# All Questions

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### Is there a massive drop in quality of Cretaceous vs. Triassic dinosaur fossils?

One thing that still blows my mind about dinosaurs is the massive timeline. Relevant to this question are the time periods: Triassic Period (252.17 to 201.3 million years ago) Cretaceous Period (145 ...
11 views

### Time it takes for a gas to go to the equator

The question is the following: In order to understand the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases we need to understand their transport, both vertically and horizontally. It takes _______ time for a ...
16 views

### Is this what is meant by a phenological season?

I’ve often thought there were three ways to define the seasons. I’ll use spring as an example. The first are the astronomical seasons, which is what calendars show and in my example would be the date ...
6 views

### NDWI from Landsat 8

I have layer stacked Landsat 8 image, how can I calculate Normalized difference water index (NDWI) from it? I would have been able to calculate it easily using the raster calculator, if I had the ...
46 views

### Are atmospheric halogen oxides “supposed to be” in the atmosphere? Where do they come from?

I like to naively think of Earth's natural atmosphere as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, water, carbon dioxide and okay, some nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and again okay, a little hydrogen and methane from ...
37 views

### Asian South West Monsoon - Rainfall in South East Coast of India

So Indian peninsula has v shaped mountain ranges. Western ghats and Eastern ghats as shown in the picture. During Summer Monsoon, the wind flows from Indian ocean to land mass, and due to Coriolis ...
65 views

### Extent of desert area influence in local climate

With reference to this image...: ...from this recent tweet, I was wondering to what extent would Mediterranean regions be affected by the large desert areas to its South? "Affected", here meaning ...
357 views

### Why are atmospheric BrO and ClO important to measure by satellite?

The announcement Arianespace orbits two satellites – JCSAT-17 and GEO-KOMPSAT-2B – to support connectivity and environmental monitoring in Asia mentions GEO-KOMPSAT-2B which hosts the Geostationary ...
92 views

### Where did all the CO₂ come from that was deposit as coal during the Carboniferous?

During the Carboniferous, vast deposits of coal (or peat at that time) were created because – as far as I understand – decomposition of wood (white rot?) was not yet "invented" at that time. The ...
128 views
+100

### Where did the continents come from?

In animations that show the location / drift of the continents over the aeons, it seems that the continents (or cratons?) are just floating / drifting around, sometimes fusing or splitting, but having ...
32 views

### How to find SMAP Satellite acquisiton plan?

I need to know to which time the SMAP Satellite passes over a certain location in the future. I believe this is called acquisition plan, but I'm not sure. Here for example the sentinel 1 acquisition ...
9 views

### 3D data from GFS files

I am using GFS forecast files from here: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/model-data/model-datasets/global-forcast-system-gfs and processing them with cfgrib: https://github.com/ecmwf/cfgrib ...
59 views

### How are stratigraphic limits defined before the Phanerozoic?

International Commission on Stratigraphy defines the limits of geological ages and they create this chart: Click on image for full view. Acording to Wikipedia: The standard stratigraphic ...
22 views

### Faster shale velocities in deviated wells

I am currently working with sonic measurements in the wells and there is an observation, that velocities are faster in shales over the deviated parts of the well. So, when the relative dip between the ...
85 views

### What initiates the plumes which create oceanic hot spots?

What causes the large and very long lasting magma plumes which rise up from the mantle and create a hot spot such as the ones which built the island chains of Hawaii and Galapagos? The volcanic ...
53 views

### What would the average temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect from water vapor? [closed]

CO2, methane and other gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. But most of the greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour in the atmosphere. There is always a lot average moisture present, but it ...
39 views

### Why does vertical diffusivity increase with depth in the ocean?

In Talley et al.'s Descriptive Physical Oceanography, figure S7.4, it seems that vertical Eddy diffusivity increases with depth between 0 and 30 degrees latitude. Why is this? I thought that ...
91 views

### Why does climate change generate desertification?

According to IPCC: Climate change can be a significant driver of desertification and land degradation and can affect food production, thereby, influencing food security. Source: IPCC My ...
142 views

### Have the oceans dissolved water vapour?

The oceans have dissolved gases as N2 or O2. Henry's law establishes there is an equilibrium between the atmospheric concentration of a gas and its concentration in the ocean. The atmosphere has H2O(...
56 views

### Energy Density of Porous Rocks

It's very long, I know. But please, don't be discouraged from going through this question if you can help me. The question is at the second to the last paragraph, but you need to read through to ...
58 views

### Open-source earth model for climate change

Is there popular open-source project on Earth Model for climate change assessment or global earth simulation ? Best regards, Adrien
454 views

### What is this narrow band of clouds?

I came across a narrow streak of clouds in Asia when playing with Google Earth. Does anyone know what that is?
3k views

### Why are the clouds white and Australia black in weather satellite infrared images?

The question Is the sunlight on the GOES-16 Imagery reaching from the east? shows a visible light image and so in the night areas the Earth appears dark and in the day areas the Earth is a bit ...
58 views

### How can we best objectively quantify climate change mitigation urgency? [closed]

Quantifying climate change mitigation urgency seems to have three aspects: (1) Green House Gas reduction targets required to meet a specific goal such as 2C. The first guesstimate seems to be zero ...
156 views

### Is the sunlight on the GOES-16 Imagery reaching from the east?

I was wondering is the sunlight reaching from the general direction east? I came to this conclusion because the image is so dark on the west side however I am not 100% sure.
85 views

