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2
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1answer
34 views

Do earthquakes produce folds on rocks?

Earth rocks are frequently folded at surface. Folds in alternating layers of limestone and chert in Crete, Greece. Source: commons.wikimedia Are earthquakes the main mechanism ...
0
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0answers
20 views

How to calculate Lifted Index from ERA5 pressure level data?

I have taken a thunderstorm case where I need to calculate indices but I am not getting any code related stability indices in Python language, the code is available in GRADS, NCL for me it's difficult ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

How do we know the rate of decay for radiometric dating is constant?

http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/research/2010/100830FischbachJenkinsDec.html The link above talks about a research paper from Purdue University that the researchers had detected slight fluctuations in ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Found a light brown rock with concentric circles on it. Is it a fossil? [closed]

I found the rock in the picture while visiting Pawnee National Grassland (Colorado, USA). The rock shows concentric circles on both sides. On one side these circles are very clear, on the other side ...
0
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1answer
39 views

What types of rocks are these [closed]

I can’t figure out what type of rocks these are I would like to create pigment out of them to make a watercolor want to make sure they are safe, one is brick red the other is more of a deep magenta, ...
0
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0answers
24 views

What would the weather patterns on Earth really be like if Earth were tidally locked to the sun? [duplicate]

This question is different from How would weather change on a tidally-locked terrestrial planet?. None of its answers answer my question. I think it's answer might even have wrong information as I ...
0
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1answer
45 views

Possible and probable source of Curiosity Rover's $\small\sf{CH_4}$ detection on Mars

Past week, NASA announced Curiosity Rover measured 21 ppbv of $\small\sf{CH_4}$ on Mars. This week, NASA's Curiosity Mars rover found a surprising result: the largest amount of methane ever ...
2
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0answers
35 views

How does jetstreams lead to formation of heat waves in Europe?

Jetstreams move at an altitude of roughly 6-9km above the sea level. Since, it is moving at such a great altitude how could it have possible impacts on the land? And how will jetstreams that flow at ...
2
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1answer
57 views

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

I'm aware that PDEs, linear algebra, numerical analysis and such are staples of most applied mathematical endeavors. I want to know if there are other areas of "higher" mathematics that have useful ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Space Symmetry Groups: Wyckoff notation, diagram and positions

In the subject: "Introduction to Chemical Geology", I have given the spatial symmetry groups. At present, I know the different symmetry operators: rotation axes, center of symmetry (or inversion), ...
5
votes
2answers
58 views

How does agriculture release so much greenhouse gas?

I recently came over some numbers of GHGs released per energy in food produced, and the result is pretty flooring. I can see how animal-based food production is quite inefficient so let's ignore that ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Atmospheric conditions needed that blocks all bright light during sunsets and allows you to stare directly at the sun

Today (July 5th, 2019 just before 8 pm KST), along the Han River in Seoul, the surface of the sun could be viewed with my naked eye (no protection needed), and this was safe on the eyes. It appeared ...
1
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1answer
21 views

Where can I download historical sesimic data in CSV/Excel format for processing in R?

I'm not familiar with these kinds of data sets but I'm looking for some data for a project I'm working on. Essentially I would like multiple time series of seismic data from different stations over ...
1
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1answer
41 views

How to read Seismic Survey?

Recently I am tasked to create a POC on detection of patterns using a neural . But I am from a computer science background so I know about neural networks but I don't have any knowledge about geology ...
2
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0answers
21 views

Beta plane approximation: variation of Coriolis parameter

The Beta plane approximation put me in confusion. Beta plane approximation explain me how the Coriolis parameter changes with latitude. Beta parameter changes with the cos(latitude) but this is ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Can the shape and orientation of a large glacial rock deposit indicate glacial flow direction

If a rock is tapered, does the tapered point indicate the glacier direction?
0
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0answers
20 views

What's a Good Soil Quality Index for Plowed Farm Lands?

I'm currently conducting research using Satellite/Weather/Soil (Mostly Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery) Data to Model Smallholder Farms and their dynamics before Planting. Key to my progress is to find ...
2
votes
4answers
84 views

What is the difference between dew and rain?

What is the main difference between dew and rain? Would it be correct if we say that rain is done in the upper troposphere while dew done in the lower troposphere? Or there are better definitions for ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

How much energy does the Moon transfer to the Earth, does this affect the Earth's surface temperature?

I'm wondering by how much the gravitation effects, tides etc caused by the moon (and other energy such as moonlight IR) increase the surface temperature of the Earth. So how much warmer than the ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is the effect of sea-level changes on the extent of the Earth's atmosphere?

If sea-levels rise, does the Earth's atmosphere extend to the same distance out to space, with the pressure increasing, or does it expand? If sea levels rose 10m, how much change would there be to ...
0
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0answers
32 views

What is the ratio of energy absorbed by atmospheric CO2 from IR coming from the Earth vs directly from the Sun [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand the atmospheric greenhouse effect. If CO2 absorbs lots of IR radiation emitted from the Earth's surface, does it not also shield the same wavelength radiation that is coming ...
1
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0answers
21 views

Should I perform EOF analysis on an unevenly-spaced time series?

I have a dataset of sample concentrations of several ions/elements (Ca 2+, SO4 2-, K +, S, Ca, V, etc.) from an ice core which I am using to detect volcanic eruptions. The raw version of the dataset ...
2
votes
2answers
64 views

What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
1
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1answer
33 views

Is there limestone under the Oregon Coast Range?

I've found some diagrams of the Oregon Coast Range, but they are very basic. An friend said he thinks there is limestone deep underground, but my understanding of the formation of these mountains is ...
2
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2answers
64 views

How far above sea level can you get on the equator?

