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6
votes
1answer
104 views

Could we cool the ocean by reflecting away sunlight to influence hurricanes?

I was wondering if we could possibly reduce the severity of, or steer a hurricane by changing albedo (e.g. dying the part ocean with a temporary light colored dye)? My thought would be to put this ...
6
votes
1answer
192 views

Why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?

Earth is rotating so it has a ellipsoidal shape. The measurement will therefore be different from equator and pole. So why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?
6
votes
2answers
82 views

Observations of sea ice typology in the Arctic

What are the main datasets characterizing sea ice typology, thickness, density, "passability", presence of pressure ridges in the Arctic? Is it something that can be detected from the air or a space ...
6
votes
2answers
186 views

Can I just walk around Greenland with a UV light and find rare Earth minerals on the ground?

The NPR.org news article and podcast Greenland Is Not For Sale. But It Has The Rare Earth Minerals America Wants is interesting, and it includes a few large GIFs (too large to post here) that appear ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Volcanoes in the Alps and Himalayas and the subduction of Tethys Sea

Geologist have theorized that the Tethys Sea subducted under Eurasian plates. But where are the volcanoes that would have resulted due to this? Where are the volcanoes in the Alps and the Himalayas?
5
votes
1answer
133 views

Methane in Martian Soil

Measurements taken by the Curiosity rover have detected minute amounts of methane in the Martian atmosphere. I was wondering, is it possible that greater amounts of methane are present beneath the ...
5
votes
1answer
327 views

ERA5 mean evaporation rates data - Why is that negative?

Please, let me know if this question is too technical/specific for Earth Science. In case, I will remove it and eventually post it elsewhere. I am processing some data extracted from ERA5 to set up a ...
5
votes
2answers
191 views

Is the Great Artesian Basin a closed basin?

Areas where topography prevents the outflow of water are called closed basins. Is the GAB a closed basin? What if external bodies of water flowed in? Is that still "closed"?
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Would adding sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere have a global cooling effect?

There is reasonable evidence to suggest that the Earth is warming. The most probable cause appears to be increased CO2 in the atmosphere, which has been reasoned about for quite some time. There ...
5
votes
0answers
195 views

Is the Grand Canyon the “greatest” canyon in the world? [closed]

The Grand Canyon is nearly 446 km (300 miles) long, 29 km (18 miles) wide, and over 1,8 km (1 mile) deep. To the best of my knowledge, there is no other canyon of comparable size in the world. Is ...
5
votes
1answer
66 views

Is the association of fluorescent minerals calcite, fluorite, and apatite with fluorescent rare-Earth minerals a coincidence?

If I understand this answer and this comment correctly, minerals like calcite, fluorite, and apatite are "commonly associated with (Rare Earth Element) REE deposits", and like some REEs also fluoresce ...
5
votes
1answer
169 views

Yellowstone Eruption Possibility?

What is the probability of the Yellowstone supervolcano erupting during any given year? I had heard that it erupts once every 100,000 years. Does that mean there is a .001% chance of it erupting ...
5
votes
1answer
171 views

Why would geostrophic theory be invoked in the tropics with regards to the MJO?

In this paper reviewing the Madden-Julian Oscillation, frequently geostrophic theory (or approximately geostrophic) is often invoked. However, for geostrophic theory to be invoked, $$Ro=\frac{U}{f_0L}&...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

How much energy does the Moon transfer to the Earth, does this affect the Earth's surface temperature?

I'm wondering by how much the gravitation effects, tides etc caused by the moon (and other energy such as moonlight IR) increase the surface temperature of the Earth. So how much warmer than the ...
5
votes
2answers
102 views

Why is the core of Earth in a reduced state? ($\text{Fe}$ and $\text{Ni}$)

I understand gravitational differentiation caused the layered structure of Earth when it is still molten. However, why are the heavier constituents in a reduced state, i.e. metal $\text{Fe}$ and $\...
5
votes
2answers
370 views

Why did the carboniferous period have so much atmospheric oxygen?

Even if all the carbon dioxide (which makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere) in the air were sequestered by plants, would the atmosphere not remain about 21% oxygen? Why did the carboniferous period ...
5
votes
1answer
354 views

How do spectral methods work in the context of numerical weather prediction models?

I am broadly familiar with the concept of numerical weather prediction models using various finite methods to solve the primitive equations used in these models, but how do spectral methods work, ...
5
votes
2answers
6k views

Are there more earthquakes near the equator or poles?

When comparing the average distance of the all known earthquake epicenters to the nearest pole, is the longitudinal distance to the equator or the poles the smallest of the two? Please note that any ...
5
votes
2answers
172 views

What would the geology and climate of a supposed landmass near the pole be like, assuming a thoroughly warmer planet? [closed]

I am designing a fantasy setting for pen-and-paper role-playing (and potential novel) purposes. I have decided that a continent be situated right on a Pole of some imaginary planet with axial tilt ...
5
votes
1answer
61 views

Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
5
votes
1answer
78 views

What is a Rotating Shadowband Radiometer, and how does it work?

This answer explains that the device labeled "B" in the photo below is a "Ultraviolet Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer." What is a Rotating Shadowband Radiometer, and how does it work? ...
5
votes
2answers
99 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
5
votes
1answer
419 views

What is the tectonic explanation for parallel ridges in the Arctic Ocean?

Looking at a map of the underwater features of the Arctic Ocean reveals three roughly parallel ridges, separated by basins (see image below): Image source The three ridges, as labelled are the Alpha ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Does the Coriolis Effect affect a wind from East to West?

