# All Questions

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11 views

### How can I make a Python function return the Moon's gravitational force in a form I can use to calculate orbits?

The Space SE question How much does it cost to land on a lunar mascon? includes the background information below. I am sure it's not too hard to find a link where spherical harmonic coefficients for ...
15 views

### How do they determine the “feels like” temperatures for weather data?

I'm pulling air temperature and other weather stats from various APIs. There's this concept called "feels like temperature", separate from "actual temperature". Apparently, this is the temperature ...
11 views

### SeaDataNet's NEMO software, stuck on data validation?

I'm new to the community and this is my first question, I would appreciate in advance your patience and your time to read this post. I'm currently processing some oceanographic data such as salinity, ...
31 views

### are magma chambers magnetic, do they have magnetic values?

This question will have a answer without me supplying any information - the answer should be known.
27 views

### What is the simplest meteorological model to operate?

For teaching purposes I am looking for an atmospheric model that can be easily installed and the input data can be easily read and prepared. Preferably I would like to run a global low resolution ...
24 views

### Which is the longest River in Germany and Russia?

Danube is 2850 km long and yet Rhine (1233 km) is considered the longest River in Germany. Likewise,the confusion between Yenisei and Volga in Russia.
49 views

### How do we know the speed of S-waves (shear waves) in the Earth's inner core? Has this been measured?

Wikipedia's Seismic wave includes the plot below of the speed of S and P waves as a function of depth in the Earth. In the region of the outer core the speed of S-waves or shear waves is shown to be ...
598 views

### How much does COVID-19 affect weather forecasts?

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is concerned about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quantity and quality of weather observations and forecasts, as well as atmospheric and climate ...
42 views

### How to search for the nearest non nan value in 2d xarray dataset

I have a 2d xarray dataset and I am having several nan values in the dataset. These nan values need to be filled with the nearest non-nan values in the 2d array. How do I do this? I am trying to ...
29 views

### What is the “forecast hour of product”

The NCEP website describes the file naming format of the GFS forecast data. https://www.nco.ncep.noaa.gov/pmb/products/gfs/ What does "forecast hour of product" mean?
36 views

### Millipedes in agriculture field [closed]

I have lot of millipede in my farm. I looked at Wikipedia and Backyard Buddies, but not very sure if they are harmful to the plants. Wikipedia says they could be possible agriculture pests. I have ...
85 views

### convert .srtm to xyz ord grd

I need to plot bathymetry map of my study region and need to convert the .srtm to .xyz or .grd format to use GMT. I tried to do this with grdraster and xyz2grd, but got wrong results. I found that ...
30 views

### MATLAB - How to plot multiple timeseries (paleoclimate) with a common x axis and multiple stacked y axes?

I'm trying to create figures in MatLab and am a reasonably new user, I'm wondering if there is a good way to make plots that use a common x-axis and then vertically stacked and alternating y-axes as ...
85 views

### Has a scientific consensus been reached concerning the formation of the Grand Canyon?

new student of Oceanography here! I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado ...
61 views

### How does space weather create toxic gas? [closed]

Earth has experienced a tremendous wave of space weather in recent years; mostly destroying wet and icy regions such as reefs and polar caps. Such activity is conducive of creating a toxic ...
20 views

### How to transfer surface roughness from the unit mm into Strickler coefficient m1/3 per second

I have a hydrodynamic model to simulate flash floods. This model expects roughness data in the Strickler coefficient format (kst) in the unit m1/3 per second. I got a table with roughness values I'm ...
222 views
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### Do we know anything about the nature of Earth's core that hasn't come from magnetic or seismic measurements?

There is much known about Earth's core from painstaking analysis of seismic data, and from detailed magnetic field maps and trends over time. Are there any other measurements that have contributed to ...
23 views

### Ice Water Content from GFS file

I am working my way through this paper: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2017/8707234.pdf Equations 10 and 11 require the ice water content. I can't find it in the GFS grib2 file ...
83 views

### Modeling the total water inflow across multiple reservoirs

I'm new to hydrology and I have a question regarding the modeling of multiple reservoirs. I need to estimate the total water inflow to multiple reservoirs that will be observed tomorrow, conditional ...
68 views

### Derivative of Exner function

In chapter 13.1 in 'Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes' (Markowski and Richardson,2011) they use a Bernoulli equation and the hydrostatic equation and a lot of assumptions to derive an equation ...
2k views

### Why don't iron meteorites on Mars rust or oxidize? Why are they shiny?

Wikipedia's WikiNews' 2005 article Mars Rover’s Basketball-Shaped Discovery Stirs Controversy says: The surface of the meteorite was found to be remarkably free of corrosion. Researchers are as yet ...
37 views

### Digital alternative to hand analyzed maps

I am a staunch believer in the benefit of hand analyzing maps to get a good feel for the state of the atmosphere before getting into my forecast. With Covid-19 keeping us out of the office, one of the ...
28 views

### Storing borehole interval data (logs) in netcdf

I have a number of datasets that describe geological properties as intervals down a borehole (e.g. unit codes, sample results) In a database, or a flat ASCII file, I would describe these with a ...
36 views

