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10
votes
1answer
655 views

How could humans alter storm intensity or direction other than cloud seeding?

I am familiar with the concept of cloud seeding, where precipitation can be induced with aerosols, thereby altering storm intensity further downwind. Are there methods that could be used to ...
9
votes
1answer
583 views

How much water is the atmosphere losing to space?

Up until recently, I was under a (wrong) impression that the amount of planetary cumulative water resources was finite as I believed its escape from the atmosphere was impossible. I believed that, ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Was volcanic activity more prevalent when the dinosaurs roamed?

Popular film culture often depicts much volcanic activity during the time of the dinosaurs. Assuming "time of the dinosaurs" as the Jurassic (200 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (...
9
votes
1answer
184 views

What is the current status of geophysical global cooling theory?

Plate tectonics effectively rubbished the theory of geophysical global cooling as a means of explaining many surface features on the Earth. However, this wiki says that the same process is responsible ...
8
votes
1answer
201 views

Does the amount of energy released from burning of fossil fuels have a measurable impact on global warming? [duplicate]

I understand that the main issue of global warming is greenhouse gases that trap solar energy instead of allowing it to bounce back into space. That being said, I've always had this impression or idea ...
8
votes
2answers
531 views

Where can we see the noctilucent clouds?

I saw many pictures of noctilucent clouds in the UK. Is it a phenomenon only visible in the UK or we can see it somewhere else?
8
votes
1answer
316 views

The giant 6,000 km$^2$ iceberg A-68; will ground-truth telemetry supplement satellite tracking data?

update 2: FIRST images of A-68 iceberg not taken from a satellite in space but from the air are out. On this NASA Earth Observatory web page are areal images from NASA's Operation IceBridge taken from ...
8
votes
2answers
620 views

Will global warming lead to agriculture in the Arctic?

From what I understand, global warming will make growing food a lot harder in areas like the American Midwest because temperatures will become too high for most crops. At the same time, Arctic (and ...
7
votes
1answer
791 views

Is the Principle of Original Horizontality a good indicator?

Still reading a course on datation over multiple stratums that may have setting up the Earth's crust, I'm meeting for the first time the principle of original horizontality Steno. Is this theory safe?...
7
votes
2answers
432 views

What are these Gizmos at Izaña Atmospheric Research Center in Spain?

This tweet from the account of the Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña (AEMET) http://izana.aemet.es Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (AEMET) shows images of meteorological instruments ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Relationship between atmospheric density and atmospheric pressure?

I am slightly confused as to how the following statement is true: As the density of the Earth’s atmosphere decreases, the average atmospheric surface pressure remains the same As dictated by the ...
6
votes
1answer
117 views

What is the evidence it is feasible to reverse ocean acidification by adding large quantities of a base (bicarb soda)?

A commenter made the following reflection: Ocean acidification is different than sea level rise and global warming, however. With ocean acidification, we're making an excursion unlike anything the ...
6
votes
0answers
435 views

How much of Earth's surface would be covered by water if all ice melted? [duplicate]

I'm trying to find how much water would be on the surface of Earth and how much surface would it cover (how much land will remain) if all the ice at the North and South Poles (and everywhere else) ...
6
votes
2answers
164 views

Why are pole reversals not more detrimental to life?

This question is linked to the following question, and has two parts. Mars interdicts approximately 40% of the radiation (per square meter) of the sun that Earth does. It has been claimed that Mars ...
6
votes
1answer
270 views

If ALL the ice melted, what percentage of the Earth's surface would be water?

At the present time, about 70% of the earth's surface is liquid water (perhaps that includes floating ice around Antarctica, and the Arctic Ice cap). What percentage of the Earth's surface would be ...
6
votes
1answer
68 views

What is meant by controlling and reacting factor?

I'm interested in issues related to Global warming and therefore started to read about it from this website --> Link As I was reading I got stuck in the third paragraph of ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

Does earth itself emit electromagnetic waves?