### Why are $\small\sf{CH_4}$ and $\small\sf{CO_2}$ levels coupled during the Pleistocene?

CH4 and CO2 levels show correlation throughout the Pleistocene: Source: trustyetverify.wordpress.com What are the reasons of this coupling?
163 views

### Is the Arctic sea ice disappearing in a linear or non-linear way?

I'd like help to understand these charts. They are charts of Sea Ice Volume. One is drawn with linear decline, the other has all sorts of curves fitted onto it. Why do we have these different line ...
24 views

### Which unsupervised classification method for non linear multivariate time series earth observation data in python

I have collect several data sets for a small region in Germany called Hessisches Ried (about 90 km²) from different sources for a time period from 2015 to 2019. Daily rainfall amount & daily ...
30 views

### Help in understanding this. Is this just an empirical observation on climate sensitivity?

I was reading this on realclimate.org. My question on the below is this. Physics can tell you the radiative forcing of CO2, which is $\small\mathsf{5.35ln(Cnew/Cpreindustrial)}$. This tells you how ...
18 views

### Planetary Reflectance vs Relative Spectral Response

I am confused between a Planetary Reflectance and the Relative Spectral Response (RSR). What I know/guess is that RSR is a response/function of an Instrument band's reflectance against a spectral ...
53 views

### What are the key elements defining the separation between Jurassic and Cretaceous?

We have one mass extinction that seperates Trias from Jurassic, roughly huge volcanims over a long period of time, and Pangea starting to divide. Another mass extinction that marks the end of ...
30 views

### How to orient a globe of the earth so that maximum land mass is visible?

If you are viewing the world map on globe, where should you place the center of visible hemisphere so that the maximum land mass is visible. I think this should be somewhere near the Eurasian point of ...
29 views

### What is the term for termophilic-halophytic plants? [closed]

I know that in botany there is a wide classification for plants that can survive in hot deserts (semi-arid or arid) and harsh climates such as 4-season countries with a tendency to droughts each year (...
19 views

### Equivalent of geo.extract_point function in cdsapi

After downloading the data from ERA5-reanalysis, I just need to extract weather at a certain lat, lon. In cds toolbox, geo.extract_point function is handy. However, I could not find similar function ...
30 views

### Earth's magnetic and electric field in Hilly Areas

Can you please guide me as to what is the intensity of earth's magnetic and electric fields in different regions of earth. Also, specifically in case of hilly or mountainious regions.
185 views

### What exactly is a published climatologist?

I am trying to get Gallup to do a scientific poll of published climatologists to greatly strengthen the credibility of the 97% consensus. This must start with very excellent formal definitions of ...
69 views

### Was this spherical device used in weather forecasting in the 1960's?

The New York Times obituary Robert M. White, Who Revolutionized Weather Forecasts, Dies at 92 shows the image below. It looks like it might be a model of the Earth but I can't tell for sure. Can the ...
67 views

### Why isn't the acceleration of an object in Earth's gravity related to the object's mass? [closed]

Why isn't the acceleration of an object in Earth's gravity related to the object's mass? Please, try to explain this effect without physical formulas, but using only logical formulation.
4k views

### Why are there waves in seas towards shore - even in night?

Waves are mostly caused by Friction of wind on surface of water. Wind blows from sea to land in day and land to sea in night due to pressure and temperature difference. So it is intuitive why there ...
65 views

### Could The Speed in Which the Plate is Moving REALLY Affect How Quickly Mountains Rise?

In an episode of History Channel's How the Earth Was Made, there was a remark when India left the rest of Gondwana 80 million years ago only to collide with mainland Asia 50.5 million years ago. The ...
69 views

### Most corrosive seawater areas in world

I am looking for any studies or maps detailing the average salinity and temperature for areas of the Earth's oceans. As an extra if anyone has data or maps on areas with large amounts of in-trained ...
54 views

### Did people trigger the White Island 2019 eruption? [duplicate]

I am writing an essay about White Island’s 2019 eruption, and I need to know if the eruption was directly triggered by people. Is it possible that it was? Whether it being quarrying, too much tourism ...
173 views

### How much heat was released from the 2019-2020 Australian bush fires?

How much heat was released from the 2019-2020 Australian bush fires? And is that likely to have a measurable impact on global atmospheric heat content? Maybe as a secondary question: How much impact ...
203 views

### What Caused The Sea Levels to Drop During the Maastrichtian Epoch?

Anyone who has studied ice ages would know that during the last two-and-a-half million years of Earth's history, there have been periods where there was enough ice to suck up a lot of water. As a ...
94 views

### What were the geometric coordinates of the Chicxulub impactor 66 million years ago?

At the moment around mexico we can find the leftovers of the Chicxulub impactor which could have extincted most dinosaurs. But 66 million years ago was after the breakdown of Gondwana. So back to ...
19 views

### vertical integrated moisture flux [duplicate]

Does anyone know how to calculate the vertical integrated moisture flux using NCL or Grads if you share a NCL script I'm very thankful to you.
69 views

### Which method is used to calculate tonnes carbon from tonnes CO$_2$ equivalents of GHGs?

It appears that all GHGs are first translated into Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CDEs) and that calculation is fairly straight forward. Many report in tonnes of Carbon instead of tonnes CDE. I am ...
49 views

### Do northern lights (aurora borealis) show the same visual activity all along their visible latitude range?

Probability aside regarding their visibility (I did read on Neil Davies Aurora watcher's handbook that probability is highest in the middle of their latitude range called aurora oval, lowering both ...