? Could a circular lake create enough sea breeze to create a wind vortex in the ...
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### If storms form above low pressure regions, why doesn't the eye of a hurricane, a low pressure region, have any storms?

If this is due to the Coriolis Effect, my other question would be how does the wind go upwards to form the storm clouds?
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### How to strong winds cause baroclinic intensification in the upper ocean?

Below is an excerpt from The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Bernt Zeitzschel, Sebastian A. Gerlach The more vigorous atmospheric and oceanic circulation during the SW monsoon causes not only the ...
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### What is the accepted measure for Wind Coherency (Strength and Direction)

I have wind data from a Met station (Speed and Direction), and I'm looking for a way to characterize a strong coherent wind. AKA - Wind that averages 12 m/s out of the East for 2 days would have a ...
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### How to make, read, and calibrate a ping-pong ball anemometer?

I'd like to make a ping-pong ball anemometer to make estimates or approximate measurements of wind and surface air currents at low to moderate speeds. I don't own an anemometer now, but I'd estimate ...
2k views

### Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30Ā° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
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### Judging wind speed based on flags and inland-water observations

About a year ago, I took this video along the Hudson river in NY, and I'm trying to figure out the Beaufort number based on the water and the flags. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqjvTALRWW8 The ...
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### Find True Wind from ship course and observed wind

Assume that I am sailing in a ship where I know the course of the ship & speed of the ship and observed wind direction & speed using Automatic Weather Station fitted on mast. I would like to ...
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### Deep sea pumps that work on wind power, can they control the weather?

If they used wind power to bring up cold water from far under the ocean in the day time and spray it on prevailing winds going into land, could they make it rain more in arid regions? What weather ...
56 views

### How would a particle travel in a hurricane?

How would a particle other then water travel in a hurricane? At what buoyancy or height would a small air born life preserver be safe from the ground in a hurricane? How fun would that be?
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### Where on Earth does the wind only blow one way?

Is there a place on Earth that if the wind is blowing its only blowing (here is the twist) in the same direction from the ground to 53 km high?
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### Why does the Inter tropical Convergence Zone shift?

I am currently learning at school about the climatic conditions (mainly winds, difference in pressure, Coriolis effect, etc.) that cause and affect the monsoons received by India. One of the factors ...
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### Why is there no desert in Southeast China?

Arabia, Sahara and Southeast China and India all are on the tropic of Cancer yet Southeast China and India are not deserts. I know that India is not a desert because of monsoon wind which causes heavy ...
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### Why do rivers sometimes travel down the opposite side of the mountains from where the rain happens?

My teacher explained that when wind coming from the ocean gets blocked by a mountain it makes rain on one side of the mountain, like in the image below. This rain leads to the creation of rivers. (...
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### For how long can the wind blow unabated on a “trade wind route”?

Take a specific point at sea level (less than 100 meters above it) on a "trade wind" oceanic route. For example, somewhere on Labrador-Ireland route, at roughly 50 degrees of latitude north. Let's say,...
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### What is the highest balloons possible in a chain?

The BU60-1 balloon attained an altitude of 53.0 km (32.9 mi; 173,900 ft). Weather permitting, would a series of climbable balloons in a chain be able to be linked from the ground to that height of ...
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### How is wind made [duplicate]

Everyone surely enjoys waves in the beach, but one question that has always been hovering around my head was about the wnd. I have always been told that waves are formed by wind and all, but then ...