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1answer
15 views

How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS

This is the first time I have ordered satellite imagery via the NOAA CLASS system using the shopping cart, so I am a complete novice. I have requested and downloaded old GOES-1 images from May 1979, ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Why don't we fly all the way to the back of the plane when it's moving/accelerating? [closed]

This may seem like a stupid question coming from a stupid person, because that's exactly what it is. when flying in a commercial airplane moving at fast speed in high altitude, Why don't all people ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Can someone identify this rock my son found for me? [closed]

My son found it on a beach it is white and has shiny / sparkly patches in it![enter image description (https://i.stack.imgur.com/9ZgY5.jpg)
4
votes
2answers
522 views

When was the first not-icy desert formed?

For how long have deserts existed and which one would be the first to be created? I'm talking about arid, dry deserts, not the Antarctic or Arctic or any other icy deserts.
3
votes
3answers
100 views

Formation of Iceland

Iceland sits atop a divergent ocean- ocean boundary. But there are not many islands which are formed along a divergent boundary. Why is it so? Why do not mid ocean ridges often rise above the sea ...
0
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0answers
38 views

What rock is this?. Found it in Sedona, Arizona in a stream [closed]

![enter image description here] This rock is dark gray on the outside and light red in the inside of the holes. This rock weighs 80 grams and is 17 cm in length. There were multiple rocks of all sizes,...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

Heavy rain or flood events have recurrence intervalls. I.e. 100 year, 50 year or 25 year events. However, with increasing data and global warming and other factors these intervalls change. How can I ...
1
vote
2answers
87 views

Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

How to solve libnetcdf.so.12: cannot open shared object file in pyferret?

My pyferret was working perfectly until I had installed netCDF4 and now it is throwing up this error ...
3
votes
3answers
108 views

How large is the area covered by coordinates XX°YY'ZZ“N/XX°YY'ZZ”E?

As stated in the title, I wonder how large the area covered by certain coordinates actually is, when they have the accuracy XX°YY'ZZ", for example: ...
1
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0answers
26 views

What's the origin of particulate matter (pm10, pm2 5)

I would like to ask about origin and inventor of particulate matter pm10, pm2.5. Who published and defined this formulas and when. Thanks in advance!
1
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2answers
85 views

Large Igneous Provinces are like Lunar Mare?

Would Large Igneous Provinces like the Deccan Traps have looked like ancient lunar Mare from space? Glowing lava oceans shinning in the night? Are these two things similar in nature? Would smoke from ...
3
votes
0answers
14 views

Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
5
votes
1answer
125 views
+100

Does Xenon really covalently bond to oxygen within quartz?

Wikipedia's Xenon; occurrence and production says Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is $1.56 \times 10^{-8}$, for an abundance of approximately one part in 630 thousand of the ...
0
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0answers
23 views

Google earth historical imagery date

I am working on a small creek in Colorado using historical imagery via Google earth. I want to know if the imagery date at the bottom of each image on google earth is the date the google acquired the ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
8
votes
1answer
99 views

How do I start with Modular Ocean Model version 6 i.e. MOM6 on my ubuntu linux machine?

I am learning ocean modelling and have started with MOM6. I needed guidance on where to start from and how to run the model on my local machine (Ubuntu) to perform various tasks such as regridding or ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

History of the Arctic Ocean

Much of the Arctic Ocean is fairly shallow compared to other oceans. There must have been times in the past during severe ice ages that a lot of what is now the ocean bed was above sea level. When was ...
7
votes
2answers
69 views

Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
5
votes
2answers
730 views

'River-effect' snow

Earlier this year 'river-effect' snow was reported in the Quad Cities (Western Illinois) along the Mississippi River. Per the local news report: According to Andy Ervin, a Meteorologist with the ...
0
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0answers
44 views

Reflected radiation from increased CO2 : how was this calculated

The IPCC claims that the reflected radiation from incresaed CO2 heats the Earth at a rate of 5 W m-2. How did the contributing researchers came out with that result?
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Why are CO2 sensors so expensive when CO sensors aren't?

Please excuse me if Earth Science is not the correct place to ask this question. I read a New York Times article about increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere: "Carbon in Atmosphere Is Rising, Even ...
24
votes
2answers
4k views

How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
4
votes
4answers
529 views

Are the cores of every mountain range igneous?

Every volcano is a mountain, but not every mountain is a volcano. Still, it strikes me that--at least for the mountain ranges I can think of in this moment--they all seem to have igneous cores. Is ...
8
votes
2answers
144 views

What caused peak CO2 to rise, starting about 400,000 years ago?

This question assumes the accuracy of this (and similar) charts. Source of image. From the image, CO2 peaked at about 260, perhaps 265 ppm during the interglacial periods between 800,000 years ago ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Sandstone Layer Question

I have been exploring the sandstone of southern Utah for many years and I have a question about the area around Sidestep Canyon (near Wahweap, near Page, AZ). There are many amazing hoodoos there and ...
3
votes
2answers
152 views

How can the Simpson Desert be the largest sand dune desert in the world?

