# All Questions

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### Is it hotter in different places with the same air temperature?

I am from (and live in) Minnesota, USA. In the summer here it always reaches temperatures in the 90s (F) for periods of time but not every week. The humidity is often high and the dew point often ...
466 views

### How can temperature be calculated given relative humidity and dew point?

While looking into the better indicator of how miserable it feels outside, either dew point or relative humidity, I came across this statement: The optimum combination for human comfort is a ...
281 views

### How can we accurately quantify the degree of scientific certainty that global heating is caused by humans?

How can we accurately quantify the degree of scientific certainty that global heating is caused by humans? It seem virtually certain that the huge 100 ppm spike in $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ since 1950 ...
2k views

### Melting point of minerals

Looking at this website, I can see the melting point of the following minerals: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Geophys/meltrock.html Apparently at a temperature of 1200 °C, all the ...
19 views

### What (if any) “in-situ instrumentation” is on the Brunt Ice Shelf that will detect its splitting and breaking away?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
177 views

### What are these Gizmos at Mauna Loa Observatory?

Artist Rosten Wu's Vimeo channel has a video title Bridging Time and there is discussion about the Keeling Curve and the site where it all began in Hawaii. In the video there is a shot of a weather ...
319 views

### Why limestone formation was not a concern in atmosphere oxidation event? [closed]

I have just got to know why Fe was a problem. After clay (alumnum) and Silicon got oxidized, there has left a lot of unoxidized Fe in the crust, whose oxidization has finished during GOE. But, ferrum ...
101 views

### How can I convert the negative values of the ERA5 PET data into positive?

I planned to use the ERA5 Potential evapotranspiration data for drought analsysis (SPEI), however values are presented in negative number. Of course I understand the logic for presenting PET negative. ...
472 views

I am supposed to design a road trip (using major highways) across North America. I have to design a route that starts with the oldest rock of Archean age and finishes with the youngest rock of ...
133 views

### Does being in the air provide any protection from an asteroid?

How does radiation and shock waves from a radioactive asteroid or atomic explosion disperse throughout Earth's atmosphere? Are there specific areas on Earth that are less likely to receive the shock ...
54 views

### Blue Ridge Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains

Why is it that in the Blue Ridge and Great Smoky Mountains that in October, thunderstorms stop happening and why is it that there were thunderstorms in the forecast a few times this October and today ...
3k views

### Is there any correlation between Grand Solar Minimums (GSM) and earthquakes? [closed]

I've found many claims arguing that the periods of minimum solar activity are associated with increases earthquakes and volcanic activities. Some of these claims are supported by articles in ...
1k views

### Why aren't there more questions and concerns about chemtrails? [closed]

Chemtrails are amazingly obvious in our daily life but why aren't we more concerned? The information and patents for the chemicals we? are spraying are readily available. The chemicals are huge ...
29k views

### What place on Earth is closest to the Sun?

What is the location on Earth that is closest to the Sun? I've seen this question asked many times, and answered in varied and contradictory ways: The most common answer is “the summit of Chimborazo ...
5k views

### What started the US Dust Bowl of the 1930s, and could it happen again?

Most of us know about the Dust Bowl: the huge storms of dirt and dust that swept across America in the 1930's. But what I'm wondering is... What actually triggered the start of the Dust Bowl? Is it ...
14k views

### Why do snowflakes form into hexagonal structures?

Snowflakes are known to form into pretty hexagonal structures. The image below shows a variety of such structures that are possible (although by all means not an exhaustive list): What is the ...
4k views

### (How long) would Earth's atmosphere last without a global magnetic field?

The Earth's magnetic field provides an important protection against the solar wind (for example, see Wikipedia on Earth's magnetic field and references therein). Mars may have lost its atmosphere ...
41k views

### Are there any saltwater rivers on Earth?

I'm curious if there are any saltwater rivers on Earth. These would presumably arise if a saltwater lake had a river outlet to the ocean. However, all the saltwater lakes I looked at (Caspian Sea, ...
7k views

### Are there any uncharted waters left on earth?

While reading about the ghost ship Jiang Seng I noticed that Wikipedia claimed it was drifting in uncharted waters in the Gulf of Carpentaria. I tried to find a primary source referencing uncharted ...
4k views

### Why does Coriolis determine the rotation direction of a cyclone but not my drain?

It is a common misconception that Coriolis is responsible for the direction the water swirls down a toilet, tub or sink drain. E.g. does a toilet flush the other way in the southern hemisphere? (If ...
34k views

### How to interpolate scattered data to a regular grid in Python?

I have three txt files for longitude, latitude and temperature (or let's say three lists lon, lat, temp) from scattered weather station in the UK. I would like firstly to interpolate these data in ...
6k views

### How and why did the oceans form on Earth but not on other planets?

Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has copious amounts of water on it. Where did this water come from and why is there so much water on Earth compared to every other planet in the ...
35k views

### Why is Earth's inner core made of an iron-nickel alloy?

This question has puzzled me for a while. I know that earth's mantle is made of different minerals, metals and rocks etc. and that has always made complete sense to me. But why is the inner core made ...
2k views