### Extratropical transition of tropical cyclone

I am a beginner of learning Tropical Cyclone. I would like to represent the extratropical transition of a tropical cyclone. But I can't understand on what actually in need to focus. For a tropical ...
10 views

### What is the difference between MOD16A2 and MOD16A2GF products?

I want to use the evapotranspiration product, which one will be the suitable to show net evapotranspiration on large and arid area? Thanks
27 views

### Q factor estimation from VSP

in seismic data processing there is a step of calculating the absorption represented By Q value which is Q factor , how we can estimate it from VSP ! thank you.
80 views

### What are these river/canyon-like carvings in the ocean?

Browsing around Google Maps, I came across this off the south-west coast of Ireland It looks very consistent with the shape rivers and their tributaries might make, but it has me puzzled since it's ...
42 views

### How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
34 views

### Why does upwards lightning use only one path but downward lightning uses multiple paths?

My question pops-up from this question "Why does lightning strike from the ground-up" which I consider partially unanswered. Why do I consider it partially unanswered? Because only one answer tried ...
22 views

### Does the heat of reentry affect the reliability of radiometric dating of meteorites?

This may be more of an age-dating question. When a meteorite travels through the Earth's atmosphere, I assume that it gets really hot. Is the temperature of reentry hot enough to effect the ...
5k views

### Is there a name for the great circle where latitude and longitude are equal?

Is there a name for the great circle where latitude and longitude are equal? I have attempted a google search but only the equator and the prime meridian are defined in the sources I can find. ( It is ...
45 views

### stretch phenomena after NMO application on seismic data

after the NMO application we have stretch for far offset , i read a lot of articles but i can't have a complete idea how this phenomena is really created ! any one have a rich explanation ?
50 views

### Why does Morocco have so much phosphate?

I read that Morocco/Western Sahara has 75% of the world's known phosphate reserves, but I couldn't find an explanation of what mineral is responsible for it and how it all ended up there
22 views

### Coloring maps by feature orientation

I live in the SF Bay Area where many, but not all, geological features are oriented parallel to the San Andreas Fault. I was wondering if there’s a type of map where ridges are colored by compass ...
66 views

### Given the movement of the tectonic plates in the past 5,000 years, how can the alignments of megaliths around the planet still be accurate?

Many of the worlds oldest megaliths are aligned with the cardinal points like the Great Pyramid which is said to be within an accuracy of better than four minutes of arc, or one-fifteenth of one ...
6 views

### How can I create netcdf file from my emission data in wrfinput_d01 format

I have some emission data files in netcdf format in diffrent files. I would like to write them in netcdf file as my wrfchemi_d01 to use them for runing wrf_chem. How can I create netcdf file from my ...
57 views

### Could the 5.7 earthquake in Utah be a precursor to a larger one?

Trying to verify the validity of a rumor. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/uu60363602/executive
40 views

### Why is the pressure on the poles higher in Summer and lower in Winter?

Just to give context, this was not my original question but one that I ended up stuck with while trying to find a cause for the following observation (which is almost universally true for temperate ...
83 views

### Would pollution really take a lot of years to disappear from the atmosphere once people stop producing them?

From a comment in another question here, Oh, and a third factor: the added atmospheric CO2 does not magically go away once all the fossil fuels are burned. It will stay in the atmosphere for ...
238 views

### “steep slope” when cold fronts encounter warm fronts: Confusing sentence in textbook

I'm currently reading a university textbook on processes that result in rainfall events. In the current processes, I'm reading there is a cold front that basically pushes warm air upwards which ...
30 views

### Recycling census plastic bags [closed]

Yesterday, I received my census questionnaire. So have many millions of other Americans, recently. These bags are not labeled for recycling, but are they recyclable? Can I put them in the deposits at ...
47 views

### Are there any examples of well-documented storms that developed from unusual weather conditions? [closed]

Are there any examples of well-documented storms that developed from unusual weather conditions? This may be related to cyclones, tornadoes, hurricanes and the difficulties caused by these storms to ...
82 views

### What causes this arc in the night sky where the background is brighter on one side than the other?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
24 views

### Have fossil-containing gastroliths been found inside other fossils?

This article describes gastroliths ("stomach stones"). It says that gastroliths have been found inside the rib cages of fossilized creatures such as dinosaurs. It also says that gastroliths sometimes ...
106 views

### How was the onset of the Cambrian period dated?

What dating method was used to determine the beginning of the Cambrian, and what was its margin of error? Was only one fossil dated, or were a number of similar fossils used?
36 views

### how can I write my netCDF file in my wrfinput_d01 format

I have a netCDF data file as my emmission data in netCDF format. I have interpolated it in my wrfinput_d01 resolution by using CDO. I can write my data to a netCDF ...
59 views

### How do the slow and fast carbon cycles influence climate change?

I understand that the slow and fast carbon cycles are involved in the transport and storing of carbon, but how much of an influence do each of these cycles have on climate change, and how?
121 views

### How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...