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24 views

Is there any mineral that survives hard degree metamorphism?

When a protolith enters in metamorphism, the minerals transform in other new stable minerals while the pressure and/or temperature increase. Is there any mineral that would not be affected by a high ...
21 views

Is there any measured atmospheric temperature profile made public?

I'm looking for a temperature-with-altitude measurement by a sounding rocket having gone through the tropo, strato- and mesosphere, have any such results been published after temperatures were ...
20 views

Convert coordinate from WRF to qGis

I have a WRF domain called geo_em.d01.nc. I import this domain in qGis and I see it in blu/red as you can see in the picture. Now my problem is: how I can overlap this domain on my ESRI backgroun map?...
3k views

Why would it be drier indoors during the winter vs the summer?

Yesterday during the day, inside my house it was 16% relative humidity. Outside it was 69% relative humidity and cold, around 35 degrees Farenheit. It is always 72 degrees Farenheit inside the house. ...
118 views

Remote sensing of glaciers, season for data collection

I would like to understand to view the health of a glacier using optical or SAR data. What season would be the best for observation? Is the ablation season better or the accumulation season? More ...
36 views

Is there a certification process for automated weather stations?

I'm in the market for a new automated weather station and of course there's a glut of them on the internet. I mostly will be using the data for myself and my own amusement but do plan to submit ...
48 views

Salinity balance in the oceans, is it increasing over time?

My 13 yr old kid is studying the water cycle and has raised me some question I don't have answers to regarding how the salinity levels of the oceans are kept constant (over very long period of time) ...
3k views

If people aim to reach the mantle, why don't they just use volcano craters?

Once in a while aspiring people aim to drill through the Earth's crust to reach the mantle, but why do they want that when the mantle is actually on or very close to the surface in volcano craters? ...
76 views

What are these 'spine' land features on the banks of the Oder river?

Looking around on Google Maps, one can zoom in on the banks of the Oder river between Germany and Poland and find quite an extensive series of curious repeating land features along much of the river ...
88 views

What on Earth are we doing and can be done to prevent the projected (massive) water shortages?

I have heard it from many, many places that the big cities are drawing too much water from their aquifers, and then climate change will exacerbate that problem amongst a very many others. My city, ...
1k views

Is there a geological explanation for the recent Mammoth tusk discovery 185 miles off the California coast?

A recently publicized discovery of a Columbian Mammoth tusk located well of the coast of California in quite deep water made me wonder if geological conditions 100,000 years ago can explain how it got ...
26 views

Calculating total daily rainfall from a tipping bucket rain gauge

I am trying to calculate total daily rainfall based on data from a tipping bucket rain gauge which is calibrated to a tip of 0.2mm. I have data giving the exact time that a tip is recorded and have ...
68 views

Hourly historical weather data for USA

I tried Google BigQuery but it is at day level. Is there any source for hourly historical weather data for USA?
49 views

Why is the isothermal layer being considered a part of the stratosphere rather than the troposphere or being an independent layer?

At altitudes from 12-20 km (7-12.5 mi) above the midlatitudes the temperature remains constant with altitude (minus 56.5°C in the ISA). This part is usually considered to be in the stratosphere, but ...
20 views

Are their any tools or code available to evaluate cmip6 models (r or matlab preferred)?

I would like to carry out a superficial analysis of a small number of CMIP6 models I downloaded from the ESGF. I'm thinking that a spatial correlation or Mean Square error between climatologies of ...
2k views

Do these islands exist or are they technical artifacts?

I am using data in a GIS application that shows some land or islands in areas where I would not expect such, or at least have never heard that there are islands. How to find these in Google Earth? Do ...
27 views

Could a fossil survive in the ocean during prehistoric periods and end up buried afterwards? [closed]

How long would a meteorite survive underwater - in the ocean? I found a fossil with rock-boring clams here in PA, a hill was dug into in order for a pool to be installed. Pretty much right next to the ...
21 views

Creating composite dropsonde profiles?

I am working with 13 dropsonde profiles that were launched during a field program. I have been attempting to create composite profiles of them using python, but I am a bit stuck. Here are the issues ...
30 views

Why is NYC so much colder than Rome despite being at the same latitude? [duplicate]

New York City and Rome are at about the same latitude, but their climates are different. Rome has subtropical climate and it doesn't snow in winter. NYC has temperate climate and it's extremely cold ...
45 views

What layers of the atmosphere are divided in this image by abrupt borders?

In the image of Earth from a 100,000 ft on this site you can see abruptly divided layers of the atmosphere in different shades of blue. What are they, why do they have different shades and why can't ...
17 views

What happens to organic matter, climate-wise, when it's simply left to rot? [closed]

It may not be a good fit for this SE. In that case, redirect me please What happens to organic matter, climate-wise, when it's simply left to rot? It releases some CO2, a little bit methane, some of ...
24 views

What characteristics are considered when distinguishing a place based on physiographic provinces?

Wikipedia describes a concept called "physiographic provinces". If I understand right, geologists simply created lines on a map, to create clusters of places that are geologically similar. ...
52 views

Does sea breeze stop?

Is there ever a state of thermal equilibrium between land and sea? What is the condition of the Land/Sea breeze at that time?
77 views

How do canyons form?

I read that canyons are the result of long-time erosion from a plateau but is there any simulation I could play with to understand the phenomenon better?
43 views

Can we know if a numerical model will converge or not according to the boundary conditions?

Consider a square 2D domain and a steady-state simulation. According to the geology of the domain, the North, South, West and East limits must be conditions of zero flow (Neumann). The aquifer ...
79 views

What is the relationship between air pressure and temperature?