### What is the cause of the jet streams?

Jet streams are fast-flowing currents of air in our earth's atmosphere. An enormous amount of energy is necessary to keep a jet stream going. Where does this come from and why?
788 views

### What data does a skilled meteorologist look at to predict thunderstorms?

An uneducated layman like me would just look at CAPE numbers and make rough guesses on possible thunderstorms. In a related but non-duplicate question, vertical wind shear is discussed. If we are ...
391 views

### What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes using the results of climate models?

What is the accepted methodology to predict future climatic extremes using the results of climate models? I have recently read a report about climatic extremes considering climate change (MICE, 2002)....
1k views

### Numerical weather forecasting - resources for a programmer?

There is a community wiki question over at A good book or source for climate science and meteorology basics? that talks about meteorology basics. Building on that, but with a slightly different focus,...
9k views

### Is the sea level rise unusual?

I'm discussing climate change with a friend who is a climate change denier, basically the argument is that looking at this graph, is not clear that something unusual is going on, so the sea level rise ...
6k views

### How much will sea level rise if all the polar ice melts?

There are many movies about global warming, which say that melting of all polar ice would cause the whole world to suffer a huge flood. According my research (teachers, TV, Internet) people hold one ...
6k views

### Why is the temperature *still* rising?

2015 is the hottest year on record, and the average temperature continues to rise. I don't understand why this continues, as (over the past twenty years) so much work was put into reducing Global ...
1k views

### Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
162 views

### Public sources of topographical data of Earth?

I would like to find sources of topographical data for Earth's surface. I've looked in GIS SE and Open Data SE but haven't found a good answer to this so I though I'd ask here in Earth Science. Are ...
2k views

### How would plate tectonics differ if Earth had no water?

Water plays a crucial role in plate tectonics by easing the brittle and ductile deformation of the Earth's lithosphere. Water lowers the Mohr-Coulomb for brittle fractures. During ductile deformation, ...
9k views

### Where on Earth is the magnetic field intensity stronger?

Are there places on Earth that have a strong magnetic field other than the magnetic north and south poles? Can living where (rare) earth magnetic ore is abundant provide a mini-magnetoshere?
6k views

### How would an icicle “grow” upwards?

The other day a friend of my dad's showed him a picture of an icicle that appeared to be "growing" upwards out of a crack in a sidewalk. There were no roofs, overhangs or vehicles parked near by... It ...
761 views

### Why do some planets have lots of $\mathrm{N_2}$ and others none?

Earth, Titan and Venus all have large amounts of $\mathrm{N_2}$ in their atmospheres. (In the case of Venus it's a small proportion, but Venus' atmosphere is very thick, and the total mass of \$\mathrm{...
111k views

### Is there a difference between rock and stone?

I couldn't find the definitions from either source: Geology Dictionary Glossary of Geologic Terms
5k views

### What do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean?

I know that geostrophic flow means straight wind flow that is balanced by the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. But what do quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic mean specifically?
380 views

### Can climate models reliably predict meteorological extremes?

This question is related to and extension of my previous question which was about the methodology used to predict future climatic extremes: What is the methodology to analyze future climatic extremes ...
4k views

### Interpolate Gaussian grids to regular fixed grids using bilinear interpolation?

I want to regrid GCM data available on Gaussian grids to regular grids, say at 1 deg X 1 deg. How to do this using CDO or Python ...
9k views

### How much of a mountain is below the surface?

Is there some kind of math rule for how much does a mountain extend (depth) below the surface? I found an article like this http://www.livescience.com/6595-depth-himalayan-mountain-roots-revealed....
329 views

### Is there any consensus of what caused the Lusi Mud Volcano eruptions in Indonesia?

In May, 2006, the Lusi Mud Volcano in eastern Java, Indonesia came to life, smothering much of the surrounding land in mud. According to the article Indonesia's Infamous Mud Volcano Could Outlive ...
5k views

### What would be the first thing which will render the Earth uninhabitable?

There are quite a few things which can make an otherwise habitable planet uninhabitable, and some of these will eventually happen, sooner or later: engulfed by its star when it becomes a red giant ...
373 views

### How is global weather model skill measured?

The models I have in mind are the major global models such as the Global Forecast System (GFS) and the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). These models produce numerous ...
576 views

### Why are weather kites no longer used (much) operationally?

Figure 1.12 from the IPCC AR5 WG1 report (reproduced below) illustrates the different instruments that have been used for weather forecasting. Most of the methods have been in continuous use since ...
1k views

### How do the known abrupt climate change events fit into the xkcd Earth temperature timeline?

The xkcd "Earth Temperature Timeline" depicts the global average temperature during the past 20,000 years, based on the known data. We already have a question about the chart's general accuracy, but I ...
355 views

### What is the predictability of El Niño/La Niña?

What is the maximum period of time into the future that an El Niño event can be forecasted with reasonable accuracy and what are the limitations in predicting the time limit?
554 views

### What generates the microseism?

Looking at seismic noise around the Earth there is commonly a peak in the seismic noise around a frequency of 200 mHz. This peak is typically referred to as the microseism (an example is shown below)....