In the Wikipedia article for the Simpsons Desert in Australia in the first paragraph it says: It is the fourth-largest Australian desert, with an area of 176,500 km2 (68,100 sq mi) and is the world'...
-6
votes
2answers
148 views

Are sand deserts the greatest natural convection heaters on Earth?

Ask any climate scientist the question: "Why are deserts so hot in the day time and so cold at night" and generally you will get the same answer, it’s all about the lack of moisture and latent heat ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Result of floating-iron-balls in the mid-pacific?

I had an idea to make green islands from mid-pacific plastic: Release a million tons of floating iron balls there, which will stay in the same regions as the plastic and hopefully cause a veritable ...
-1
votes
0answers
16 views

Help me to calculate Critical Success Index (CSI) to compare two datasets for selected drought years

I want to compare the performance of ERA5 precipitation data against my reference data for its performance in detecting drought using SPI method.Drought is defined when SPI value is =<-1. I want to ...
17
votes
3answers
3k views

How did Earth's plate tectonics start?

Plate tectonics is a theory which describes Earth's lithosphere as being composed of distinct plates which are able to move atop of the underlying asthenosphere. At plate boundaries, this movement ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

Is it possible to get trapped in a circle of water in a rip current?

According to the YouTube video Rip Currents: How to Survive the Deadliest Ocean's Trick, a rip current occurs when there are two circles of water spinning close to shore in opposite directions such ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Are Indonesian 2018 earthquakes related?

Indonesia had multiple major earthquakes this year A series of earthquakes in Lombok between July and August, including a 7.0 mainshock The 7.5 earthquake + tsunami in Sulawesi, September 2018 A 6.0 ...
3
votes
2answers
163 views

What was there before the Paleolithic and where really did life start for us humans, not like homo?

I am asking myself something very interesting for me (I am not expert in this topic). I read many websites about human history and every website says that there are some periods in the human history. ...
11
votes
1answer
293 views

Permeability of well screen as a limitation to a slug-in test

If you were to do a slug-in test where you put in a known volume of water, would there be a point where, say if the formation was extremely permeable, the permeability of the screen itself would be ...
2
votes
2answers
558 views

Feedback loops between soil chemistry and plant growth

Would the dynamic between soil nitrogen and plant growth be a positive or negative feedback loop I think it is a negative feedback loop because as soil nitrogen increases then plant growth increases, ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

How to convert the units of specific cloud liquid water from ERA5 (kg/kg) to kg/m2?

I am trying to initialize my model with the cloud liquid water data from ERA5. My model IITM-ESM which evolved from CFSv2 takes in the cloud liquid water information in kg/m2. However the ERA5 ...
7
votes
2answers
117 views

Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
9
votes
2answers
271 views

Do Tectonic Plates Merge?

I had a question concerning the nature of continental plates. When looking at the Eurasian Plate today, for the most part, there is one solid fragment of the Earth's crust. However, having had a look ...
4
votes
1answer
28 views

Why is ferret giving me error that the region is not 2D while plotting

I have downloaded ERA5 data and am trying to plot temperature variable. The problem I am facing is that even after providing a 2D area for plotting, ferret is giving an error saying that the region ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Can a braided fluvial create thick relatively continuous siltstone beds?

I am attempting to interpret an outcrop I went to. I suggested it was created by a braided fluvial. The one thing I cannot explain are prominent alternating siltstone beds with the sandstone beds. ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
6
votes
2answers
148 views

How does a subduction zone form mountains?

When an oceanic plate goes under a continental plate are the resulting mountains a result of the melting and then rising of the oceanic plate or are the mountains formed by the continental plate being ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

How to measure upwelling rate using velocity fields

Using; Angular speed ($Ω = 10^-5$ $s^-1$), Depth of layer = $60 m$, Eddy diffusivity ($A_z=10^-3$ $m^2/s$), and velocity field $(u,v)=Ω(y,-x)$ Can the upwelling rate at the centre be estimated and ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Finding dimensions to relate fluid components

How can a relationship between diffusivity, buoyancy frequency, and dissipation rate be established? The diffusivity equation: $∂c/∂t+κ∇^2 c=0, ∂/∂x+∂/∂y+∂/∂z=∇$ Buoyancy frequency: $N^2=-g/ρ ∂ρ/∂...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

On La Vagabonde what Citizen Science is Possible?

The Catamaran La Vagabonde is a high tech vessel that's designed to be as carbon neutral as possible. Subject to the constraints of space, time and safety, what citizen science projects would be ...
3
votes
1answer
114 views

How did these dark lenticular features form? (Near Hoganekkal Falls India.)

These photos were taken near Hoganekkal falls in south India. The darker lenses appear to be the same rock type but have varying thickness and do not form a continuous layer. How did this structure ...
19
votes
4answers
15k views

What was the first rock in the rock cycle?

I am an undergraduate student but I am a tutor at a High School, and one student asked me. Attempting to explain the rock cycle "if one rock turns into the other then which came first" my gut is ...

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