Quite simply what is the highest point above sea level that is right on the equator, I figured it would be a mountain in the Ecuadorian Andes but the Kenyan highlands look to be a likely candidate as ...
0
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1answer
37 views

If gypsum turns into plaster around 210 F, is there any natural plaster deposits or formations out there?

For a while I have been working with gypsum I mined from a site in Utah, and I realized how low the temperature is to turn it into plaster, so I was wandering; has there ever been any cases of large ...
2
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0answers
27 views

What US State has the most complete rock record? [duplicate]

The title seems self explanatory to me. I thought about it when I was looking at a geologic map of Utah, and it seemed to include an exceptional amount of time. I mean this in the sense that there ...
-1
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0answers
82 views

Help to identify unusual rock please! [closed]

Can someone please help to identify this rock? We are hoping it's a meteorite! About 3 x 2 inches, seems heavy for its size and very hard. Brownish/grey on the outside and smooth. It has a rust ...
2
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0answers
40 views

Error of compiling the wrf-chem V3.5 model

I have gone through the link (http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/OnLineTutorial/compilation_tutorial.php) to build wrf libraries. I installed netcdf v4.1.3, mpich v3.0.4, jasper v1.900.1, zlib v1.2.7, and ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

What would happen if I installed distributed water fountains in all of the ocean's dead zones? [closed]

As every thalassologist knows, the ocean is filled with great streches of desert with no marine photosynthetic life. What would happen if, for each of these oceanic deserts, I densely filled them with ...
-1
votes
1answer
84 views

Are sand deserts the greatest natural convection heaters on Earth?

Ask any climate scientist the question: "Why are deserts so hot in the day time and so cold at night" and generally you will get the same answer, it’s all about the lack of moisture and latent heat ...
0
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0answers
46 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Why during subsidence inversion, upper layer warms more than lower layer?

Source : weather.gov This is mentioned in the book I have been reading regarding stability in atmosphere. But I am not able to pin point exact reason behind this. "As the layer subsides, it ...
-3
votes
1answer
69 views

How does one scientifically define drinkable water? [closed]

Honestly I think nobody's invented a good water desalination device because nobody knows the scientific definition of clean drinking water. So scientifically, what is the definition of clean fresh ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

How Can We Establish Precisely What Earth's Core is Made Of?

The consensus view is that that the Earths core is composed mainly of iron alloyed with about 10 percent nickel and traces of other heavy metals, but I have seen at least one account which says it is ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

How are CO2 emission effects and high altitude effects of air travel compared to each other?

The climate impact of air travel is often divided into CO2 emissions and "high altitude effects" like that of water vapour and cloud formation. The effect of the emitted CO2 is cummulative, as CO2 has ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

What is the physical meaning of second moment of wind velocity?

I have been reading some documents about meteorological data and many of them mention the second moment of wind velocity. I guess it has to do with the way the wind is changing but in such case I ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

What is the significance of amphidromic points related to tides?

On reading about tide formation and the role of moon's gravitational force, I came across the term amphidromic point. Could someone please elaborate this concept?
3
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2answers
105 views

What are these underwater structures near 6°N 85°55'W

While google earth-researching the sea floor near Malpelo and Cocos Islands (Colombian and Costa Rican Pacific Ocean), I came along these strangely geometrical structures in the sea floor, located ...
0
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0answers
11 views

What are some organic-approved solvents I can use to make my own liquid agri-mixes? [migrated]

I have a few ideas for organic pesticides/fungicides etc. They're intended to be sprayable, and ideally soluble in water. What are some organic-approved solvents?
0
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0answers
24 views

Is there standard methodology for assessing how environmentally friendly a particular lifestyle is? [migrated]

The headline says it all, I'm looking for a standard way of assessing a lifestyle against environmental criteria. I'm thinking of some sort of lifestyle questionnaire that will produce a score from 0 ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Relationship between sediment concentration of flow and erosion - streampower equation

I am trying to understand how the sediment concentration of a flow affects erosion. I stumbled across this paper by Bagnold (1968) today that uses a form for the stream power equation that I had not ...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Why does chlorophyll only come in green? [closed]

Plants do not only come in green but chlorophyll does. The pigment in the plant creates other colored plants other then green. Could a plant grow under an alternative light spectrum like a green sun ...
0
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2answers
54 views

What type of rock is this [closed]

![I found the the rocks is Eastern Arizona by the Black Mesas. They are white with a few orange patches. The inside kind of looks like quarts.
0
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1answer
37 views

How is the difference in crust and mantle composition explained?

We know that the composition of the crust is SiAl and SiMa and the one of mantle is mostly ophiolites, but why? Which are the geological processes that make this difference exist?
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How Good is The Evidence For Snowball Earth?

Some geologists say there were times between 770 million years BP and 630 million years BP when ice ages were so profound that the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps met at the equator. This is called the ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

what do you think this was? [closed]

![ is this a fossil? theres only 2 visible material in it. the white one that was been coated by the greenish substance. some parts appear brown because of the thin layered coating of the green ...
26
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2answers
6k views

What is the line crossing the Pacific Ocean that is shown on maps?

The picture below shows an imaginary line on the globe which crosses the Pacific Ocean and works as a rough separator of the Eastern and Western hemispheres. What is this line called in English? I'm ...
8
votes
2answers
121 views

Is there a hemisphere where there's more land than ocean?

From a previous question, around 40% of the northern hemisphere is land. Would there be a plane splitting the earth into two equal parts, where in one part there are more land than ocean?
5
votes
2answers
68 views

Molten salt seas on the future Earth

As the sun gets brighter, the oceans are expected to evaporate by the next billion years or so (the vapor slowly gets stripped off into space). The salt, which is less dense than most rocks, will be ...

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