# All Questions

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### Where can I find canopy reflectance data for crops (soybean in particular) for different dates across the growing season

I have been trying to find literature values for reflectance of soybean for different dates along the growing season (I am specifically interested in 30, 60 and ~120 days after planting - so the V3/V4 ...
49 views

### Thunderstorm Frequency Depending on the Year [closed]

Why is it that some years have significantly more thunderstorms than others while other years have significantly less? For example, in 2008, there were 15 thunderstorm days in Asheville but above 40 ...
53 views

### Why Caspian “Sea” was not renamed into Caspian Lake? [closed]

This is beyond me. It buggers me why cartographers that eventually traveled around Caspian Lake and confirmed that it is indeed a lake, didn't rename it on maps? I understand that for tribes that ...
42 views

### What are the geographical records of Russia?

There are all kinds of "The Most..." around the world: The tallest place on earth is Mt. Everest in the China/Nepal border. The lowest place on earth is in the Dead Sea in Israel / Jordan ...
43 views

### How to curb losses during annual heavy rainfalls

Every year I see these sort of news articles where states are flooded particularly due to their geographical location and vicinity to flood prone areas, however year after year there is no improvement ...
44 views

### How to start studying dinosaurs and pre-historic mammals/sea creatures

I'm kind new to this hole thing of dinosaurs that I'm really interested in, are there any good books/websites/webpages to study the biology of pre-historic creatures? Dinosaurs, mammals, fishes, ...
45 views

### Book Introduction to Climate Change

The question might be in an opinion-based grey zone. If it is, I apologize. My wife and I want to get informed about climate change. We want to read a book (no online course etc.) and it should be ...
70 views

### Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...
50 views

I am trying to formulate a research topic centered around the environmental effects of general aviation's continued use of leaded gasoline (containing tetraethyllead) to power piston aircraft. In ...
136 views

### Why is the creation of water from the combustion of hydrocarbons not listed as a cause for rising sea levels?

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8390 According to this paper, water is created by burning hydrocarbon fuels. It seems like a major thing to exclude from "reasons the sea ...
51 views

### Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
60 views

### Does evaporated hand sanitizer pollute the environment?

With all the COVID-19 stuff going on, I feel the usage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has increased many fold. I wonder what happens to all that evaporated alcohol in the atmosphere. How soon does ...
173 views

### Review of calculation of CO$_2$ contribution to warming

In a Swedish Facebook group for "climate change skeptics" Erik Larsen has shared his calculation of how big part of temperature change can be attributed to human emissions of carbon dioxide. ...
60 views

### Why do the highest temperature levels occur at midday?

I also see that weather forecast sites show temperatures decreasing starting from 3 to 4 pm, but the thermometer shows that it starts droping at sunset.
378 views

### Is it possible to predict the maximum daily/annual tide height without calculating hourly heights?

It's possible to predict tide at a given location and at a given time reasonably well (e.g. predicting low tide). And there are tools available that make it possible to do this calculation for any ...
48 views

### What are good oceanographic journals

I am a developer with a oceanographic side project. I did some ML on wave & tide data and thought of publishing it in a paper. What are some good journals to send it to? Any recommendations? ...
12 views

### Australia east coast data access WW3

I am currently looking into https://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/product_table.shtml?-multi_1- And wondering why no station for the Australia East Coast is defined in the list. The northernmost station ...
24 views

### Beam forming FK analysis of a seismic wave

So after reading alot of literature on source localization, I found out that FK analysis is one of the most widely used methods to determine source location without explicitly calculating the ...
22 views

### What software libraries, tools or frameworks do you use for turning tabular sensor data from the field into cleaned data files

Cleaning data and turning it into a useable format that can be integrated with other datasets is a time-consuming task that earth scientists face when using sensor data. Most sensors output data in a ...
70 views

### Are rainbows a reaction from earths natural release of gas after a rain? [closed]

In my studies, Ive dropped a limestone or porous stone into water, with salt and sugar. The results where an impressive light show of color flashes. With the Earths natural release of gas, these ...
14 views

### Is there a database for Strahler numbers of rivers?

I'm looking for the Strahler stream order number of rivers in Germany. Of course it would be possible to obtain the Strahler number myself by looking up each source of each rivers. But I have to ...
78 views

### Can the frequent mowing without watering cause the total desertification in arid climate?

The law describes several modes of lawn care like ...
17 views

### How to use gridded data for a catchment scale analysis?

I need to use gridded rainfall data (0.1 degree grids) and station discharge data for analysing rainfall-runoff relationships. How do I process the data in such a way that it is justifiable to compare ...
37 views

### How does one compute an ECEF vector? [closed]

I know how to compute an n-vector given the latitude and longitude of a location. I want to compute the ECEF (Earth-centered, Earth-fixed) vector of two positions so that I can subtract those vectors ...
24 views