I'm studying meteorology for a pilot license and there I was taught as a rule of thumb that wind at higher altitudes is approximately turned 30° clockwise to the wind on the surface due to the ...
5
votes
2answers
968 views

As the earth's core cools, will the size be affected?

Objects can change in size when their temperature changes. I'm wondering whether the cooling of the earth's core will affect it's size? Or will the change be insignificant due to the elements and ...
4
votes
2answers
8k views

How can we measure the thickness of the Earth's mantle? [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia the earth's mantle is approximately 2900 km (1,800 miles) thick. How is it possible to achieve such measurements? Obviously we haven't sent anything down that far to check.
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica - how was satellite and airborne radar data combined?

This is a follow-up question to Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica. The work is reported in an open access paper in Science: Heterogeneous retreat and ice ...
4
votes
2answers
96 views

Is it normal for a cyclonic storm to form at the latitude of New York, USA?

I am following climate activist Greta Thunberg's sail to N America from Europe on https://tracker.borisherrmannracing.com/. The model shows a cyclonic storm forming south of Nova Scotia, east of New ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

Mars' strange magnetic pulses at midnight; besides the solar wind what are other possible causes?

24-Feb-2020 NASA News item A Year of Surprising Science From NASA's InSight Mars Mission says: A new understanding of Mars is beginning to emerge, thanks to the first year of NASA's InSight lander ...
4
votes
0answers
60 views

How could the solar wind cause strange magnetic pulses on Mars at midnight?

24-Feb-2020 NASA News item A Year of Surprising Science From NASA's InSight Mars Mission says: A new understanding of Mars is beginning to emerge, thanks to the first year of NASA's InSight lander ...
4
votes
2answers
168 views

Thermal expansion of Earth

Matter tends to change its volume in response to changes in temperature--or, hot things tend to be expanded. Is the thermal expansion of Earth significant? That is, is it significant when compared ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the CO2 concentration by altitude and why?

Here is a measurement of CO2 concentration by altitude measured by aircraft:(from Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption) Is this the usual vertical structure of CO2? ...
4
votes
0answers
66 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct effect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
4
votes
0answers
234 views

What does a floating mercury barometer look like? How does it work and how is buoyancy used?

This answer to How are barometric pressure measurements traceable over centuries to 100 parts per million accuracy? describes a floating mercury barometer, and mentions that some employed a Vernier ...
4
votes
3answers
92 views

Are atmospheric halogen oxides “supposed to be” in the atmosphere? Where do they come from?

I like to naively think of Earth's natural atmosphere as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, water, carbon dioxide and okay, some nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and again okay, a little hydrogen and methane from ...
4
votes
1answer
568 views

Why are lenticular clouds circular?

I recently visited Japan, where I observed a lenticular cloud above Mount Fuji: Curious by the cloud, I looked it up and found it it's a lenticular cloud, that forms because of rising moist air ...
4
votes
1answer
140 views

Percentage of Oxgen left after burning all the available biomass

A documentry stated that during the Permian asteroid strike the atmosphere heated up to above 400C, potentially to 600C. As this would ignite most of the biomass, including us, I wondered if this fire ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

What causes aurorae?

I know that aurorae are caused by solar activity interacting with the Earth's magnetic field as charged particles are funneled down into the polar magnetic mirrors. On one hand, I know that as ...
4
votes
2answers
185 views

Does the moon have any affect on earthquakes being created? [duplicate]

Here, in New Zealand, we just had a 7.5 magnitude earthquake hit. Alot of people are saying that the super moon caused this. I have doubts as to the super moon actually 'causing' it but could have it ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

The higher value range for the same satellite product (NO2_OMI_TEMIS)

I'm dealing with NO2 column density of troposphere, and my data source is TEMIS. The NO2 level3 data can be derived from the original information of OMI instrument. I have downloaded two types of ...
4
votes
3answers
520 views

Is the term “fertile ash” a misnomer?

I understand that volcanic ash contains minerals and can make soil more fertile. But I've also heard the term "fertile ash" in some documentary (I have forgotten in what context). Is that a ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Catalog of all significant earthquakes since 1900?

Where can I find a list of all earthquakes that happened on Earth since 1900?I need time, longitude/latitude, and power -- preferably in .csv format.
4
votes
2answers
498 views

Half of Earth with most landmass

About 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water and the remaining 29% is landmass*. If you could theoretically cut the planet in half, with the objective of producing a half with the most ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

How do I convert Relative Humidity into specific humidity [duplicate]

I am using NCEP_DOE reanalysis 2 data set. It include only relative humidity while I need specific humidity. How do I convert the relative humidity into specific humidity?
4
votes
3answers
7k views

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized on the fujita scale or not, I have been quite confused on this and I have been very curious about it.
4
votes
0answers
79 views

What would be the depth variation of a “water ellipsoid” above a reference ellipsoid Earth?

The question If the Earth was a smooth spheroid how deep would be the ocean? has an excellent answer which explains the shape and surface area of an oblate spheroid before calculating the average ...
4
votes
1answer
680 views

Are volcanoes formed from earthquakes?

I know that some earthquakes are caused by volcanoes and that some earthquakes can trigger volcanic eruptions close to where the earthquake is. But what if a great earthquake(8.0 or above) occurs and ...
4
votes
2answers
190 views

Are we changing Earth's weather with global warming?

I think that when the air heats up in the day, the radiation from the ground contributes way more to its heating at altitudes more than 300 meters above the ground than convection currents of air heat ...
3
votes
1answer
147 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...

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