# All Questions

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1answer
21 views

### Snow on a relatively warm day

Outside my window it's snowing. This isn't so strange, even for the South of England in mid-April. What is surprising is that the ambient air temperatures (according to the Met-Office) are about 7 or ...
0answers
20 views

### What are the risks of developing geoengineering?

Wikipedia page for geoengineering entry list a lot of proposals to decrease global temperature: Solar radiation management methods[5] may include: Surface-based: for example, surface-based mirror ...
2answers
239 views

### Can clouds be formed without a pollen particle's role?

I read online that it is scientifically proven that pollen particles can trigger cloud formation "is that true"? if true ,does it mean that no clouds can be formed without pollen particles' ...
0answers
20 views

### When it comes the average lifetime of chemicals in the atmosphere, is the mean lifetime ~1.4427 times the half-life? As with radioactivity?

There are so many websites giving numbers for 'average' lifetimes of global-warming or ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere, yet they are rarely explicit in their definition(s)... For instance, ...
0answers
16 views

### Learn geological properties of the horizon through density of the rocks

It is possible to evaluate the geological structure of a basin based on gravimetric data. But if one doesn't have gravimetric data, how can one learn the geological structure and properties of a ...
0answers
13 views

### What is “small layer thickness” defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In may sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
0answers
38 views

### Prevalence of 'well-rounded' beach fabric on the Foreshore

Apologies for the vagueness of this query, but generally, would it be plausible to state that the prevalence of 'sub-rounded'* beach fabric is more common at the foreshore than 'sub-angular'* beach ...
0answers
41 views

### Determining probability of precipitation from GFS data

Looking at the index files in https://ftp.ncep.noaa.gov/data/nccf/com/gfs/prod/, there's no probability of precipitation (POP) data provided. (There is a ...
0answers
63 views

### Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
1answer
58 views

### Term for the Process of the Early Earth's Crust's Changing Mineral Composition

In the book, Story of Earth-The First 4.5 Billion Years, From Stardust to Living Planet, by Robert Hazen, Chapter 3: He discusses the changing mineral composition of the early Earth's crust from ...
0answers
35 views

### Can you please identify the type of rock and whether is it natural or man-made? [closed]

I found this rock in my garden (Cheshire,UK) and wondered what type of stone it is. The two largest holes on either side go right through, almost like a bead and I wondered whether this had happened ...
1answer
74 views

### In cities, is the pollution level higher on higher floors?

Is there a difference between the pollution levels at higher vs lower floors in a high rise building?
1answer
56 views

### How can we distinguish fold and cycle of sedimentation on a remote sensing image or in the field?

A fold is composed of stratigraphy that is symmetric and repeated. Cyclic sediments (also called rhythmic sediments) are sequences of sedimentary rocks that are characterised by repetitive patterns of ...
0answers
24 views

### Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
0answers
63 views

### What would happen if the salt in the oceans disappeared? [closed]

Based on current understanding of how ecology processes work, what would happen in the short term as well as the long term if the salt in the Earth's oceans disappeared? why closing? i am curious to ...
2answers
57 views

### How much earth has to be moved to get one tonne of copper

I am trying to make sense of the mining process of minerals or metals. I found two measures related to waste: the stripping ratio (which is usually larger than 3:1 for copper, i.e. 3 tonnes of waste ...
0answers
24 views

### When are the IPCC AR6 reports going to be published?

Im trying to find out when each of the reports from working groups 1,2 and 3 will be published due to the delay due to covid19. Does anyone have any up to date information about these dates as opposed ...
1answer
63 views

### Will a new glacial age take place on Earth or Holocene will become a new climatic epoch?

Pleistocene shows a switch between glacial and interglacial ages. Image source: global-climate-change.org.uk However, humanity is burning fossil fuels and increasing atmosphere's $\ce{CO2}$ content. ...
1answer
34 views

### How to identify chemical property and structure of rocks?

I am interested in identifying the properties of rocks. For example, black opal is shiny and can emit 5 different colors based on different lighting conditions. Is there a way for an amateur to be ...
0answers
22 views

### Differentiate correlation of between depth and bouguer anomaly

Assume we measure bouguer anomaly (g) and depth (H) of the certain horizon through a profile at each point. Based on data we get a correlation between H and g and express it with a polynomial equation ...
0answers
9 views

### Using IOS DATA unsupervised classification in Envi, how do you ensure the algorithm correctly classifies between water and dense vegetation?

I have performed an IOS DATA unsupervised classification algorithm to a Landsat scene in Envi software. Bands available are: B, G, R, NIF, SWIR plus spectral indices NDVI and NDWI. Keeping the inputs ...
0answers
17 views

### How much carbon in the surface ocean

The natural flux of carbon into the atmosphere is about 90 Gt per year. Humans are adding additional carbon dioxide each by burning fossil fuels. Some of it is absorbed by the oceans. The residence ...
0answers
37 views

### How to define high frequency rainfall?

I have a rainfall data set from a weather station where the data was collected at 20 minutes intervals for 10 years. I would like to peak up the high frequency rainfall cases. What are such rainfalls? ...
0answers
32 views

### Salt body detection via reflection seismology

I'm supposed to plan a seismic experiment in order to detect a salt body buried under a city. From the preliminary exploration the salt body was determined to be 50m thick and 100m wide, and ...
0answers
44 views

### Hypothetically, in the near future, could gas hydrate pingos erupt?

Could gas hydrate pingos erupt? If so, how quickly? And how much CH4 could they release? I'm sorry if the questions sounds silly. I'm new here and I don't know much about gas hydrates and oceanography....
1answer
76 views

