# All Questions

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### Providing Edgar emission using prep_chem_source for tracers (CO2-CH4)

I am working on CO2 and CH4 by WRF-CHEM, for providing my anthropogenic emission from Edgar data base, I'm going to use the Prep_chem_source App. I would like to use Edgar data emission (as my ...
17 views

### What is the time period of these chalk/clay layers?

These limestone-clay rocks are very common in the Alps, they come from weather changes. How many years does it take to make one of the rock bands? 7 years, equivalent to an el-nino type event? 1000 ...
49 views

### Why don't dewdrops form on a cloudy night?

The reason behind the non- formation of dewdrops on a cloudy night is the non-attainment of below dew point temperatures. It happens as the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is not allowed to escape ...
43 views

### When is model selection based on AICc (Akaike Information Criterion corrected) ok?

I was wondering whether you could help me with the following issue: I am running a negative binomial model (overdispersed) on count data of sampled insects at 22 sites. Here, I would like to select ...
54 views

### What are the chances that a plane in the wilderness of Thailand is the lost plane MH370 [closed]

I am looking at this picture in Thailand: https://www.google.com/maps/@12.0907818,104.1536291,1016m/data=!3m1!1e3 It seems like a plane, no doubt, and seems the size like a plane, no doubt. If you ...
51 views

### What was the Earth's continent's positions 10000 years ago, or 11700 years ago, AKA when the late Pleistocene epoch was coming to an end?

In many articles online, geologists and geographers have described and depicted the theorized locations of all our continental plates with great detail and illustration, providing pictures, time-lapse ...
200 views

### What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
30 views

### Construction of a drift curve in the well tie calibration and how to interpret it?. Sonic calibration vs checkshot calibration

Good afternoon. Inside the creation of the synthetic seismogram some softwares have the option to run what is called "sonic calibration" or "checkshot calibration". I have some questions: 1)why some ...
61 views

### Does the hour thingie on a 24-hour clock represent the apparent “motion” of the Sun “around” the Earth? [closed]

While looking at this photo of a 24-hour clock: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Greenwich_clock_1-manipulated.jpg ... it struck me that, maybe, it could be seen as a visual ...
30 views

### CO2 probe measuring at temperatures up to 150 °C [closed]

I'm looking for a $CO_2$ measuring probe (analog current output, digital out: RS232/485 - probe will be connected and transferring real time data to the data logger) that would operate up to 150 °C (...
83 views

### Geographically, can an island be in an island? e.g. Barrow Island, in Britain? [closed]

Geographically, can an island be in an island? e.g. Barrow Island, in Britain? I thought an island was land surrounded by water not bordering some other land. It's surrounded by water. But then I ...
106 views

### How does fertile soil reach newborn volcanic islands?

When a volcanic island first surfaces, I assume no vegetation can grow, as it probably only consists of volcanic rock. How would a volcanic island like Iceland that is far from any continent grow to ...
52 views

### What does it mean that “gas-producing countries such as Russia have likewise been dependent on a fixed set of pipeline export routes”? [closed]

Am new to this. I was reading New Geopolitics of natural gas by Agnia and came across this paragraph : because gas historically had been supplied primarily by land-based pipeline monopolies ...
89 views

### How can oceanic Rossby waves move from East to West?

I can find several examples of Rossby waves, mainly atmospheric, moving towards East. Is it possible that they also move towards West?
42 views

### [How deduce from shadows, the angulation of the Sun that the Sun is 15 degrees over horizon?

At r/rbi, u/A11edge asked Can anyone determine an hour when the photo was taken? The author of the photo is suspected of spraying pesticides during daytime (which is illegal because it causes ...
45 views

### Are the precious metals (silver, gold, platinum) present everywhere throughout the Earth's crust at least in the trace quantities?

Do some rocks, soils, sands or waters exist that contain fewer than one atom of gold per cubic meter or tonne of their mass?
53 views

### How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
559 views

### Non-invasive techniques to find rock composition

If we had access to a totally new kind of rock (maybe a new meteorite), is it possible to tell what the rock is composed of without touching it / drilling into it? I'm thinking of something like ...
15 views

### Does anyone know of any studies comparing juvenile and adult abundance data for an ontogenetic reef fish? [closed]

I'm trying to look into relationships between juvenile Hogfish which recruit in sea grass habitats to adult abundance data that move to deeper offshore reef and hard bottom habitat. I have data from ...
116 views

### If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
29 views

### What is the relative (magnetic) permeability of the Earth? How could it be measured?

I believe, Earth could be approximated by a molten, metallic, non-magnetic sphere, with a molten stony sphere around it. However, As far I know, the magnetic properties of the lava in the crust, in ...
10 views

### TDWR Radar Data Resolution & Dimension

Does anyone know the resolution of the TDWR radar data that is available from NWS. (Ex: https://console.cloud.google.com/storage/browser/gcp-public-data-nexrad-l3/2020/05/05/TEWR/) When I extract the ...
58 views
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### What “blobs” of molten material in Earth's interior are responsible for the rapidly moving north pole? Where are these blobs exactly?

