All Questions

0
votes
0answers
4 views

Can you travel by ship from the Atlantic into the Niger River

Can a ship travel from the Atlantic Ocean up the Niger River, in Nigeria. If so, then how far up the river can be traveled and approximately what is the largest a ship could be? Thank you
-1
votes
2answers
22 views

A pipeline from the ocean to the desert causing a climate change for a drout in california a good idea?

If I already had a crew that built a pipe line in california from the ocean to the sahara how long would it take to wet the dry lands with rain water and what kind of weather or cliamate change would ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Is this rock Massive Epidote?

I found this rock in Co. Donegal Ireland on a river bank buired under the dirt. It weighs 16.4lbs- 7.4kg]has a hardness of 7 and measures 8''x5 1/2''x 6 1/2'' It has a greasy kind of feel to it, it ...
2
votes
3answers
292 views

What is the most important source of natural gas? coal, oil or other?

By heat and pressure both coal and oil can produce gas. But what is the most important substance for gas? Is there a relation to the amounts of marine organism (sea life) wich died and the amount of ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

help tell what kind is it? Maybe ruby? [on hold]

I found this stone in my yard and was looking up to see what kind it is it’s a unpolished rough stone. Can any one help Identify it?
3
votes
0answers
27 views

What is brown carbon?

There is a lot of interest in brown carbon in the atmospheric science community these days. There is a paper in the journal, "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics" titled, "Black carbon or brown carbon? ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Young researcher hoping to volunteer for Antarctica fieldwork

I am a postdoctoral scholar who is interested participating in Antarctica fieldwork/exploration as a volunteer. My background is in biology, but I am happy to participate in any fieldwork ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

What's the largest known range of natural temperature variations of human inhabited Earth across history?

I was reading about the ice age when temperature dropped 11 celsius degrees in relation with our current temperature. Then I found another article which says the temperature fluctuated 15 degree ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Peninsula vs Cape [on hold]

I know that Peninsula is much larger than a cape, but is there a definite way to differentiate them? I.e. by area- if the total area is larger than 30 sqkm, any headland is classified as peninsula..
0
votes
0answers
18 views

what kind of rock is this? soo strange [on hold]

What is this? this rock is so strange. White inside but was encased with something greenish brown.
0
votes
2answers
19 views

Sea cave vs Sea arch

How do you distinguish sea cave from sea arch? If I want to classify a crack of sea cliff as sea cave, has it to have a dead end? Would you call a geological formation as a sea cave even a kayak can ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

I found this small round heavy rock in a box of my dad’s old army stuff [on hold]

I found this seavy black silvery rock found in a box of my dad’s old army stuff. He was stationed in Arizona sometime in the 50’s. Not sure if it’s from there or just happened to be in that box.
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Hydrology dam barges hit lockndam [on hold]

https://www.4029tv.com/article/webbers-falls-spaniard-creek-oklahoma-arkansas-river/27563171 Hydrology Can u tell if pressure is going to cause more problems?
1
vote
1answer
50 views

What could cause a turn from global warming to global cooling?

Except a hypothesized orbital forcing! Ice cores shows that there are several irregular sharp temperature peaks in between of the big 100,000 years glaciations. What could cause those peaks? Almost ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Initiation of Rossby waves during MJO

I am trying to understand the basic dynamics of MJO, where I find several studies which relate it to the initiation of equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. Though MJO is an eastward propagating wave, I ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

Why can't we dig deeper?

I recently read on another SE site that there's a limitation on how deep we can dig into the earth. A Google search reveals that temperature is the problem. I quote from a Popular Mechanics article ...
5
votes
2answers
48 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Found this, need help identifying [on hold]

Rock found at ord river in Kununurra, Australia, main body of rock compound quiet heavy, opened rock up by smashing it, found crystals inside (white) in a cocoon chamber, found yellow/ greenish ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Help identify my rock please? [on hold]

found this in the backyard, any ideas which type it is? I'm in Ontario, Canada. Found it lying on the top of the ground.
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Is this a petrified reptile? [on hold]

River rock from colorado with snake pattern is this a reptile?
0
votes
1answer
24 views

UK Mineral identification help [on hold]

Can anyone help me identify these minerals please? I found them on a beach in northern England. The first has tiny angular crystals, some slightly pinkish maybe in certain lighting conditions but grey ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Identify this rock [on hold]

please identify this rock. I found it on a Maine beach.
4
votes
2answers
47 views

Is there a place where the sea floor descends into the mantle of the earth?