(.... and if so, of what frequency and amplitude)? This Skeptics.SE question about nonsense called 'geopathic stress' made me wonder if and how earth itself emits electromagnetic waves. We need ...
6
votes
2answers
593 views

What was the likely composition of Earth's early crust (how did crustal composition evolve)?

Was the first crust entirely mafic (oceanic) crust which was later distilled via volcanic arcs along subduction zones to make felsic rocks or did the earth start with bits of felsic crust? Are the ...
6
votes
3answers
364 views

In an Earth-like planet with no history of carbon-based life forms, would there be limestone?

The extent of my understanding of limestone is about what Wikipedia says at the very top of the page: Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such ...
6
votes
0answers
156 views

Basalt vs. columnar basalt

I recently visited a cliff on the south coast of Ulva in the Inner Hebrides where there are ~10m thick flows of columnar basalt. The columnar basalt forming most of the cliff is sandwiched between ...
5
votes
1answer
81 views

What is the characteristical time of the loss of the Earth atmosphere, how can it be calculated?

Somewhere I've read it is in the order of some tens of billions of years, but unfortunately I can't find any reference with it in Google. I suspect, the losses are coming mainly from analyzing the ...
5
votes
3answers
10k views

Why silicon is abundant in earth surface?

What is the reason for having silicon in so large quantity on earth surface?
4
votes
1answer
134 views

How did a tropical storm starting with “D” end up next to a typhoon starting with “T”?

While keeping a close eye on typhoon Talim, I noticed that tropical storm Doksuri is also on the map and has caused serious damage and loss of life. I had thought that the naming of tropical storms is ...
4
votes
1answer
166 views

If all the world's ice were to melt, would this shift the earth's centre of gravity with consequential effects on sea levels?

This question on Maths SE asked how we might calculate the effect on sea level if all the world's ice (ie including the whole Antarctic ice sheet) were to melt. I posted an answer containing ...
4
votes
1answer
534 views

Causes of fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen in past 300 Mya

I have two questions based on the history of atmospheric oxygen levels depicted below. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2.png. The notes below the chart explain ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Can two earthquakes happen at the same time?

I wanted to know if two earthquakes can happen at the same time in the same area? I "think" this can happen, but I'm not totally sure? I understand tectonic plates sliding against each other can cause ...
4
votes
1answer
222 views

What (if anything) can be learned from accurately recording tilt motion during seismic events?

The Rotational Motions in Seismology (ROMY) instrument is a giant laser gyroscope used to generate extremely precise 3D rotation measurements of planet Earth. However at the end of the video below ...
3
votes
1answer
782 views

What are the implications of the recent discovery that huge oceans exist close to the mantle of the Earth? [duplicate]

I was of the notion that as we get deeper into the Earth, it gets hotter and hotter. If so, how can there be huge oceans (they seem bigger than our Pacific) exist at such a place? If so, what are the ...
2
votes
1answer
152 views

What are these Gizmos at Mauna Loa Observatory?

Artist Rosten Wu's Vimeo channel has a video title Bridging Time and there is discussion about the Keeling Curve and the site where it all began in Hawaii. In the video there is a shot of a weather ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

What (if any) “in-situ instrumentation” is on the Brunt Ice Shelf that will detect its splitting and breaking away?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

Which particles are classified as PM2.5? How exactly is this defined?

Question When discussing "PM2.5", is there any standardized understanding of which particles are or are not included? Is it everything that's 2.5 microns and smaller? Or Everything between 2.5 and 0....
2
votes
1answer
486 views

Why do cities at high altitude regions have high atmospheric pressures?