IFL Science's Earth's North Magnetic Pole Is Heading Towards Siberia – And Scientists Now Know Why explains that the motion of Earth's north magnetic pole can be understood as follows: A new study, ...
25 views

### Derivative of the Unit Vector in Spherical Coordinate system

I have a doubt regarding a step in the derivation of the momentum equation in spherical coordinates. I am referring to the textbook "Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling" by Mark Jacobson, 2nd Edition,...
45 views

### Has recent drop in airline flights over the US had a measurable warming effect as was found after 9/11?

I recall that after 9/11, when all US flights were canceled, there was a statistically detectable bump in average temperature. Something about jet contrails disappearing for 4 days. Has anything like ...
85 views

### Does Earth's rotation cause sea levels to increase from east to west?

Intuitively if the Earth were to rotate fast enough from west to east, the average sea level would be noticeably higher on the west edge of the oceans. Does Earth's rotation cause this effect in ...
28 views

### Effect on climate of the Earth’s rotation was a week instead of 24 hours

Cross-posted in Worldbuilding. Curious what the affects on daily temperatures and climate would be if the Earth had a slower rotation, say 84 hours of light and 84 hours of darkness. How extreme ...
16 views

### Filtered pressured oxygen 80 miilion years ago

Was dinosaur blood really red? Was the vegitation really green?Can that filter be used today?
115 views

### Why aren't the Hawaiian islands a continuous strip of land?

My understanding is that the Hawaiian islands were produced as the Pacific plate moved over a stationary hot spot, which sent magma burning up through the plate as it passed over, forming a trail of ...
35 views

### Is CO2 in the Pacific Ocean depleted or enriched in Carbon-13 compared to the Atlantic, and why?

Due to thermohaline circulation, the Pacific water is more 'aged' so there is a higher amount of total dissolved inorganic carbon (e.g. CO2) in the deep Pacific when compared to the Atlantic. However, ...
67 views

### What is real impact of Precision Agriculture? [closed]

I am just wondering what is the real impact of Precision agriculture. I came across Airbus Intelligence and their Earth Observation services (Agriculture, forestry, environment) - It seems nice and ...
62 views

### Geo-Spherical shape of Earth

I know that the best possible approximation of the shape of earth is an oblate sphere. But people also call it as geo-spherical shape of the Earth. What is the meaning of geospherical shape? Does this ...
63 views

### How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
88 views

### Are airliners sensors used to feed weather prediction models?

Weather balloons, as well as specially prepared aircrafts, are used to retrieve several atmosphere parameters at different altitudes that are latter used to feed mathematical models for weather ...
24 views

### Correlation of Global Stratospheric AOD with Global Mean Temperature Anomaly

I'm trying to understand at a high level the relationship of aerosols to the global temperature and I'm new to these concepts. I have Stratoshperic mean global AOD data from: https://data.giss.nasa....
48 views

### How to calculate 'real-world' geometric height from ERA reanalysis data

This seems like a really simple question, but I have been struggling for a couple of days to find an answer online or in the ERA documentation. I am using ERA5 and ERA Interim reanalyses to get ...
17 views

### Are Bond cycles Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)?

Are the c.1500 year cyclical climate cycles called bond cycles or Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)? I thought the Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)? occur on much longer timescales. If so, why are they also ...
66 views

### Do trees capture more CO2 during a fast growth stage?

I understand that trees capture CO2 from the air and use that carbon to grow. As trees reach mature height, do they begin to capture less CO2 as they would only need carbon for "maintenance" as ...
47 views

### Why do some parts of the West Coast of North America get hot later in the year than others?

Southern California is currently in the midst of a heat wave, which is an unwelcome stress for stay-at-home laws during the Covid-19 pandemic. Indeed, the California coast sees its warmest ...
85 views

### What were the Two Largest Forests of Western and Central Europe (circa 600 BC)

I am trying to find out what forests were the largest in Western and Central Europe, around 600 BC. I understand that accounts dating that far back may be difficult to find, but I hope other sciences ...
35 views

### What is the “pressure gradient” within the richards equation

I'm trying to understand the Richards equation that can be used to compute the flow of water in soil. In a textbook I found the following: Unfortunately, the textbook doesn't really explain what the ...
48 views

### What will be the depth that water can sink to the ground? [duplicate]

Currently there is a pond in one acre of land which is of 4 feet depth. If the pond is filled with water it is expected that some percent of the water will be absorbed by the ground under the pond. To ...
34 views

### How to estimate the runoff time for my area?

I want to use an rainfall-runoff model for pluvial flash floods and need to choose for my synthetic rain event the appropriate duration. In the literature it often says that the chosen duration should ...
55 views

### What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
60 views

### Depth water sink to ground? [closed]

Currently there is a pond in one acre of land which is of 4 feet depth. If the pond is filled with water it is expected that some percent of the water will be absorbed by the ground under the pond. To ...
34 views

### In radiometric isochron dating why is at t=0 D*/Dref=const but P/Dref not?

I am a physics graduate and trying to understand one of the assumptions made for isochron dating of rocks: at crystallization time of the rock, $t=0$, the ratio of the parent isotope to a stable ...
60 views

### Is lower tropospheric temperature relevant to measure global warming?

So according to this, Global temperature update Last month, the lower tropospheric temperature dropped 0.28 $\sf^\circ$C from February to March, which seems like a huge drop even if it's due to ...
41 views

### Independent sources of information on radiation pollution in Europe

Bear with me if this is a wrong place to ask this question. I aksed this question on Physics at StackExchange and was told it will be more on topic here. Recent news show a fire has started close to ...