# All Questions

4,672 questions
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### Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
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### If all the world's ice were to melt, would this shift the earth's centre of gravity with consequential effects on sea levels?

This question on Maths SE asked how we might calculate the effect on sea level if all the world's ice (ie including the whole Antarctic ice sheet) were to melt. I posted an answer containing ...
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### Found this, need help identifying

River rock found in australian riverbed, crusted in some sort if quarzlike crystals, when smashed revealed yellow/ green rosette shape crystal pattern & little round chambers with clear crystals
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### Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time should pass in general for coral reef to start form around the island? Another ...
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### Help identify my rock please?

found this in the backyard, any ideas which type it is?
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### I found this rock on my way home and have done some research and only found one picture that relates to this rock, WHAT IS IT?

I have found this strange rock on my way home it piqued my interest so I picked it up did some research and found little to nothing. Might be related to shale not sure though. What is this strange ...
121 views

### Is this Mutton Fat Jade?

Found this near the Shannon River close to Carrick on Shannon Irelandenter image description here Could this be Mutton Fat Nephrite Jade? Thank you
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### Can anyone help me identify this type of translucent green mineral? [closed]

This is the photo of the rock. I found it in the mountains in yemen, near rocks where a well was dug out. Its translucent green and It doesn't feel that heavy. I think it's some type of quartz.
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### Can someone help ID this rock

Found today in a creek in Indiana, has a geode look and the broken edge shows red opaque facades.
19 views

### Is this a petrified reptile?

River rock from colorado with snake pattern is this a reptile?
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### UK Mineral identification help

Can anyone help me identify these minerals please? I found them on a beach in northern England. The first has tiny angular crystals, some slightly pinkish maybe in certain lighting conditions but grey ...
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### Help me identify my rock is it jade?

Found this rock it looks like a vein of Jade but I have no idea. This is the inside of the rock. I found it already broke the rock is wet in the pic. It's is a hard rough texture and the green in the ...
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I am new with Python so please be kind. I want to download data from ERA5 and so far I have installed the CDS API package and followed all the instructions from https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api-...
14 views

### Identify this rock [on hold]

please identify this rock. I found it on a Maine beach.
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### Can runaway methane gas emissions be an extinction level event?

Much ado has been made by a few petroleum engineers and global-warming alarmist about all of the methane gas trapped in frozen form, mostly on the ocean floors. The "What-if" scenario begins to play ...
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### Is there a place where the sea floor descends into the mantle of the earth?

My understanding of plate tectonics is that in the middle of the oceans magma rises from the mantle of the earth, cools and then spreads out, building up the sea floor. These places are pretty obvious ...
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### What rock is this? (found in fields)

Found it in fields today. Just plain field and earth for growing with low elevation. No clue what rock this is. Maybe even some metal? 14cm x 10cm Weighs about 1kg 5-6 Mohs hardness After cleaning ...
21 views

### Can you please help me to identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain

Can someone please help me identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain
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### Looking for counter-arguments concerning the melting of glaciers in the alps in the context of global warming

I've recently listend to a talk of Prof. Gernot Patzelt, Austrian Geographer and High Altitude Mountain Researcher. In this talk he describes that scientists find rests of trees and moorland apearing ...
29 views

### Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
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### Rock identification?

This stone is part of a rock mass found in one of the plains of Iran. There are no rocky mountains around these rocks. I'm geologist and I guess it's part of the meteorite, what do you think? Color: ...
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### Monte Carlo Simulation for Tropical cyclone passage frequency: Using R/Python

I want to implement a statistical test by the following paper in R: https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/JCLI4217.1 Details The above paper calculates the significance of the difference in ...
21 views

### What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
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### What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
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### How much energy would be required to reduce the temperature of the oceans of Earth by 1℃?

Is there a way to calculate the energy required to reduce the heat of oceans? Am I wrong in thinking it is not as simple as reversing the calculation for specific heat of sea water?
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### Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
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### 3D fold coverage calculation

I have a configuration for which the nominal fold is 16 (i.e. 48 channel streamer, 1m group interval, 1.5m SP interval). I have been asked to calculate the fold coverage with the following criteria: ...
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### If matter is constantly being cycled through an ecosystem, does that mean a given ecosystem has a fixed mass?

Due to the food chain and the cycle of life, matter is constantly moved between plants, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on, until the consumers die, giving matter they consumed back to ...
22 views

### How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
18 views

### Is there a widely accepted reason for the formation of tafoni?

Expansion of tafoni seems to be based on weathering (seems reasonable enough.) But what creates them in the first place? There are a number of explanations online (Wikipedia lists eight plausible ...
23 views

### Near-Surface Investigations: FWI vs. MASW

MASW is a common processing method for civil/geotechnical and even for oil/gas exploration (usually weathering static corrections) applications. In my experience, it seems to work well for most ...
46 views

### How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
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### Analytical solution for seismic wavefield in MATLAB

I have been trying to evaluate the analytical solution for a wave travelling in a homogeneous, infinite media. For a given source $S(t)$, the wave-field can be calculated at a distance $r$, for a ...
22 views

### reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
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Found in northwestern Oregon. Willamette valley.
5k views

### What do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean?

I know that geostrophic flow means straight wind flow that is balanced by the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. But what do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean specifically?
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### Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
15 views

### What is an inversion

What is an inversion? What happens to the sediment in between? I understand that as the crusts move together a bulging appears.
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### How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
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### Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
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### Why does gold and other metals conglomerate

When gold, or some other metals, such as copper, are found, they are often found in large nuggets. But, from what I understand, gold is produced in quite stochastic stellar processes. As such, shouldn'...
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### Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to drink from?
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### Is it an egg? What type of rock please? [on hold]

This stone was found by my uncle in Western Queensland. It’s light brown in colour and smooth. It's very heavy for its size. 780 grams. Pocket knife doesn’t scratch it. many thanks.
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### Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
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### Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
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### What name of rock is it? [closed]

I found it in desert, there is not any evidence of igneous or metamorphic rocks around it, it's density is between 3.5-3.9, some magnetic, some parts have pyrite minerals, streak is dark brown, luster ...
56 views

### How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
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### Turbulence strength from turbulence intensity?

I do not have a lot of knowledge in aerodynamics but I need to be able to derive turbulence strength (Cv2 and Ct2 - so called turbulence structural parameters I think) from turbulence intensity. Does ...
48 views

### What about a countercurrent system of zig zag trenches in The Sahara [closed]

My idea is to dig trenches funded by big oil, which will be like a zig zag, up and down, moving across, and the sea could flood in from the med or the Atlantic to the Sahara. The question is if sea ...
2k views

### What keeps the different gases mixed in the atmosphere?

Consider a gas centrifuge holding two different gases. After spinning for a while, the heavier gas will move to the outside, and the lighter gas will be on the inside. In other words, we have ...

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