# All Questions

4,654 questions
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### Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to drink from?
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### Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
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### Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
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### Is it an egg? What type of rock please?

This stone was found by my uncle in Western Queensland. It’s light brown in colour and smooth. It's very heavy for its size. 780 grams. Pocket knife doesn’t scratch it. many thanks.
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### Turbulence strength from turbulence intensity?

I do not have a lot of knowledge in aerodynamics but I need to be able to derive turbulence strength (Cv2 and Ct2 - so called turbulence structural parameters I think) from turbulence intensity. Does ...
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### Help me identify my rock is it jade?

Found this rock it looks like a vein of Jade but I have no idea. This is the inside of the rock. I found it already broke the rock is wet in the pic. It's is a hard rough texture and the green in the ...
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I am new with Python so please be kind. I want to download data from ERA5 and so far I have installed the CDS API package and followed all the instructions from https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api-...
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### Rock identification?

This stone is part of a rock mass found in one of the plains of Iran. There are no rocky mountains around these rocks. I'm geologist and I guess it's part of the meteorite, what do you think? Color: ...
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### Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
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### Can anyone tell me what this is [on hold]

Not sure what this is found in Oklahoma
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### How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
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### What about a countercurrent system of zig zag trenches in The Sahara [on hold]

My idea is to dig trenches funded by big oil, which will be like a zig zag, up and down, moving across, and the sea could flood in from the med or the Atlantic to the Sahara. The question is if sea ...
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### Is this “rock” hiding a fossil of a claw from a reptile

[][1 I found this on a beach could it be a fossil of a claw?
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### reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
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### FOSSILZED WOODEN TOOL [on hold]

My son found a fossil on the beach at the foot of the cliff face at Robin Hoods Bay in the UK. It is definitely a fossilized piece of wood, but we would like to know what type, and also if it was ...
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### Are these plane trails seen from satellite

Here are photos from West of Normandy, at 7-9am after sunrise on the 14th of may, from the visible satellite. It's a bit strange that they are visible from space, they are 2-3 miles wide? Are they jet ...
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### what type of rock is this? blue/green and brown [on hold]

I found this rock while up in the mountains and I have no idea what type of rock it is.
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### What are “young thrust faults” and why are they significant on the Moon?

The abstract of the new Nature Geoscience paper Shallow seismic activity and young thrust faults on the Moon reads: The discovery of young thrust faults on the Moon is evidence of recent tectonic ...
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### What is this rock found in the dry wash in Bluff, Utah? [on hold]

Does anyone know what type of rock this is? The 3rd picture is the same as the 4th, but the 4th has a regular (not black light) flashlight held underneath it. Thanks!
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### What are these rocks? [on hold]

I found both of these in a river in North Yorkshire. Can anyone suggest what they may be? Thanks
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### Can Earth have season on top of seasons? [on hold]

In history there is always a reference to the great winter? That makes me ask if there was also a long summer? I understand that the Earth froze over a few times or more, but in between those times ...
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### Does this weather pattern have a name?

The past few weeks of spring in northern Ohio I believe I have noticed a weather pattern where the weather forecast will show a string of days with rain, but what happens is the day is mostly clear, ...
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### What type this is? [closed]

Can anyone identify this stone.I can't seem to find anything like it online.
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### Why doesn't vapor counts when calculating global radiative forcing?

When NOAA/ESRL calculates global radiative forcing (Table 2) there seems to be no contribution from water vapor. How come?
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### Assessing graded bedding in metamorphosed pelitic sediments

I have the following image of metasedimentary outcrop from a Proterozoic continental rift-fill sequence: The middle layer has a pelitic composition and contains abundant cordierite porphyroblasts (...
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### Query about inclination in Earth's axis of rotation

Earth revolves around the Sun in a elliptical path, situated on one of the Sun's focal points. If Earth is considered as a large body with mass attracted towards the Sun's core causing its revolution ...
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### What mineral is this [closed]

So ye ai broke a rock and it has this little shiny crust on it and i collected them. So my question is what mineral this thing is? Its also pretty flaky
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### Can someone identify this flesh looking rock? [closed]

I acquired a bag of rocks and I’m hoping somebody might be able to identify this pinkish flesh looking rock.
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### Is this a geode?

So just having issues with identification looks like a outer line of rock a bit transparent but the inside polished looks waxy other side of stone a bit more foggy but still blue visible Edit - ...
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### How fast does the outer core spin?

I've tried looking for the answer of this question but the only thing that comes out is how much does the inner core rotates but I'm specifically looking for, how much does the outer core move per day....
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### Which are the greatest disadvantages of this description of glaciation periods?

At the beginning of a global cooling and a new glaciation there is a lot of snow covering more land areas in north longer and longer times, until the last season's snow remain into the new season. The ...
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### What type of rock is this [closed]

Im sorry I have another question. Can anyone identify this stone. I can't seem to find anything like it online. It has golden pieces in it. I've never seen something like this. My son found it and ...
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### What type of crystal or rock is this? [closed]

Hi I am keen to see what type of Crystal this is. I have had it for years and my son loves rocks and crystals ect... I have no clue what to tell him about it. I added some pics. It's clear with a ...
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### Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm^3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
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### Why is sulfate reduction less important in freshwater sediments?

Is this due to increased salinity reducing sulfate concentration or the production of marsh gas converting sulfate to hydrogen sulfide or something else?
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### Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
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### What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
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### What produces these amazing 3D structures in Tibet?

A friend recommended I watch this Chinese language video 航拍西藏 2018 (Aerial photography in Tibet) and the HD drone video of scenery is stunning. After about 37 minutes into the video, there are shots ...
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### Barotropic vorticity equation

I came across the barotropic vorticity equation (below) in Sakamoto (2002) and I cannot figure it out. The notation is not clear to me. How can it be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation?  \beta\...
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### What would be the extent of the feedback on climate of unattended deaths event?

Being given that decaying corpses will stop emitting digestive metane, but would release huge amount of methane during their decaying process, I was wondering if this could be considered among the ...
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### What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
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### How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
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### Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
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### How to make longitudinal profile of rivers - for example New Zealand's Kaniwhaniwha Stream? [closed]

Draw the longitudinal profile of the Kaniwhaniwha stream, which drains the northern slopes of Mt Pirongia.
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### What exactly is ammonite?

I miss the definition of ammonite. In my opinion, many authors confuse the term "Ammonite" and "Ammonoid". Ammonoids (Ammonoidea) are large group of cephalopods including for example goniatites (...
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### How reliable is sea-ice concentration (fraction) data in ERA-Interim?

I am using sea-ice data from the European Reanalysis from ECMWF (ERA Interim), but some grid cells over land have sea-ice information. Not a big issue so far, because spatial discretization must ...
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### How does friction and radiolysis provide hydrogen for “unusual types of methane”?

The fascinating New York Times article Gas That Makes a Mountain Breathe Fire Is Turning Up Around the World talks about the Flames of Chimaera and the Deep Carbon Observatory: And a series of ...
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### What is this heavy, dark grey and almost round rock?

I found this 'rock' on the beach in North West Washington State. It's almost perfectly round save for a few bumps, it's dark grey in colour, solid, feels smooth like any stone you'd find on the beach,...