# All Questions

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### Were there times during human inhabitated Earth were Earth average temperature was hotter than today?

This article, Earth's temperature in the past 18,000 years seems to show Earth temperature during 5000-3000 years ago was approximately a degree hotter than today. Is this true, were there times ...
35 views

### How much did temperature vary during the Ice Age?

This article, Old Cold: Living in Ice Age America claims the average Earth temperature during the Ice Age was 12 degrees colder than today. Is this true? How much did temperature vary during the Ice ...
35 views

### Question about the physics of hurricanes

I've a basic misunderstanding about the formation of tropic cyclones. From the absolute point of view, cyclones form in order to conserve total angular momentum - air masses at different latitudes ...
51 views

### How are aquifers found and traced?

Recently a line from a news article about an aquifer in the path of a tunnel boring machine for Metro networks caught my attention: Ahead of tunnelling, the builders conduct hydrogeology, a study ...
45 views

### Why does haze and poor visibility present in stable air?

Haze is not considered to be a cloud or mist, and it also is not fog. What is the ultimate reason that haze and general poor visibility ranges prevail in stable atmospheric conditions? Is the cause ...
53 views

### How did this hole / hollow form within this rock?

Can you assist me in understanding how this hollow was formed in this rock. I am told that it has to do with cementation but I believe that geological process produces rounded canonball ( sometimes ) ...
37 views

### Why isn't Dorian raining on the southeast side?

Dorian is currently passing over the Carolinas but its eye is only brushing the shore. However there's a side of Dorian that isn't raining: Is this unique to Dorian?
46 views

### Could someone tell me what this stone might be [closed]

It is 9 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches and weighs about 5 lbs. it was at this house in Florida when we bought it. It has a white 1/4 inch crust and the interior color looks somewhat topaz.
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### Fissure eruption

Can fissure eruptions dislocate/deform ( fault, rotate, bend, folding) the surrounding strata which fissure ascending into. Or, can a laccolith reach to the surface (and flow) after folding the ...
43 views

### where are the poles of rotation of the tectonic plates located?

Euler's "fixed point" theorem ... can be stated as: The most general displacement of a rigid body over the surface of a sphere can be regarded as a rotation about a suitable axis which passes ...
50 views

### Geode-like rock but it's empty inside. Why does this happen?

I found this geode-like rock (spheroidal shaped with empty spheroidal cavity inside) near Dickson Tennessee, USA. Comments suggest that this is in fact geode, but it is empty and featureless inside. ...
55 views

### Estimation on how cold will my pond get - intent is to know if certain fish can survive in it

I want to get an estimate on how cold my pond will get. It is a 1 acre pond in Central Florida USA. It has an average depth of 4 feet. There is not much circulation in the pond. It gets direct ...
22 views

### Run Hydrus-1D from the command line

Hydrus-1D, is a modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This program has a graphical environment which works very well, however a lot ...
20 views

### From where we get the observed cloud liquid water content data

I want to study the clouds and its profile which requires some basic observed variables, does anyone knows how and from where we can get the observed liquid water content data.
48 views

### What Makes Round Holes In Superior Agates? [closed]

I found this rock in Western Wisconsin. Pretty sure it's a Lake Superior Agate? Wondering what would make the white eye that has red in its center? Would this rock be a good one to have someone cut ...
80 views

### How can the Simpson Desert be the largest sand dune desert in the world?

In the Wikipedia article for the Simpsons Desert in Australia in the first paragraph it says: It is the fourth-largest Australian desert, with an area of 176,500 km2 (68,100 sq mi) and is the world'...
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### How can I find out if this is a geode without breaking it in half? [closed]

I found this rock today on my property. It looks similar to another rock I saw that was said to be a civil war cannon ball, however comments below suggest that it could be a geode. Are there any ...
21 views

### How much energy did Hurricane Camille release?

According to this article, Energy Hurricane Volcano we find that for a typical mature hurricane, we get numbers in the range of 1.5 x 10^12 Watts or 1.3 x 10^17 Joules/day (this is according to ...
13 views

### How do I plot Troels-Smith lithological symbols in R?

I'm trying to plot lithological data using the Troels-Smith scheme. I have tried psimpoll but as I only have lithological data I cannot create a main input file which is required. I also do not have ...
40 views

### Southern Hemisphere climate

Does oceanic and land mass positioning affect tropical storm evolution in the southern hemisphere? And, do cold fronts migrate latitudinally " upwards " the way they drift "downwards" in the northern?
81 views

### what was there before to Paleolithic really and where really start the life for us no like homo?

I am asking myself something very interesting for me (I am not expert in this topic). I read many websites about human history and every webiste says that there are some periods in the human history. ...
15 views

### solubility of rare earth sulphides at different pH?

Will rare earth sulfides in soil be more soluble in aqueous solutions with lower pH? How can I know whether these sulfides will dissolve better at low or high pH or will it not be affected?
74 views

### Why is more carbon in the atmosphere good, up to a certain level?

According to Elon Musk, there's "an argument" stating that the current level of carbon in the atmosphere (more than 400 ppm) is better than it was some hundreds of years ago (200 ppm). He even calls ...
16 views

