All Questions

0
votes
0answers
2 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
3
votes
1answer
87 views
+50

If all the world's ice were to melt, would this shift the earth's centre of gravity with consequential effects on sea levels?

This question on Maths SE asked how we might calculate the effect on sea level if all the world's ice (ie including the whole Antarctic ice sheet) were to melt. I posted an answer containing ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Found this, need help identifying

River rock found in australian riverbed, crusted in some sort if quarzlike crystals, when smashed revealed yellow/ green rosette shape crystal pattern & little round chambers with clear crystals
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time should pass in general for coral reef to start form around the island? Another ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Help identify my rock please?

found this in the backyard, any ideas which type it is?
0
votes
1answer
83 views

I found this rock on my way home and have done some research and only found one picture that relates to this rock, WHAT IS IT?

I have found this strange rock on my way home it piqued my interest so I picked it up did some research and found little to nothing. Might be related to shale not sure though. What is this strange ...
1
vote
2answers
121 views

Is this Mutton Fat Jade?

Found this near the Shannon River close to Carrick on Shannon Irelandenter image description here Could this be Mutton Fat Nephrite Jade? Thank you
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Can anyone help me identify this type of translucent green mineral? [closed]

This is the photo of the rock. I found it in the mountains in yemen, near rocks where a well was dug out. Its translucent green and It doesn't feel that heavy. I think it's some type of quartz.
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Can someone help ID this rock

Found today in a creek in Indiana, has a geode look and the broken edge shows red opaque facades.
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Is this a petrified reptile?

River rock from colorado with snake pattern is this a reptile?
0
votes
1answer
16 views

UK Mineral identification help

Can anyone help me identify these minerals please? I found them on a beach in northern England. The first has tiny angular crystals, some slightly pinkish maybe in certain lighting conditions but grey ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Help me identify my rock is it jade?

Found this rock it looks like a vein of Jade but I have no idea. This is the inside of the rock. I found it already broke the rock is wet in the pic. It's is a hard rough texture and the green in the ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Error trying to download ERA5 data: Exception: Missing/incomplete configuration file: C:\Users\username/.cdsapirc

I am new with Python so please be kind. I want to download data from ERA5 and so far I have installed the CDS API package and followed all the instructions from https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api-...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Identify this rock [on hold]

please identify this rock. I found it on a Maine beach.
3
votes
2answers
335 views

Can runaway methane gas emissions be an extinction level event?

Much ado has been made by a few petroleum engineers and global-warming alarmist about all of the methane gas trapped in frozen form, mostly on the ocean floors. The "What-if" scenario begins to play ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Is there a place where the sea floor descends into the mantle of the earth?

My understanding of plate tectonics is that in the middle of the oceans magma rises from the mantle of the earth, cools and then spreads out, building up the sea floor. These places are pretty obvious ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

What rock is this? (found in fields)

Found it in fields today. Just plain field and earth for growing with low elevation. No clue what rock this is. Maybe even some metal? 14cm x 10cm Weighs about 1kg 5-6 Mohs hardness After cleaning ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Can you please help me to identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain

Can someone please help me identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain
2
votes
3answers
63 views

Looking for counter-arguments concerning the melting of glaciers in the alps in the context of global warming

I've recently listend to a talk of Prof. Gernot Patzelt, Austrian Geographer and High Altitude Mountain Researcher. In this talk he describes that scientists find rests of trees and moorland apearing ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
9
votes
0answers
80 views

Rock identification?

This stone is part of a rock mass found in one of the plains of Iran. There are no rocky mountains around these rocks. I'm geologist and I guess it's part of the meteorite, what do you think? Color: ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Monte Carlo Simulation for Tropical cyclone passage frequency: Using R/Python

I want to implement a statistical test by the following paper in R: https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/JCLI4217.1 Details The above paper calculates the significance of the difference in ...
4
votes
0answers
21 views

What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
3
votes
2answers
130 views

What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

How much energy would be required to reduce the temperature of the oceans of Earth by 1℃?

Is there a way to calculate the energy required to reduce the heat of oceans? Am I wrong in thinking it is not as simple as reversing the calculation for specific heat of sea water?
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

3D fold coverage calculation

I have a configuration for which the nominal fold is 16 (i.e. 48 channel streamer, 1m group interval, 1.5m SP interval). I have been asked to calculate the fold coverage with the following criteria: ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

If matter is constantly being cycled through an ecosystem, does that mean a given ecosystem has a fixed mass?

Due to the food chain and the cycle of life, matter is constantly moved between plants, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on, until the consumers die, giving matter they consumed back to ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
4
votes
0answers
18 views

Is there a widely accepted reason for the formation of tafoni?

Expansion of tafoni seems to be based on weathering (seems reasonable enough.) But what creates them in the first place? There are a number of explanations online (Wikipedia lists eight plausible ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Near-Surface Investigations: FWI vs. MASW

MASW is a common processing method for civil/geotechnical and even for oil/gas exploration (usually weathering static corrections) applications. In my experience, it seems to work well for most ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
8
votes
1answer
490 views

Analytical solution for seismic wavefield in MATLAB

I have been trying to evaluate the analytical solution for a wave travelling in a homogeneous, infinite media. For a given source $S(t)$, the wave-field can be calculated at a distance $r$, for a ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views
16
votes
1answer
5k views

What do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean?

I know that geostrophic flow means straight wind flow that is balanced by the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. But what do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean specifically?
3
votes
0answers
29 views

Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

What is an inversion

What is an inversion? What happens to the sediment in between? I understand that as the crusts move together a bulging appears.
1
vote
1answer
55 views

How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
4
votes
3answers
564 views
+50

Why does gold and other metals conglomerate

When gold, or some other metals, such as copper, are found, they are often found in large nuggets. But, from what I understand, gold is produced in quite stochastic stellar processes. As such, shouldn'...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to drink from?
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Is it an egg? What type of rock please? [on hold]

This stone was found by my uncle in Western Queensland. It’s light brown in colour and smooth. It's very heavy for its size. 780 grams. Pocket knife doesn’t scratch it. many thanks.
3
votes
0answers
34 views

Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
1
vote
0answers
84 views

What name of rock is it? [closed]

I found it in desert, there is not any evidence of igneous or metamorphic rocks around it, it's density is between 3.5-3.9, some magnetic, some parts have pyrite minerals, streak is dark brown, luster ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

How can flood inundation vary at the same river stage?

I've always thought that river flooding would always be the same at the same river stage. For example, if the river stage is at 20' flooding at location "x" would always be at the same depth. ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Turbulence strength from turbulence intensity?

I do not have a lot of knowledge in aerodynamics but I need to be able to derive turbulence strength (Cv2 and Ct2 - so called turbulence structural parameters I think) from turbulence intensity. Does ...
-3
votes
0answers
48 views

What about a countercurrent system of zig zag trenches in The Sahara [closed]

My idea is to dig trenches funded by big oil, which will be like a zig zag, up and down, moving across, and the sea could flood in from the med or the Atlantic to the Sahara. The question is if sea ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

What keeps the different gases mixed in the atmosphere?

Consider a gas centrifuge holding two different gases. After spinning for a while, the heavier gas will move to the outside, and the lighter gas will be on the inside. In other words, we have ...

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