### Why did the Persian Gulf shrink during the influence of Ancient Mesopotamia?

The Persian Gulf, today, looks like this. But about 4,000 years ago, it looked like this. This extended to the point where Ur, currently an inland city, was a coastal city. During this era, no other ...
1answer
50 views

### When does a stream become a river?

Does a stream require a certain width or volume before it can be classified as a river, and if so, what is it?
1answer
50 views

### Why are the south, the west and the north of the Caspian sea lush but its east completely dry?

About the Caspian sea area today: The south is very lush with the subtropical forests of the Iranian provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan (although less "tropical" in Golestan) The ...
0answers
31 views

### How is causality between past CO2 levels and fossilized plant spore proxies established?

According to Mann and Kump (2015), Geologic proxies are characteristics of sedimentary rocks that we can use to infer ancient environmental conditions. Climate scientists study proxies because there ...
1answer
51 views

### Why don't we store carbon by storing used plastics under ground?

Some types of used plastics are very stable. They also contain a significant amount of carbon. An example is polyethylene (PE). When waste is collected for recycling, not every plastic part can be ...
1answer
30 views

### Meaning of ECMWF model levels

I am trying to understand the actual meaning of the ECMWF L137 model levels. In the link I provided, both pressures (in hPa) and heights (in m) are given for every level. But which actually defines ...
2answers
39 views

### Comparing 2D fields - how do you quantify similarity?

I have a number of arrays describing both forecasts and observations of geospatial data (e.g. precipitation intensity, cloud fields...). Included are four animated gifs, each looping back and forth ...
5answers
113 views

### It is possible to send a probe deep within the Earth?

The deepest borehole ever drilled is just 12km. Consider this as a possibility. A small self-propelled probe is created, its approximately the size of a football, and is very strong, made of materials ...
0answers
21 views

### Ore prospecting and the low-hanging fruit effect

I'm trying to acquire an understanding of how the difficulty of prospecting for useful ore has increased over historical timescales. Intuitively, I would expect that centuries or millennia ago, you ...
1answer
28 views

### Difference between Earthquake Seismographs

How can we tell the difference between a seismograph of a local earthquake and that of a distant earthquake?
0answers
25 views

### ESMF installation error “error: no match for ‘operator==’ ”

I need to install ESMF-5.2.0rp3 version. I have downloaded it from https://github.com/esmf-org/esmf/releases/tag/ESMF_5_2_0rp3. Also I installed the following prerequisites: Fortran95, GCC & C++ 7....
1answer
26 views

### Why Sutluj, Ravi and Beas rivers are called eastern rivers? Is it related to their geography?

Indus water treaty says eastern rivers are Indias and western river control are with Pakistan. All rivers origin from west of Tibet I think and flow from west to east but why this nomenclature of ...
1answer
20 views

### How to add scale in DSLR plus microscope set up by default?

We have an Axioscope microscope and planning to install a Nikon D5300 camera on top of it. The software I looked up, is DigiCam Control. The downside is we cannot add scale by default. The scale has ...
1answer
47 views

### Was Zealandia above water during the last Ice age?

Was Zealandia above sea level during the last ice age? Like how Sahul or Sundaland were?
1answer
24 views

### Permeability test

What are the different ways permeability of a core specimen can be determined accurately for fluids with different viscosities and their mixtures?
3answers
136 views

### Can there be ice in the core because of pressure?

Because there is so much pressure in the earth's core, the inner core is solid but what happens if you manage to add some water in the inner core or near it. Does the pressure make the water solid or ...
1answer
59 views

### Which universities are best for studying Oceanography as an undergrad? [closed]

I am a high school senior studying in a local school in Bangladesh. My passion is to study oceans & marine life. The drive of getting higher education in Oceanography has turned into ardent ...
0answers
27 views

### Fresnel equations & emissivity of water

If you want to know what the actual emissivity of water is (which is terribly important to even get an idea what size the GHE has!), you can google. Regrettably you will get all kinds of results, so ...
1answer
65 views

### Why does Japan get so much snow?

Japan seems to get a surprising amount of snow in winter, compared to other places that are as cold or colder. The snow seems to be concentrated on the west side of the country, which suggests the ...
2answers
59 views

### Is it possible for an active volcano to become less violent over time?

Suppose a violent, dangerous composite volcano whose eruptions destroy the nearby countryside exists. Would it be possible for this volcano to change such that future eruptions are less violent, and ...
1answer
24 views

### Yellow and brown spots on leaf tip

On a barley farm, there are yellow and brown spots on leaf tips. Possible causes: Some kind of parasite Weather condition Bad seed Looks like some farms using the same seed are affected What might ...
0answers
32 views

### Farallon plate subducting under North American plate: is it a factor in “the next big one”?

I am a writer, not a scientist of any kind. I live in the SW AZ desert (USA), so we get earthquakes from time to time. I grew up in southern CA, right next to the San Andreas fault, so I have a ...
0answers
12 views

### Application of Visual Sample Plan to composite samples

I have a site in which I would like to compare the site average to a fixed threshold, however, the data that I have for the site are composite samples. The site is subdivided into 17 composite units, ...
1answer
49 views

### Recent high seismic activity in Europe

It seems that Europe and the Mediterranean Sea have had high seismic activity in last six months. Major events which I remember are: 2020 Aegean Sea earthquake, magnitude of 7.0 Mww 29 December 2020:...
0answers
17 views

### Orientations of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane

How can someone find the possible orientations of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane? This tensor is in the geographical coordinate system North, East and Down, given a moment tensor. M= \begin{...

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