### What is the Offset Corner Latitude and Longtitude?

I tried to understand about Offset Corner Latitude Point 1,2,3,4 and Offset Corner Longitude Point 1,2,3,4. But I couldn't understand what is it? For example, I have the Frame center Latitude and ...
33 views

### Are the Olympic Mountains (in Washington state) geologically unique?

So it is my understanding the Washington's Olympic Mountains are basaltic mountains. The reason is that they formed from the upthrust of Ocean crust rather than continental crust as the Farallon plate ...
32 views

### Marks on boulders of volcanic origin

I am working in a catchment in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, about 3700 m.a.sl. Rock outcrops at the upper part of the catchment, as massive blocks varying their size from one meter up to five meters,...
48 views

I have download ERA5 netCDF file in order to get precipitation monthly/daily rates for 11 years. But I have realized, there is no option to select my area of interest. It seems it is a big file to ...
16 views

### How have Farallon plates's remnants stayed as they were inside the mantle?

Why hasn't the subduced Farallon Plate's materials been recycled? Why do they appear to be flowing in a molten state?
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### Is the area burnt in Amazonas quite smaller than the 2018 California wildfires?

I've found this data, which I'm not sure it's right. This article claims the area burnt in Amazon this year is 1,330 square miles (344,468 hectareas) Amazon rainforest fires . And this other article ...
73 views

### Can Some not all mountains actually be Giant petrified Tree Stumps? [closed]

Is it possible That The process that had occurred with the flood have actually petrified ginormous tree stumps during the flood??
34 views

### Q: Is the crust getting thinner or is the mantle getting smaller

Volcanoes spit out magma onto the surface of the crust or crevices on the surface, but the magma comes (in effect) from the mantle right? If that's the case, isn't the mantle turning into the crust by ...
59 views

### Stop earth rotation around its axis [closed]

I have a theoretical question. I have been reading on what would happen if the earth suddenly stopped rotating around its axis, and I have learned that would result in the annihilation of all life on ...
63 views

### Does rain itself affect barometric pressure?

I understand how and why low pressure systems are often associated with rain, but does the rain itself (both during and after) alter barometric pressure in any meaningful way?
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### How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
62 views

### ERA5 mean evaporation rates data - Why is that negative?

Please, let me know if this question is too technical/specific for Earth Science. In case, I will remove it and eventually post it elsewhere. I am processing some data extracted from ERA5 to set up a ...
69 views

### Is Amazonia forest resistant to fires?

Comparing the picture that delimites Amazonia from wikipedia page and the picture NASA published of the recent dramatic fires the zone is suffering, what I can appreciate is the burned zone is the ...
84 views

### Is it normal for a cyclonic storm to form at the latitude of New York, USA?

I am following climate activist Greta Thunberg's sail to N America from Europe on https://tracker.borisherrmannracing.com/. The model shows a cyclonic storm forming south of Nova Scotia, east of New ...
56 views

### Is there any possible way that a tropical cyclone of any strength could form over land?

Most tropical cyclones rapidly weaken over land, however, given some conditions (such as very wet soil/ground cover and tropical lower atmospheric conditions) they can sustain themselves or even ...
99 views

### Is the rainforest too wet to burn?

I want to know if a living rainforest in the Amazon, completely untouched by humans, is too wet for the fire to spread, even in the dryer months around July? I.e. if somebody dropped 5000 gallons of ...
266 views

### Why is it said that Amazon creates 20% of the oxygen production of the world, when it accounts with less than 14-12.8% of the forest area?

Many times we see in articles that the Amazon rainforest creates 20% of the oxygen of the world . Even french president Macron stated this in a tweet Macron tweet According to this Amazonas size ...
22 views

### Why the angle doubles in Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria? [closed]

Can you explain in details on why the angle between the normal stress (x-axis) and the plane of failure doubles in Mohr-Coulomb Failure criteria space and still the same in real world stress space?
70 views

### What is the chasm in the Arctic on Google satellite map?

In the image below, taken from Google Maps satellite view, between Svalbard and Greenland there is what looks like a massive crevasse, chasm, crack, &c. What is it? Should I be worried?
70 views

### Are These Tropical Forests Burning in Brazil and Elsewhere Really Rainforests?

I know from many years of personal experience in the Malaysian rainforest (Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular Malaya) that it is not inflammable. Dayaks and aborigines cultivate small patches of shifting ...
47 views

### What does it mean when polar nights have twilight?

My family and I want travel somewhere with polar night. I looked up Tromsø, Norway. "Down all day" beneath means 24 h darkness, no sun and thus no sun-light. Right? But if no sun and sun-light, ...
35 views

### If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary?

If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary? Is it just a convergent boundary if one moves faster and "catches up" with the other?...
69 views

### What map projection preserves latitude?

I just want see which cities are on the same latitude as others. Please recommend latitude-preserving projection that's free and online.
36 views

### What is the total mass of organic carbon on Earth?

What is the estimated total mass of organic carbon plus elemental carbon (defined here as all carbon in any chemical form, minus carbon dioxide, inorganic carbonates, and other fully oxidized carbon ...
37 views

### Can a sonar used to graph the ocean floors detect through polluted and highly populated waters?

So graphing the ocean floors using sonar is not anything new. But what are the limits to sonar? Would it be possible for a regular sonar device to emit sounds that are strong enough to penetrate ...
The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ \$\Delta F=\alpha\...