# All Questions

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9 views

### Why the angle doubles in Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria?

Can you explain in details on why the angle doubles in Mohr-Coulomb Failure criteria space and still the same in real world stress space?
21 views

### What is the chasm in the Arctic on Google satellite map?

In the image below, taken from Google Maps satellite view, between Svalbard and Greenland there is what looks like a massive crevasse, chasm, crack, &c. What is it? Should I be worried?
31 views

### Are These Tropical Forests Burning in Brazil and Elsewhere Really Rainforests?

I know from many years of personal experience in the Malaysian rainforest (Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular Malaya) that it is not inflammable. Dayaks and aborigines cultivate small patches of shifting ...
19 views

### What does it mean when polar nights have twilight?

My family and I want travel somewhere with polar night. I looked up Tromsø, Norway. "Down all day" beneath means 24 h darkness, no sun and thus no sun-light. Right? But if no sun and sun-light, ...
15 views

### How to purchase seized cattle [on hold]

I own a construction company in Quebec Canada, a client did not pay me. I spent 5 years in court and finally won but he refused to pay so I hired a bailiff to seized his cattle they're going to be ...
16 views

### If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary?

If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary? Is it just a convergent boundary if one moves faster and "catches up" with the other?...
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### What map projection preserves latitude?

I just want see which cities are on the same latitude as others. Please recommend latitude-preserving projection that's free and online.
29 views

### What is the total mass of organic carbon on Earth?

What is the estimated total mass of organic carbon plus elemental carbon (defined here as all carbon in any chemical form, minus carbon dioxide, inorganic carbonates, and other fully oxidized carbon ...
29 views

### Help me identify this turquoise coloured rock [on hold]

Anyone have any idea what kind of rock this is? Found in the Beaufort Sea, NWT Canada, just in the water on the beach. It's about 3cm. The turquoise colour almost looks painted on and is a bit ...
28 views

### Can a sonar used to graph the ocean floors detect through polluted and highly populated waters?

So graphing the ocean floors using sonar is not anything new. But what are the limits to sonar? Would it be possible for a regular sonar device to emit sounds that are strong enough to penetrate ...
63 views

### Cooling effect from the oceans in global warming

The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ \$\Delta F=\alpha\...
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### Hypothetical: an immense disc blocks sunlight, how does this affect the weather?

I have a hypothetical situation, and I am specifically interested in how this situation would affect the weather. I have asked this question elsewhere, however I feel that nobody with any expertise ...
47 views

### Shiny metallic inside rock but not metal? [on hold]

I found 2 rocks on the east coast of England, these rocks looked to be strangely formed metal but after going home and checking with the metal detector I soon realised it wasn’t, so I smashed it open, ...
73 views

### Climate change research and policy [on hold]

How impactful is climate change scientific research on climate change policy? Are there any statistics which help to visualise the effectiveness of new scientific findings or new technology innovation ...
82 views

### does silt form from sand ; does clay form from silt

I believe that sand, silt, clay are defined by size. But are they also generated by different processes and from different materials? Alternatively do sand particles ultimately weather to make silt, ...
21 views

### Could you identify this for me? [on hold]

Hi there. I found this rock on the coast of Somalia. Near the beach in the south of Somalia. It weights pretty heavy. It has a bluish and yellowish colouring. It is hard. It has ridged edges. And it ...
43 views

### What might be causing this rainbow-like effect on the ground?

The BBC News article Iceland's Okjokull glacier commemorated with plaque about a dead glacier speaks for itself. However there is a photo in the article that caught my eye. It shows mountains in ...
47 views

### Tornados from dust devils

Maybe tornados form from dust devils that get pulled into the storm. Is there some way to look for a correlation between number of tornados on a given day and how conducive conditions are to producing ...
17 views

### What is this rock in the river bed? [closed]

This rock was found in a river bed in Washington Sate. The exterior is course red and flakes off in pieces from the size of a grain of sand to small pebbles. The center is gray to almost black and ...
12 views

### Help me ID this item found in a car park [closed]

I found what I thought was a granite chip.It is in fact metallic, it is magnetic with a density of 7.3 g/cm . It looks natural. Interestingly 2 surfaces are flat and with extrapolation form an exact ...
21 views

### Help me identify the “brain rock” [closed]

This rock has been in my family as long as I can remember. We always called it the “brain rock.” It was my grandma’s and I have no idea where it came from (sorry!) I live in the mountains of western ...
29 views

### Is it possible to know what was the flow direction in a pegmatite dike?

The following picture (Painted wall cliff in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado, USA) shows a pegmatite dike: is it possible to tell what was the flow direction? From thin (see ...
20 views

### Identify my rock [closed]

I got this rock years ago in California. I have always wondered what it is. Please help me identify it! Thanks!!
68 views

### Has the present rise of CO2 ppm been proved to be caused by human activity?

The level of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen roughly from 300 to 400ppm over the last 60 years. What are the reliable calculations showing that such a rise has been caused by human activity? I am ...
27 views