Why do cities at high altitude regions, such as Lhasa, altitude 11995ft (3656 metre), have high atmospheric pressures such as 30.11inHg (101.97 kPa) in the weather report?
1
vote
0answers
108 views

Is this milky quartz a stone age tool? [closed]

I found this piece of quartz at Benbo Mt Co. Sligo Ireland.There are many Megaliths in this area in the Dartry Mt range.Its 3 inches in length and appears to have been fashioned as a tool.I found it ...
1
vote
1answer
290 views

Why limestone formation was not a concern in atmosphere oxidation event? [closed]

I have just got to know why Fe was a problem. After clay (alumnum) and Silicon got oxidized, there has left a lot of unoxidized Fe in the crust, whose oxidization has finished during GOE. But, ferrum ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Does being in the air provide any protection from an asteroid?

How does radiation and shock waves from a radioactive asteroid or atomic explosion disperse throughout Earth's atmosphere? Are there specific areas on Earth that are less likely to receive the shock ...
-5
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there any correlation between Grand Solar Minimums (GSM) and earthquakes? [closed]

I've found many claims arguing that the periods of minimum solar activity are associated with increases earthquakes and volcanic activities. Some of these claims are supported by articles in ...
81
votes
6answers
22k views

What place on Earth is closest to the Sun?

What is the location on Earth that is closest to the Sun? I've seen this question asked many times, and answered in varied and contradictory ways: The most common answer is “the summit of Chimborazo ...
50
votes
5answers
4k views

What started the US Dust Bowl of the 1930s, and could it happen again?

Most of us know about the Dust Bowl: the huge storms of dirt and dust that swept across America in the 1930's. But what I'm wondering is... What actually triggered the start of the Dust Bowl? Is it ...
44
votes
5answers
12k views

Why do snowflakes form into hexagonal structures?

Snowflakes are known to form into pretty hexagonal structures. The image below shows a variety of such structures that are possible (although by all means not an exhaustive list): What is the ...
70
votes
17answers
34k views

Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
42
votes
3answers
10k views

How do 'greenhouse gases' let heat in, but not let it out?

That honestly doesn't make any sense to me. How could heat pass through a gas one way but not the other? Its not like our upper atmostphere has a bunch of doors that can only open one way. To me, that ...
32
votes
3answers
4k views

Why does Coriolis determine the rotation direction of a cyclone but not my drain?

It is a common misconception that Coriolis is responsible for the direction the water swirls down a toilet, tub or sink drain. E.g. does a toilet flush the other way in the southern hemisphere? (If ...
39
votes
4answers
7k views

Are there any uncharted waters left on earth?

While reading about the ghost ship Jiang Seng I noticed that Wikipedia claimed it was drifting in uncharted waters in the Gulf of Carpentaria. I tried to find a primary source referencing uncharted ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the cause of the jet streams?

Jet streams are fast-flowing currents of air in our earth's atmosphere. An enormous amount of energy is necessary to keep a jet stream going. Where does this come from and why?
20
votes
1answer
718 views

What data does a skilled meteorologist look at to predict thunderstorms?

An uneducated layman like me would just look at CAPE numbers and make rough guesses on possible thunderstorms. In a related but non-duplicate question, vertical wind shear is discussed. If we are ...
16
votes
1answer
370 views

What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes using the results of climate models?

What is the accepted methodology to predict future climatic extremes using the results of climate models? I have recently read a report about climatic extremes considering climate change (MICE, 2002)....
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Numerical weather forecasting - resources for a programmer?

There is a community wiki question over at A good book or source for climate science and meteorology basics? that talks about meteorology basics. Building on that, but with a slightly different focus,...
23
votes
4answers
5k views

Why is the temperature *still* rising?

2015 is the hottest year on record, and the average temperature continues to rise. I don't understand why this continues, as (over the past twenty years) so much work was put into reducing Global ...
36
votes
6answers
8k views

Is the sea level rise unusual?

I'm discussing climate change with a friend who is a climate change denier, basically the argument is that looking at this graph, is not clear that something unusual is going on, so the sea level rise ...
34
votes
3answers
2k views

How would plate tectonics differ if Earth had no water?

Water plays a crucial role in plate tectonics by easing the brittle and ductile deformation of the Earth's lithosphere. Water lowers the Mohr-Coulomb for brittle fractures. During ductile deformation, ...

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