### Fix pH Value ongoing with right plant

I am a very beginning in planting three. I sent a ground sample for analysis and one of the results is the pH value of pH 6.2 in water solution and pH 4.75 in ...
37 views

### Seeking climate and related sciences textbook recommendations

I will be starting a Master's program in data science soon and my eventual hope/goal is to do climate-related data science work. I did an independent study for one semester in college on the ...
142 views

### Will life still be sustainable on earth when solar eclipses stop?

Estimates put the last solar eclipse at 600 million years. The question then becomes how much time is left on Earth? Stephen Hawking believes we have less then a 100 years left on Earth but that ...
32 views

### Do Self-Aggregation Simulations Depend Crucially on Radiative-Convective Equilibrium (RCE) Initial Conditions?

I've been reading papers on convective self-aggregation, such as Bretherton (2005) and Khairoutdinov (2003), and it's not clear to me why (or whether) self-aggregation depends on the model being ...
1k views

### Why did a branch against a window prevent condensation?

Last night was pretty chilly here in South East Queensland, Australia. We woke this morning to condensation on the bedroom windows but noticed something curious. Where a small branch was touching the ...
58 views

### How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM?

How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM? Assuming that covid-19 (0.12μm diameter) particles have the aerodynamic properties of a gas: Particles < 20 μm behave same ...
124 views

### Are we entering a new Ice Age according to Milankovitch cycles?

Milankovitch cycles consist of three orbital parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession of equinoxes. According to Milutin Milankovitch, the most recent glacial period ended nearly 11,000 ...
57 views

### Can Horizontal Radiation Fluxes Contribute to Net Column Heating?

I've noticed that in many papers it's common to assume the (daily or longer averaged) vertically integrated radiative heating can be expressed $F_z(\text{TOA})-F_z(\text{SURF})$, where $F_z$ is the ...
72 views

### Why are temperatures within a few degrees of the all-time high actually pretty common?

I see from a news report that the all-time high temperature, anywhere on Earth, is 129 F. But temperatures within 10 degrees of that record are not rare, and temperatures within 20 degrees are pretty ...
89 views

### Rain during Hot Weather

During hot weather, it is uncommon for there to be rain without lightning and thunder if the weather is hot. I find that the general rule of thumb is that if it is raining while it is 70 degrees or ...
118 views

### Using Enhanced Rock Weathering in the Sahel Region of Africa

A recent Guardian article "Spreading rock dust on fields could remove vast amounts of CO2 from air" has gotten some attention in the nongovernmental and UN organizations working in the Sahel ...
66 views

### Is the lack of aerosols increasing temperatures in 2020?

2020 is predicted to be an unusually warm year and we are already seeing a lot of unusual temperatures. I was wondering, how much of an impact the reduction of aerosol emission from the global ...
63 views

### Rainfall units conversion from depth to rate/intensity

Given 6-hour rainfal data with units in meters(m), how can one convert the 6-hourly rainfall depth in meters(m) to ...
42 views

### How much helium should I put in a weather balloon? [closed]

I have an 8 foot diameter weather balloon and I plan to launch it into near space. I was hoping someone out there in this community would know about weather balloons. My payload will problably weigh ...
67 views

### Wind speed data plot contains blank gaps

I am relatively new to Python, and I am having trouble plotting some data. Specifically, I am plotting wind speed data on a 2-D plot that I grabbed from the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) ...
87 views

Alert, in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is northernmost permanently inhabited place in world. The site was first visited by Sir George Nares, who commanded HMS Alert in 1875-76, the first ...
134 views

### Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
112 views

### Why would a rincon provide more reliable water? [closed]

I am reading a book that argues that the Ancestral Puebloans settled along the rincons, or nooks, along the canyon walls, because that was where water was reliable. I can't understand the argument, as ...
32 views

### Weather measurements of how long ago affects the amount of rainfall? (Which lags of temperature, precipitation, windspeed, radiation. humidity. )

I am trying to predict the amount of rainfall using weather measurements (temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, surface radiation). For long term, midterm, and short term predictions, ...
22 views

### What are the most important climatic measurements to predict streamflow and water for short term, midterm and long term prediction?

From the measured values below, which ones are the most important factors that affect the amount of streamflow? (For short, mid, and long term) Which ones are more important? (Can give me some ...
45 views

### Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
49 views

### Is there a modelling of Wave Rock (Hyden Rock) formation?

I'm interested in the visualization of the formation process of "strange" objects like Wave Rock (flared slope). I've found articles describing hypotheses of the rock formation but I cannot ...
56 views

### Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain?

Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain? I searched on google and it says acid rain will have minor impact on ocean acidity, but I am not sure if increased ocean acidity ...
73 views

### In meteorology, are satellite data “better” than reanalysis data?

More specifically, can it be argued that satellite data are more reliable because they are direct measurements of physical quantities, while reanalysis data depend on the processing and merging of ...