I'm trying to reconcile a paradox regarding air pressure and temperature. On the one hand, compressing air heats it up, while expanding it cools it. So density and temperature are proportional. On the ...
43 views

What kind of circumstances could lead to extensive flooding of the Fraser River in British Columbia's Lower Mainland?

This might be a better question for Engineering.SE. I know that flash flooding to the extent and intensity that is seen in the Midwest or South is more rare in the Pacific Northwest, because it was ...
44 views

Could climate change make air unbreathable? [duplicate]

A lot of the press discussion, IPCC information and scientific inquiry about climate change refers to changes in the temperature of the atmosphere. I have not seen debates about changes in the ...
49 views

Is Russia going to benefit from climate change? [closed]

There are clear ways climate change can and does harm Russia: more frequent forest fires, floods, thawing permafrost. On the other hand, winter, says the latest IPCC report, is going to warm at a ...
39 views

Where can I find the journal articles associated with CMIP6 models available on World Climate Reseaerch Programme ESGF website?

I want to see how well different CMIP6 model realisations did during the model evaluation, but I can't find papers associated with the data presented on the ESGF node. For example, if I was interested ...
1k views

What gases are in the vesicles of pumice?

Many references state that pumice is formed by gases in lava, but I have yet to find a reference of which gases they are. If a piece of pumice floats, then conceivably it still contains the original ...
43 views

Alternative natural explanations for rise in atmospheric CO2? [duplicate]

I am in no way a climate-change skeptic, nor a denier. Motivated by this question and some articles I read online: Are there any known natural processes beside human activities that are able to ...
41 views

What is the atmospheric percentage of oxygen produced by trees and phytoplankton every year?

I know that every year carbon sinks remove ~20Gt of CO2 (about half of our emissions), and release a comparable amount of O2 , But I want to know how much O2 the carbon sinks produce annually ...
113 views

What is this fossil? What is this crystal?

My daughter found this fossil while walking through the Swabian Jura, in Southern Germany. She asked me about it, but I have absolutely 0 clue about geology. The crystal part is 3cm in diameter, but ...
54 views

Gases descending from atmospheres

Earth’s lower atmosphere is rising due to climate change Temperature is the driving force behind this change, says Jane Liu, an environmental scientist at the University of Toronto. The troposphere ...
17 views

Easiest way to visualize precipitation drainage using raster elevation files in R?

As a non-specialist, enviro-enthusiast, I am curious about visualizing post-precipitation run-off in my local area. I have been able to access and download appropriate elevatio rasters for my local ...
195 views

How to explain the remarkable regularity of the increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide?

The Keeling curve is very well approximated with an exponential function with an offset $256$ [ppm] $$256+A\cdot e^{\alpha\cdot t}$$ where $A=1.095\cdot10^{-12}$ and $\alpha=0.0161$ ($t$ is in years ...
38 views

Why is draining wetlands not a good idea, climate-wise?

Suppose we say, "We have a climate emergency going on, there's no way we're going to decarbonize our economies fast enough, to hell with biodiversity, we are going to drain the swamps". What ...
185 views

What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up estimates?

I find the IPCC report hard to read. It's peppered with unexplained terms and is generally cumbersome (no offence to its authors). Here's one example. What is the difference between top-down and ...
62 views

How are they holding COP26 if the IPCC hasn't yet finished the report?

How are they holding COP26 if the IPCC hasn't yet completed its latest Assessment Report? I'm reading it at the moment, and more often than not there are descriptions to figures without the figures ...
90 views

1.5° above what?

We know all about how the Earth's temperature needs to stay below "1.5° above pre-industrial levels". But what were they? Every news article and policy statement seems to hand-wave it away. ...
54 views

Does carbon dioxide preferentially accumulate in one layer of the atmosphere?

Just as Ozone concentration peaks at around 20 km in the stratosphere, having a distribution around higher and lowers layers of the atmosphere, does the same happen for carbon dioxide or other ...
27 views

Atmospheric gravity waves or cumulus cloud street?

I observed these clouds today (november 12, Belgium) and I was wondering if they could be caused by atmospheric gravity waves. How would you spot the difference between gravity waves and a cloud ...
11 views

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4⁰C warmer in every month. What are my options?

I'm searching for a town with a climate similar to Walvis Bay, Namibia's precipitation-wise but about 4 degrees Celsius warmer in every month. What are my options?
62 views

When diamonds "migrate" from deep underground to the surface, do they maintain pressure inside when there is no more pressure outside? If so, how?

From Science News' A mineral found in a diamond’s flaws contains the source of some of Earth’s heat: A tiny bit of rock trapped inside a diamond is now opening a brand-new window into what the planet’...
30 views

Global gridded Leaf Area Index and Soil Depth data for hydrological analysis - references and unmixing by land use

I am working with a global fully distributed (gridded) hydrological model and I am having some issues regarding two sets of data extremely important for the correct representation of the soil ...
74 views

Could increased $\ce{CO2}$ levels be a contributing factor why dinosaurs grew so big?

Is it possible that increased CO2 levels during the larger dinosaurs era is a major factor in why dinosaurs grew so big during this period? And extrapolating this question, is it possible that the ...
30 views

How to convert $\ce{NO2}$ mixing ratio (ppmv) into $\ce{NO2}$ column density(moles/m2)?

I have a WRF-chem output with NO2 mixing ratio for 37 levels, for my analysis I need to convert it into into column density. How do I do that?