My understanding of plate tectonics is that in the middle of the oceans magma rises from the mantle of the earth, cools and then spreads out, building up the sea floor. These places are pretty obvious ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Can you please help me to identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain

Can someone please help me identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
4
votes
1answer
35 views

What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
2
votes
3answers
78 views

Looking for counter-arguments concerning the melting of glaciers in the alps in the context of global warming

I've recently listend to a talk of Prof. Gernot Patzelt, Austrian Geographer and High Altitude Mountain Researcher. In this talk he describes that scientists find rests of trees and moorland apearing ...
0
votes
0answers
81 views

What rock is this? (found in fields)

Found it in fields today. Just plain field and earth for growing with low elevation. No clue what rock this is. Maybe even some metal? 14cm x 10cm Weighs about 1kg 5-6 Mohs hardness After cleaning ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

3D fold coverage calculation

I have a configuration for which the nominal fold is 16 (i.e. 48 channel streamer, 1m group interval, 1.5m SP interval). I have been asked to calculate the fold coverage with the following criteria: ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

If matter is constantly being cycled through an ecosystem, does that mean a given ecosystem has a fixed mass?

Due to the food chain and the cycle of life, matter is constantly moved between plants, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on, until the consumers die, giving matter they consumed back to ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
5
votes
0answers
25 views

Is there a widely accepted reason for the formation of tafoni?

Expansion of tafoni seems to be based on weathering (seems reasonable enough.) But what creates them in the first place? There are a number of explanations online (Wikipedia lists eight plausible ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Any thoughts about this? Fossil? Some sort of relic. Bone? [closed]

Found in northwestern Oregon. Willamette valley.
0
votes
0answers
17 views

What is an inversion

What is an inversion? What happens to the sediment in between? I understand that as the crusts move together a bulging appears.
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to drink from?
5
votes
1answer
49 views

Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Is it an egg? What type of rock please? [closed]

This stone was found by my uncle in Western Queensland. It’s light brown in colour and smooth. It's very heavy for its size. 780 grams. Pocket knife doesn’t scratch it. many thanks.
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Turbulence strength from turbulence intensity?

I do not have a lot of knowledge in aerodynamics but I need to be able to derive turbulence strength (Cv2 and Ct2 - so called turbulence structural parameters I think) from turbulence intensity. Does ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Help me identify my rock is it jade?

Found this rock it looks like a vein of Jade but I have no idea. This is the inside of the rock. I found it already broke the rock is wet in the pic. It's is a hard rough texture and the green in the ...
0
votes
2answers
63 views

Error trying to download ERA5 data: Exception: Missing/incomplete configuration file: C:\Users\username/.cdsapirc

I am new with Python so please be kind. I want to download data from ERA5 and so far I have installed the CDS API package and followed all the instructions from https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api-...
9
votes
0answers
114 views

Rock identification?

This stone is part of a rock mass found in one of the plains of Iran. There are no rocky mountains around these rocks. I'm geologist and I guess it's part of the meteorite, what do you think? Color: ...
3
votes
0answers
29 views

Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Is this “rock” hiding a fossil of a claw from a reptile

[][1 I found this on a beach could it be a fossil of a claw?
1
vote
1answer
23 views

reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

FOSSILZED WOODEN TOOL [closed]

My son found a fossil on the beach at the foot of the cliff face at Robin Hoods Bay in the UK. It is definitely a fossilized piece of wood, but we would like to know what type, and also if it was ...

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