### Flint nodules with fossil sand: How are they formed? [closed]

a flint nodule>that is blackish, with green moss, looking stuff here and there on it (2inchs wide) (2 inches across) its been cut in half, .(the outside is 3 inches from end to end) inside is Sandy ...
22 views

### Zoeppritz equations derivation

I have been long looking for the derivations and step by step explanation of Zoeppritz matrix but either internet is full of final versions or I can’t find it...I would be very thankful if anyone can ...
30 views

### What does a “closed basin” mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
56 views

### Can aerostats be used for fine-grained control of the weather

Most of the discussed geoengineering ideas aim to change the average temperature of the earth instead of trying to control local weather. Aerostats can be used to change the local temperature in ...
24 views

### Community change along urban rural gradient

I was wondering whether someone has an idea about how to investigate community changes of plants/animals along an urban-rural gradient? I have a large data set consisting of plant/animal abundance and ...
42 views

### What is the lowest latitude for which if the ideal solar energy received each day for a year is graphed, the graph would contain one peak?

I asked a question with the same meaning on Quora, but it seems no one got it, so I'm asking it here with a very different wording. I'm actually not sure if this would belong here or on the Astronomy ...
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### Is it feasible to 'harvest' the Clathrates from the permafrost before they evaporate?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
65 views

### Do atmospheric rivers ever contain liquid water in large quantities? [on hold]

According to an episode of UK panel show QI, the largest rivers on Earth are in the sky. I assume they were referring to atmospheric rivers. According to sources I found, this is just water vapor, so ...
61 views

### Temperature rise in due to explosion [closed]

How much would the mean temperature of a volume of atmosphere (12,310 km2 at the ground) rise due to a 63TJ explosion?
42 views

### Impacts of high-altitude emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to sea level GHG emissions

I often hear that the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by planes is particularly concerning because the emission of GHGs at high altitudes has an even higher impact on global warming than the ...
30 views

### Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

If you visit USGS earthquakes listing, you get 3 points of information for each earthquake: Location, depth, magnitude. My question is, is there a way to approximate how big of an area is affected? ...
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### How to Obtain an Accurate Estimate for the Pressure of a Putative H2 and He4 Primordial Atmosphere?

How can we obtain an accurate estimate of the pressure of the hydrogen and helium primordial atmosphere of Earth just after it was formed? I was admonished by a user on Astronomy Stack for saying it ...
31 views

### Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the only exception), due to tropical ...
34 views

### Have Russian Drilling Operations in Lake Vostok Succeeded Yet?

A couple of years ago the Russians began drilling through about 2km of ice to reach Lake Vostok in Antarctica. It was hoped that they would find living organisms there which had ben entombed under the ...
47 views

### Is there evidence to suggest that the release of methane clathrates in permafrost regions will impact climate change?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
23 views

### Definition of Surface-based atmospheric duct

I am writing a literature review for a project and I have a problem. Namely, I cannot figure out the the condition required for surface-based duct to occur. Literature does not help either. In one of ...
32 views

### Can a rock have a Vp of less than 1000 m/s and need blasting to excavate?

I have run a 60 m refraction seismic line on a mountain summit. The environment was noisy (wind would be the principal agent) and quite difficult to pick first arrivals. It resulted in 800 m/s. A ...
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### Is it reasonable to approximate the swinging building (base of the building) during an earthquake to a simple harmonic motion?

I am thinking of making a model of swinging building during earthquake and study the methods to minimize the swinging. So does it even makes sense to approximate the swinging buildings (the base of ...
30 views

### Do we know how large deposits of methane clathrates were formed in permafrost regions?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. This seems different to the buildups of natural gas which fracking releases, which appear to have just come from ...
48 views

### What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
40 views

### What is difference between an atmospheric model and a climate model?

I am wondering the major differences been an Atmospheric model and a Climate model? For example, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) versus Regional Climate Modeling System (RegCM). I recently ...
114 views

### Why does Australia not publish a North to South cross section map of the Great Artesian Basin? [closed]

The only cross sections of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) are East to West. It would be interesting to know the geostrata of the northern area close to Papua New Guinea which is water rich since ...
85 views

### If today's Earth becomes warmer, how will it compare to the Earth of the Cretaceous period?

Most pessimistic scenarios about climate change predicts a global rise of temperature of several Celsius degrees over the course of the 21st century if no action is taken. While such a shift in ...
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### Is there any possible future for high energy geophysics? If so how it is going to revolutionize our knowledge about Earth's interior?

How practice is to map/image the subsurface of the earth using the high energy particles like neutrinos? https://www.geosci-instrum-method-data-syst.net/special_issue2.html
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### Possible cavern?

In eastern Ontario, Canada, there's a place where, when walking and stomping, you can hear a hollowness in the ground. The area is primarily igneous rock with many large boulders, and the spot in ...
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### Could we sequester co2 by dumping forests in deep oceans?

We know that trees are the most efficient "tool" we have to get CO2 out of the air, but the problem is that most of their fixated CO2 will naturally reenter the carbon cycle through decomposition. ...

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