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1
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0answers
33 views

Rock identification found in Switzerland [closed]

I found this cute-looking rock in one of the Swiss Alps (Schilthorn) this summer. What is it and how is it formed?
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Is there a website where i can freely download monthly average temperatures per city?

I'm building a garden calendar app that uses the average temperature for each month to create a calendar. Are there websites that allow me to easily download this data in json format?
2
votes
2answers
36 views

Why is the jet stream stronger in winter?

I notice on a website talking about the jet stream https://www.weather.gov/jetstream/jet It says: The winds blow from west to east in jet streams but the flow often shifts to the north and south. ...
3
votes
2answers
206 views

How can we accurately quantify the degree of scientific certainty that global heating is caused by humans?

How can we accurately quantify the degree of scientific certainty that global heating is caused by humans? It seem virtually certain that the huge 100 PPM spike in CO2 since 1950 can only be caused ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Using an accelerometer as a geophone to conduct a seismic survey

I am doing a capstone project for a sensor systems course and I would like to write a python program to acquire, process and present seismic data like that of seismic surveys. Is it possible using ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

Newton's & Kepler's age of the earth calculations - References?

"Everybody knows" that Newton and Kepler calculated the age of the earth. My problem is that, whilst "everybody knows" this, no-one gives a reference that I can read for myself. If, for example, I ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

If the earth's core is made up of copper/other metals other than iron-nickel alloy, how our magnetosphere will be?

We know that our earth's core is made up of iron-nickel alloy and it is spinning to create magnetic flux all around our planet to create our life-saving Magnetosphere. And this also influences our 9.8 ...
2
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0answers
35 views

Can crystal lattices be analogue? [closed]

This question might turn out to be more about physics then geology so apologies in advance if that is the case. Years ago I read something that said in crystals "atoms have finite positions along the ...
1
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0answers
23 views

Why do wettable sulphur manufacturers say never to use it within 30 days of an oil-based spray? [closed]

And further: 1) what qualifies as an "oil-based spray" and at what amount? 2) does this warning still apply during the rainy season-- when the need for quick cycles of medicines is necessary? (and ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Understanding timescales within the day period

I stumbled across a timescale which I am unsure of. What does it mean by intra-daily scale variability? I would also like to know if intra-tidal scale variability is of any use for capturing daily ...
1
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0answers
31 views

How large were CFC emissions per year before the Montreal Protocol came into practice?

This article The China CFC dilemma states CFC emissions now might be 67,000 tonnes per year. I tried to look for how large were the emissions of it before the Montreal Protocol but I couldnt find it. ...
0
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2answers
73 views

Thickening Mars's Atmosphere

if we were to send a mission to mars (unlimited budget WE WISH!) to explore different methods that would enable us to thicken the martian atmosphere, what different types of data should this mission ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

How do we allocate partial CO2 doublings for Empirical Climate Sensitivity?

How do we allocate partial CO2 doublings for Empirical Climate Sensitivity? I applied partial doublings on a linear basis, is this correct? Climate Threat to the Planet:Implications for Energy Policy ...
2
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0answers
25 views

Where can I find csv or json data on absolute global average temperature

I am essentially looking for a list of raw datasets without any processing. I can find anomaly datasets, but have had no luck with 100% unprocessed (other than averaging, of course) data. This data is ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Hyperspectral Detection of Ore

How can I use hyperspectral satellite imagery to remotely detect copper or any prespecified mineral deposit in general? Where can I find a database of the absorption and reflection bands of various ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Reaching flood victims for a survey [migrated]

I want to send a small set of survey questions to recent flood victims in the US. - Where do I start in order to get a mailing list? - Are there organizations that will forward the survey link to the ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Vehicles Emissions

What is the suitable handheld device to measure the CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the tailpipe of cars? and what the steps to convert the emissions that will measure by the handheld device in unit ...
3
votes
2answers
110 views

Can I see curvature of the Earth on a picture

I've been piloting a drone yesterday and made a video hovering at around 100m, the visibility was very good. I've shown the video to a friend of mine and we were arguing whether it's the curvature of ...
2
votes
2answers
45 views

Has the Average Volume of Volcanic Emissions Been Constant Since the Last Major Fluctuation?

Are total volcanic emissions worldwide constant, or do they rise and fall? We know there are large fluctuations on a scale of tens of millions of years, but is the total volume of emissions stable on ...
1
vote
2answers
55 views

At what altitude a ballon is no longer pushed by the wind?

In 1960, NASA launched the "Echo 1A" balloon which had amongst its objectives to test the triangulation principle with satellites. I wonder why we don't have more "ballon" satellites for our GPS ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Could burning all fossile fuels (available on earth) render the atmosphere unbreathable?

What if humanity burns all fossil fuels it can find, putting the negative effects of climate change aside, would the enormous amount of CO2 in the atmosphere eventually make it unbreathable?
4
votes
2answers
84 views

Could an earthquake on flat land still kill someone without any buildings/boulders or such near by?

Suppose you were sitting near the epicenter of an earthquake, sitting down on flat land without much else near by, maybe some grass. Is it still possible that say, a magnitude 8 or 9 earthquake would ...
0
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0answers
22 views

What data of agricultural yield to use for India?

I am trying to understand the role of various meteorological factors on agricultural yield over India. Is there a dataset available directly or an indirect proxy of agricultural data, maybe satellite, ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
2
votes
3answers
57 views

Why is reverse osmosis desalination the dominant method used and not heat-based methods? Also why is brine being dumped back into the ocean? [closed]

So I was recently watching this video regarding desalination efforts around the world and the viability of desalination as a means to provide humans with freshwater. I had a few questions: 1 - They ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Topex/Poseidon satellite data reading and extracting

I'm trying to figure out how to read and extract Topex/Poseidon satelite altimeter data from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC). Link to product: https://podaac.jpl....
1
vote
0answers
29 views

why isotherms are skwed to 45 degree in tephigram?

I have studied about tephigram. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. how is it possible that constant ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

What's really happening with “stormquakes”?

The PBS Newshour article Scientists discover big storms can create ‘stormquakes’ says: A stormquake is more an oddity than something that can hurt you, because no one is standing on the sea floor ...
1
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2answers
41 views

How do fold mountains form?

I know mountains form due to the collision of tectonic plates. But how does such a slow collision have such great impact as to create huge mountains. Is there any intuitive explanation for this?
1
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1answer
45 views

Thunderstorms vs Thundershowers

What is the difference when the weather report says thunderstorms vs when it says thundershowers and the picture is still the same?
2
votes
2answers
93 views

Could this cloud be artificially formed?

This photo was taken at 3000 m above sea level in an open field, during the day.
12
votes
6answers
5k views

How are hillsides farmed?

I would assume hilly land is more labor-intensive to farm than flat land, and more exhausting to humans and animals if traditional farming techniques are used. How do farmers plant and plow on ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

How did these dark lenticular features form? (Near Hoganekkal Falls India.)

These photos were taken near Hoganekkal falls in south India. The darker lenses appear to be the same rock type but have varying thickness and do not form a continuous layer. How did this structure ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Clouds altitude

I'm amateur photographer and professional programmer and I'm trying to create an application to predict exceptionally beautiful sunsets (something like https://www.flickr.com/photos/photogtom43/...
0
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0answers
24 views

Can any natural process explain this rate of CO2 increase? [duplicate]

Can any natural process explain this rate of CO2 increase? [![1000 years of CO2][1]][1] [1]: https://i.stack.imgur.com/MO0mK.png The prior similar question used different data as its basis. This ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Average # of days with thunderstorms

What is the average number of days with thunderstorms for each month in Waynesville, North Carolina
2
votes
1answer
120 views

How Could Sheep Graze these Steep Hillsides Without Leaving any Marks?

Here are two images of English hill figures (The Cerne Abbas giant and the Uffington white horse): These hillsides, which are obviously grazed by sheep, show tracks that form numerous contour lines ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contribute to radiative forcing?

The CO2 absorption spectrum taken at 200 mmHg partial pressure, beam path length = 10 cm, resolution = 4 cm^-1 shows that light can only travel a couple hundred meters before being completely absorbed ...
2
votes
2answers
94 views

Loop in the continental divide

Various maps of the Continental Divide (the hydrological feature, not the trail) contain a loop that looks like this: What is the hydrologic meaning of the loop in Wyoming? Even if it's a basin, ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Night sky visibility prediction [closed]

Given a location (e.g. Osoyoos, British Columbia) and human eyes only, what's the ranges for the nights of the year most likely to give clear astronomical viewing? What historical data sources might ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Sustained WS discrepancy for Hugo 1989 in Charleston

I am reviewing Sustained Wind Speed data for several locations associated with Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. HURDAT2 data shows the Max Sustained Wind Speed at Landfall to be 120 knots at Isle of ...
2
votes
0answers
10 views

Does fold tightness correlate to deformation intensity?

I'm studying a migmatite with two overprinting fold structures. The first (Dn+1) is tight and the second (Dn+2) is gentle. Would it be fair to assume that, since Dn+1's tightness is, well, tighter, ...
2
votes
2answers
116 views

How did these grassy hillsides in Colombia become terraced?

In Colombia, many grassy hillsides are terraced, like in the photo below. This terracing also occurs on hillsides that never had these palm trees on them. I assume that it also occurs outside of ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Local Weather Forecast (Self-Learning Algorithm)

First of all, the question! : Is it possible to predict local weather tendencies for the upcoming hours (let's say 2-3 hours) using only local data? If yes, which data is needed to make such ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Why do wind speeds often jump from 20 knots to 40 knots

Looking at the BBC weather forecasts I've often noticed that strong winds will often be over 40 knots (for the UK at least). Most of the time (nearly always) the wind will jump from 18-22 knots to ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How does nature produce circles of ice?

The YouTube video This is How Nature Produces Perfect Ice Discs shows an example of a circle of ice produced by nature. How is it possible for nature to produce one like the one in that video. ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

Where does all the earth from surface mining go?

Surface mining digs up a lot of earth and rock. After the desired ore is separated, where do the earth and rock mined go?
6
votes
1answer
65 views

Does clearing snow contribute to climate change?

I've been reflecting on climate change and pondering how much of it is truly man-made. Anyone who's shoveled a walkway know that the snow melts faster beside the walkway than it does in the middle of ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Peak season for Thunderstorms

What causes different locations to get their peak season for thunderstorms at different times of the year like some locations get the most thunderstorms in a July some in June and some in August and ...

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